2The Consequences of WWII Staggering casualties and refugee problemsRise of the USSR and US/decline of EuropeDecolonization worldwideDiscrediting of “scientific racism”Dachau, 1945
3Founding of the United Nations Established immediately after WWIIMilitary power, unlike the League of NationsPermanent council members (veto powers): U.S., U.S.S.R. (now Russia), France, Great Britain, China
4Causes Yalta postwar plan Germ into zones $ to USSR Stalin joins war against JapanEastern Eur = free elections
5More Causes Failure to agree on compliance with Yalta Agreements Stalinist elections: Poland (1947), Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia ( )Allied 2nd FrontContainment of Communism
6The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”]US & the Western DemocraciesGOAL spread world-wide CommunismGOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan]METHODOLOGIES:Espionage [KGB vs. CIA]Arms Race [nuclear escalation]Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars”Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
8The “Iron Curtain”From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
12Truman Doctrine  Civil War in Greece. Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles.The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
13Truman DoctrinePromised US aid to any nation fighting communism
15Marshall Plan  “European Recovery Program.” Secretary of State, George MarshallThe U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR.
16Marshall PlanStalin refused to allow East to take part
17Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49) Germany & Berlin divided at Potsdam into four zones1948: Three zones united into West GermanyStalin blockaded West Berlin321 day airliftStalin withdrew blockade in 1949Result: two Germanys, East and West
20North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United StatesBelgiumBritainCanadaDenmarkFranceIcelandItalyLuxemburgNetherlandsNorwayPortugal1952: Greece & Turkey1955: West Germany1983: Spain
21Warsaw Pact (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East GermanyHungaryPolandRumania
22The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949.Now there were two nuclear superpowers!Hydrogen bomb 1952
23USSR use an ICBM to push to space Sputnik I (1957)USSR use an ICBM to push to spaceThe Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!
24Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace. U-2 Spy Incident (1960)Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.Right before Krusch and nixon summit --- freezing of relations - wants an apology- traded for russian spy- Eisenhower had proposed that
25Who lost China? – A 2nd Power! Mao’s Revolution: 1949Who lost China? – A 2nd Power!
26The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Kim Il-SungSyngman Rhee“Domino Theory”
27Increasing Cold War Tensions, 1950’s – early 1960’s 1949: Chinese Revolution1949: Soviets get atomic bomb: Korean War1959: Sputnik1960: U-2 incident1961: Bay of Pigs1961: Berlin Wall1962: Cuban Missile Crisis
28Premier Nikita Khrushchev De-Stalinization Program About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury youDe-Stalinization Program
29An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?
48“Prague Spring” (1968) Former Czech President, Alexander Dubček Communism with a human face!
49Prague Spring,1968Led by Alexander Dubcek—trying to get partial independence/free elections for local positionsResult: Brezhnev Doctrine /Invasion of Czechoslovakia
50“Prague Spring” Dashed! Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like Vaclav Havel—future president of a free Czech Republic].
51Cold War Society, East and West Eastern Bloc: low production, losing propaganda war with West, economic troubles after 1980s due to arms raceWestern Bloc: prosperous but politically tumultuous1950s: McCarthy decade, stable and conservativeSocial Movements of 1960s: grew out of social and population changes as well as unhappiness with VietnamPeace MovementAnti-Nuclear (European)Civil Rights MovementFeminist Revolution
524th French Republic:Democratic, but politically unstable [27 governments!]Universal suffrage.Weak President; powerful legislatureMany political parties [coalition governments]Failure to gracefully leave Indochina.Botched the Suez War.Failed to settle the Algerian Crisis.
535th French Republic (1958-Present) Powerful President. * first: Charles DeGaulleWeak Cabinet.Weakened legislature.Separation of powers.
54DeGaulle’s Achievements Settled the Algerian Crisis.Made France a nuclear power.Sustained general prosperity.Maintained a stable, democratic government.Made France more politically independent.BUT, late ’60s student unrest and social changes challenged him. In 1968 he resigned & died of a heart attack in 1970.
56Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951 Limited socialist program [modern welfare state].Natl. Insurance ActNatl. Health Service ActNationalized coal mines, public utilities, steel industry, the Bank of England, RRs, motor transportation, and aviation.Social insurance legislation: “Cradle-to-Grave” security.Socialized medicine free national health care.
57Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951 Britain is in a big debt!The beginning of the end of the British Empire.India – 1947Palestine – 1948Kenya Mau Mau uprising
58Churchill Returns:He never really tried to destroy the “welfare state” established by Attlee’s government.
59The Federated Republic of Germany Created in 1949 with the capital at Bonn.Its army limited to 12 divisions [275,000].Konrad Adenauer, a Christian Democrat, was its 1st President.Coalition of moderates and conservatives.Pro-Western foreign policy.German “economic miracle.”“Father of Modern Germany.”
60Soviet-Afghanistan War Communist state toppled by internal rebellion in 1978, Soviets sent in 5000 advisors.rebellion against Soviet controlResistance led by mujahidin (Islamic freedom fighters) backed by U.S. -Soviets withdrew 1989, but civil war into the 1990sTaliban (from mujahidin) imposed government in late 1990s.Similar to vietnam stuck- thought fast- but the muj fought hardUS boycotts olympics and stops grain shipments
61A Thaw in the Cold WarThe Soviet UnionBy the late 1970s the Soviet economy was shrinking.Industrial and farm production, population growth, education, and medical care all fell.The Soviet Union started importing foodU.S.-Soviet RelationsA visionary leader came to power in the Soviet Union—Mikhail Gorbachev.Believed the only way to save the Soviet Union was to strike a deal with the United StatesBetween 1985 and 1988 Reagan and Gorbachev met four times and produced the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.First treaty to actually reduce nuclear armsINF Treaty destroyed a whole class of weapons (more than 2,500 missiles).
62Soviet Union to 1985“The country went through a social rev while Brezhnev slept.”Growth of cities=sophistication, education, job skills (not peasants)Large number of highly trained scientist, managers, experts- want to confer w/ others in field= intellectual freedomEducated people read, discussed ideasPolitburoMost powerful decision making group
63Gorbachev’s Reforms, 1980’s Soviet Union by late 1980s weakened byAfghanistan,Chernobyl accidentarms race
64Glasnost Gorbachev announced a new era of glasnost, or “opening.” Lifted media censorship, allowing public criticism of the governmentGorbachev held press interviews.Political prisonersSlowly Soviet citizens began to speak out.They complained about the price of food, of empty store shelves, and of their sons dying in Afghanistan.
65Perestroika Was to revive the Economy Gorbachev began the process of perestroika, the “restructuring” of the corrupt government economy and bureaucracy.Dismantled the Soviet central planning systemWas to revive the Economy
66Results Free elections took place in 1989 - Boris Yeltsin Withdrew from AfghanistanVisited with China to ease tensions between the nationsAttempted to cover up the Chernobyl nuclear accidentChernobyl 1Chernobyl 20 years later
67Gorbachev tried initially to work within Communist party (politburo), until attempted coup in Summer 1991Gorbachev placed under house arrest in Crimean, but Russian president Boris Yeltsin led massive protests
68The Collapse of the Soviet Empire The call for glasnost and perestroika awakened a spirit of nationalism in the subject nations of Eastern Europe.economies.Gorbachev knew the USSR could not support the ailing Eastern European He ordered a large troop pullback from the region and warned leaders to adopt reforms.Revolutions swept across Eastern Europe in the late 1980s.
69Lech WalesaAugust 1980 Solidarity put forward 21 demands to government including free trade unions and the right to strike.The government agreed to all 21 demands= Gdansk agreementsOrganized free and demo trade union= solidarityBy the end of 1980 membership had grown to over 9 million.
70Collapse of Soviet Bloc, 1989 Poland’s Solidarity Party ( ): Catholics and workers1989: Poland gained right to multiparty elections; elected Lech Walesa, threw out communistsExample led to revolts in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Albania, East Germany, Romania
76Fall of the Berlin Wall, 1989Triggered by flood of refugees flowing east to west through HungaryGovt closes border into HungaryCommunist party boss resignsWall came down Nov. 9, 1989Germany began reunification process; completed Oct. 3, 1990.
92Break-up of Soviet Union, 1991 Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania left USSR 1991USSR dissolved Dec “Commonwealth of Independent States,” led by Russia under Boris Yeltsin.By 1992, 17 republics had leftEconomic, religious, and crime problems
94Economic Change More Freedom Soviet Union fell; communism ended in former Soviet republicsIn largest republic, Russia, Boris Yeltsin began campaign to alter economy’s basic structureGoal to make economy function like capitalist systemMore FreedomYeltsin began to allow private ownership of businesses, landBusiness owners, workers able to take advantage of economic opportunitiesHowever, lost guarantee of government-backed job, other government supports
95Mixed Results Early results of Russia’s reforms mixed Some entrepreneurs prospered, most ordinary Russians did notPrices rose sharplyMany Russians could not afford to buys goods in storesSome questioned benefits of market reformEarly 2000s, Russia rebounded somewhat from economic crises; still, path from communism to capitalism not easy
96Boris Yeltsin Shock therapy Price controls lifted Govt steps out of the economyinflation
97Other Issues Ethnic Unrest Chechnya Azerbaijan After Soviet Union fell, underlying issues in region bubbled to topTwo were ethnic unrest, need for new governmentsOne example of ethnic unrest took place in Chechnya, in Caucasus regionChechnyaChechnya considered part of RussiaWhen Chechens tried to gain independence from Russia, dispute led to bloody fighting, insurgency that still affects region todayAzerbaijanEarly 1990s, another example of ethnic conflict occurred when ethnic Armenian minority sought to break away from country of AzerbaijanTens of thousands died in fighting that followed
98Post-Soviet Problems Velvet divorce: Czech Republic & Slovakia split. Economic dislocationResurgence of ethnic tensions, anti-SemitismLimited political experience with democracy led to shaky governments, widespread corruption and crimeLegacy of terror from worst dictatorships left scarsVelvet divorce: Czech Republic & Slovakia split.Official Jan. 1, 1993
99Europe after Communism The collapse of the Iron Curtain brought new opportunities and new challenges to Europe. The end of communism brought much economic change as well as new threats to peace.Communist governments with strict controlIn Yugoslavia, control helped suppress tensions between various ethnic, religious groups living thereYugoslaviaTensions began to surfaceNationalism grew as ethnic, religious tensions increasedIndependenceSerbia tried to prevent breakup of YugoslaviaNationalismConflict broke outBosnia and Herzegovina at warIndependence declared in 1992Bosnian Serbs went to war to stop independenceBosnian Serbs
100War in Bosnia Fighting in Kosovo Serbs used policy of ethnic cleansing against Bosnian MuslimsEthnic cleansing means elimination of an ethnic group from society through killing or forced emigrationU.S.-led diplomatic efforts finally ended violence in Bosnia in 1995Fighting in KosovoSoon fighting began in Serbian province of KosovoSerbs, ethnic Albanians fought over control of area1999, NATO airplanes bombed Serbian targets to stop conflictNATO peacekeepers eventually maintained order there, although Kosovo remains Serbian province today
101Economic Change Market Reforms Strain on Western Europe End of communism brought mixed results for Eastern European economiesMarket reforms created new opportunities for many peopleSome started businesses; some got management, technical jobsStrain on Western EuropeOthers fared less well; earnings not increasing for all workersHigh unemployment in some areas, forcing many to move to WestNewcomers compete with longtime residents for jobs, resourcesThe European UnionEuropean Union (EU), single economic unit in competition with U.S.Many of newer members far poorer than older Western Europe members; some in wealthier nations worry their economies will suffer
103European Economic Integration 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT]23 nations.Became the foundation of postwar global commerce.It set up procedures to handle commercial complaints.It provided a framework for continuing negotiations [“rounds”].By 1990, 99 nations were participating.
104European Economic Integration 1952 European Coal & Steel Community [ECSC].HQ in Luxembourg.“Inner Six” Benelux nations, France, Italy, W. Germany.Placed their coal and steel industries under a form of supranational authority.Eliminated tariff duties and quotas on coal and steel.
105European Economic Integration 1957 European Economic Community [EEC]HQ Brussels.Treaty of Rome.
107European Economic Integration 1957 European Economic Community [EEC]France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux.Created a larger free trade area, or customs union.Eliminate all trade barriers.One common tariff with the outside world.Free movement of capital & labor.
108European Economic Integration 1967 combined the ECSC & EEC to form the European Community [EC].HQ Brussels.European Parliament.“Eurocrats.”518 members [elected by all voters in Europe].Only limited legislative power.Court of Justice.
109European Economic Integration Maastricht AgreementsEuropean Union [EU] created from the EC.One currency, one culture, one social area, and one environment!Create a “frontier-free” Europe a common EU passport.One large “common market.”Goods coming into the EU would have high tariffs placed on them.2002 a common currency [Euro]2003 60,000 men EU rapid defense force was created.