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The Industrial Revolution Chapter Nine

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1 The Industrial Revolution Chapter Nine
Industrialization Spreads Section Three

2 Industrial Development in the United States
The United States had the same resources that allowed Britain to mechanize its industries. The U.S. had fast flowing rivers, coal, iron ore, and laborers. During the War of 1812, Britain blockaded American ports to prevent international trade. The U.S. had to rely on its own resources and to develop its own industries.

3 Industrialization in the United States
As in Britain, industrialization began in the textile industry. Britain prevented the emigration of any engineers, mechanics, or toolmakers to the United States out of fear that the secrets of industrialization would make their way to America. In 1789, a young British mill worker named Samuel Slater, managed to come to America. He built a spinning machine and a year later, Moses Brown opened the first factory in the United States in Pawtucket Rhode Island. In 1813, Francis Cabot Lowell of Boston and four other investors opened a weaving factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. A second factory was soon opened and when Lowell died, the town was named after him by his partners. By the late 1820’s, the town of Lowell, Massachusetts had become a manufacturing center and model for other such towns. Thousands of young single women flocked to work as mill girls in the factory towns. They worked over 12 hours a day, six days a week for decent wages. They were kept in line with strict discipline and behavior codes.

4 Later Expansion of U.S. Industry
Despite the industrial growth experienced in the Northeast, the U.S. remained a mostly agricultural nation until after the Civil War. During the last third of the 1800’s, the U.S. experienced a technological boom. The causes were similar to those in Britain: A wealth of natural resources, a burst of inventions, and a swelling urban population. Railroads also played a major role in industrialization, Cities like Chicago and Minneapolis expanded rapidly in the late 1800’s due to their location along expanding railroad lines. By the end of the 1800’s, a limited number of large, powerful companies controlled most of the railway industry.

5 The Rise of Corporations
Building large businesses like railroads required a great deal of money. To raise money, entrepreneurs sold shares of stock, or certain rights of ownership. The people who bought stock became part owners of the businesses called corporations. Corporation- a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits but are not personally liable for its debts. In the late 1800’s, large corporations such as Standard Oil and Carnegie Steel Company sprang up. They sought to control every aspect of their industry in order to maximize profits. Big Business, the corporations that controlled entire industries, also made big profits by reducing the cost of producing goods. Workers earned low wages for laboring long hours, while stockholders earned high profits and corporate leaders made fortunes.

6 Continental Europe Industrializes
Continental Europe longed for the profits of industrialized Britain. The French Revolution and Napoleonic wars between 1789 and 1815 stopped trade, interrupted communication, and caused inflation. This prevented the industrialization of continental Europe and widened the gap between them and Britain.

7 Beginnings in Belgium Belgium led Europe in adopting Britain’s new technologies. Belgium had rich deposits of coal and iron ore as well as fine waterways for transportation. William Cockerill secretly brought plans for constructing a spinning wheel to Belgium in 1799. His son created an enormous industrial enterprise in Belgium. Many British skilled workers came to work in his factories. Some of them founded their own companies in Europe.

8 Germany Industrializes
In the early 1800’s, Germany was politically divided. Widespread industrialization was hampered by economic isolation and scattered resources. Some industrialization appeared in the coal rich Ruhr Valley. In 1835, Germany began to import British equipment and engineers. Most importantly Germany built railroads. Germany’s economic strength spurred it’s ability to develop as a military power. By the late 1800’s, a unified Germany had become both an industrial and military giant.

9 Expansion Elsewhere in Europe
In most of the rest of Europe, industrialization developed by region rather than by country. Spain’s Catalonia region processed more cotton than Belgium. Northern Italy mechanized its textile industry. Russian factories were operated by serf labor around Moscow and St. Petersburg. In France, sustained industrial growth occurred after 1830. A thriving national market of new French products developed after 1850, when the government began railroad construction. Some nations did not industrialize. Most of Spain and all of Austria-Hungary failed to do so because of geographic issues that were too great to overcome.

10 Rise of Global Inequality
Industrialization widened the gap between the rich industrialized nations and poor non-industrialized nations. To keep factories running, industrialized countries required raw materials from less developed lands. They also viewed these less developed nations as markets for their new products. Britain led the way in exploiting its colonies for resources and markets. Soon other European countries, the United States, Russia, and Japan followed Britain’s lead, seizing colonies for their own economic resources. Imperialism- The policy of extending one country’s rule over many other lands. Imperialism was born out of the need for resources to supply factories in Europe and other industrialized lands.

11 Transformation of Society
Between 1700 and 1900, revolutions in agriculture, production, transportation, and communication changed the lives of people in Western Europe and the United States. Industrialization gave them tremendous economic power. The economies of Africa, Asia and Latin America were still largely agriculturally based. Despite the many hardships early urban workers suffered, population, health, and wealth eventually rose dramatically in all industrialized nations. The development of the middle class created great opportunities for education and democratic participation. Greater democratic participation fueled a powerful movement for social reform.

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