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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970 The Early Cold War: 1947-1970.

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Presentation on theme: "The Early Cold War: 1947-1970 The Early Cold War: 1947-1970."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Early Cold War: The Early Cold War:

3 The Consequences of WWII Staggering casualties and refugee problems Rise of the USSR and US/decline of Europe Decolonization worldwide Discrediting of scientific racism Dachau, 1945

4 Founding of the United Nations Established immediately after WWII Military power, unlike the League of Nations Permanent council members (veto powers): U.S., U.S.S.R. (now Russia), France, Great Britain, China

5 Causes Yalta postwar plan –Germ into zones –$ to USSR –Stalin joins war against Japan –Eastern Eur = free elections

6 More Causes Failure to agree on compliance with Yalta Agreements –Stalinist elections: Poland (1947), Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia ( ) –Allied 2 nd Front Containment of Communism

7 The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [Iron Curtain] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL Containment of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] proxy wars Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

8 The Cold War: Division of E. and W. Europe

9 The Iron Curtain From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

10 Post-War Germany



13 Truman Doctrine [1947] 1.Civil 1.Civil War in Greece. 2.Turkey 2.Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. 3.The 3.The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. 4.The 4.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.

14 Truman Doctrine Promised US aid to any nation fighting communism

15 Containment of Communism Winston Churchills Iron Curtain speech (1946) Truman Doctrine, 1947 Marshall Plan, 1947 Berlin Airlift, North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO, 1949 Warsaw Pact, 1955

16 Marshall Plan [1948] 1.European Recovery Program. 2.Secretary of State, George Marshall 3.The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 4.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR.

17 Marshall Plan Stalin refused to allow East to take part

18 Berlin Blockade & Airlift ( ) Germany & Berlin divided at Potsdam into four zones 1948: Three zones united into West Germany Stalin blockaded West Berlin 321 day airlift Stalin withdrew blockade in 1949 Result: two Germanys, East and West UU_jw7c&feature=related UU_jw7c&feature=related

19 Berlin Blockade & Airlift ( )


21 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United States United States Belgium Belgium Britain Britain Canada Canada Denmark Denmark France France Iceland Iceland Italy Italy Luxemburg Luxemburg Netherlands Netherlands Norway Norway Portugal Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain 1983: Spain

22 Warsaw Pact (1955) }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania

23 The Arms Race: A Missile Gap? }The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in }Now there were two nuclear superpowers! }Hydrogen bomb 1952

24 Sputnik I (1957) USSR use an ICBM to push to space The Russians have beaten America in spacethey have the technological edge!

25 U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.

26 Maos Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2 nd Power!

27 The Korean War: A Police Action ( ) Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung Domino Theory

28 Increasing Cold War Tensions, 1950s – early 1960s 1949: Chinese Revolution 1949: Soviets get atomic bomb : Korean War 1959: Sputnik 1960: U-2 incident 1961: Bay of Pigs 1961: Berlin Wall 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis

29 Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. you De-Stalinization Program

30 An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?

31 Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

32 E. European Revolts, 1950s 1956: Poland strikers had a limited success 1956: more ambitious Hungarian revolt under Imre Nagy crushed by Soviet troops

33 The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 Imre Nagy, Hungarian Prime Minister }Promised free elections. }This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.

34 Ruined statue of Stalin in Budapest

35 Soviet Tanks in Budapest

36 Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.

37 The Berlin Wall, Built to stop the flow of refugees to the West Most visible symbol of the division of East and West Checkpoint Charlie 10, 315 days

38 The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961) Checkpoint Charlie

39 August, 1961

40 October, 1961

41 Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!


43 Potsdamer Platz 1963

44 Khruschev Embraces Castro, 1961

45 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

46 We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

47 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

48 Vietnam War:

49 Prague Spring (1968) Former Czech President, Alexander Dub č ek Communism with a human face!

50 Prague Spring,1968 Led by Alexander Dubcektrying to get partial independence/free elections for local positions Result: Brezhnev Doctrine /Invasion of Czechoslovakia

51 Prague Spring Dashed! Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like Vaclav Havelfuture president of a free Czech Republic ].

52 Cold War Society, East and West Eastern Bloc: low production, losing propaganda war with West, economic troubles after 1980s due to arms race Western Bloc: prosperous but politically tumultuous 1950s: McCarthy decade, stable and conservative Social Movements of 1960s: grew out of social and population changes as well as unhappiness with Vietnam Peace Movement Anti-Nuclear (European) Civil Rights Movement Feminist Revolution

53 4 th French Republic: th French Republic: Democratic, but politically unstable [27 governments!] 2.Universal suffrage. 3.Weak President; powerful legislature 4.Many political parties [coalition governments] 5.Failure to gracefully leave Indochina. 6.Botched the Suez War. 7.Failed to settle the Algerian Crisis.

54 5 th French Republic (1958-Present) 1.Powerful President. * first: Charles DeGaulle 2.Weak Cabinet. 3.Weakened legislature. 4.Separation of powers.

55 DeGaulles Achievements 1.Settled the Algerian Crisis. 2.Made France a nuclear power. 3.Sustained general prosperity. 4.Maintained a stable, democratic government. 5.Made France more politically independent. BUT, late 60s student unrest and social changes challenged him. In 1968 he resigned & died of a heart attack in 1970.

56 Student Riots in Paris (May, 1968)

57 Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: Limited socialist program [modern welfare state]. Natl. Insurance Act Natl. Insurance Act Natl. Health Service Act Natl. Health Service Act 2.Nationalized coal mines, public utilities, steel industry, the Bank of England, RRs, motor transportation, and aviation. 3.Social insurance legislation: Cradle-to-Grave security. 4.Socialized medicine free national health care.

58 Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: Britain is in a big debt! 7.The beginning of the end of the British Empire. India – 1947 India – 1947 Palestine – 1948 Palestine – 1948 Kenya Mau Mau uprising Kenya Mau Mau uprising

59 Churchill Returns: He never really tried to destroy the welfare state established by Attlees government.

60 The Federated Republic of Germany 1.Created in 1949 with the capital at Bonn. 2.Its army limited to 12 divisions [275,000]. 3.Konrad Adenauer, a Christian Democrat, was its 1 st President. Coalition of moderates and conservatives. Coalition of moderates and conservatives. Pro-Western foreign policy. Pro-Western foreign policy. German economic miracle. German economic miracle. 4. Father of Modern Germany.

61 Soviet-Afghanistan War Communist state toppled by internal rebellion in 1978, Soviets sent in 5000 advisors rebellion against Soviet control Resistance led by mujahidin (Islamic freedom fighters) backed by U.S. - Soviets withdrew 1989, but civil war into the 1990s Taliban (from mujahidin) imposed government in late 1990s.

62 A Thaw in the Cold War The Soviet Union By the late 1970s the Soviet economy was shrinking. Industrial and farm production, population growth, education, and medical care all fell. The Soviet Union started importing food U.S.-Soviet Relations A visionary leader came to power in the Soviet UnionMikhail Gorbachev. Believed the only way to save the Soviet Union was to strike a deal with the United States Between 1985 and 1988 Reagan and Gorbachev met four times and produced the Intermediate- Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. First treaty to actually reduce nuclear arms INF Treaty destroyed a whole class of weapons (more than 2,500 missiles).

63 Soviet Union to 1985 The country went through a social rev while Brezhnev slept. –Growth of cities=sophistication, education, job skills (not peasants) –Large number of highly trained scientist, managers, experts- want to confer w/ others in field= intellectual freedom –Educated people read, discussed ideas –PolitburoMost powerful decision making group

64 Gorbachevs Reforms, 1980s Soviet Union by late 1980s weakened by –Afghanistan, – Chernobyl accident –arms race

65 Glasnost Gorbachev announced a new era of glasnost, or opening. Lifted media censorship, allowing public criticism of the government Gorbachev held press interviews. Political prisoners Slowly Soviet citizens began to speak out. They complained about the price of food, of empty store shelves, and of their sons dying in Afghanistan.

66 Perestroika Gorbachev began the process of perestroika, the restructuring of the corrupt government economy and bureaucracy. Dismantled the Soviet central planning system Was to revive the Economy

67 Results Free elections took place in Boris Yeltsin Withdrew from Afghanistan Visited with China to ease tensions between the nations Attempted to cover up the Chernobyl nuclear accident Chernobyl 1 Chernobyl 20 years later

68 Gorbachev tried initially to work within Communist party (politburo), until attempted coup in Summer 1991 Gorbachev placed under house arrest in Crimean, but Russian president Boris Yeltsin led massive protests

69 The Collapse of the Soviet Empire The call for glasnost and perestroika awakened a spirit of nationalism in the subject nations of Eastern Europe. economies. Gorbachev knew the USSR could not support the ailing Eastern European He ordered a large troop pullback from the region and warned leaders to adopt reforms. Revolutions swept across Eastern Europe in the late 1980s.

70 Lech Walesa August 1980 Solidarity put forward 21 demands to government including free trade unions and the right to strike. The government agreed to all 21 demands= Gdansk agreements Organized free and demo trade union= solidarity By the end of 1980 membership had grown to over 9 million. h?v=Iyc3qyL1NRg&feature=re lated h?v=Iyc3qyL1NRg&feature=re lated

71 Collapse of Soviet Bloc, 1989 Polands Solidarity Party ( ): Catholics and workers 1989: Poland gained right to multiparty elections; elected Lech Walesa, threw out communists Example led to revolts in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Albania, East Germany, Romania



74 This monument, found currently in the city of Gdansk, honors the workers in the Gdansk shipyard who sacrificed their lives and careers to form the Solidarity Trade Union.


76 Hungary Opens borders

77 Fall of the Berlin Wall, 1989 Triggered by flood of refugees flowing east to west through Hungary Govt closes border into Hungary Communist party boss resigns Wall came down Nov. 9, 1989 Germany began reunification process; completed Oct. 3, J_bcLc J_bcLc

78 Leipzig Demonstration, Oct. 1989

79 Crossing Berlin- Checkpoint Charlie

80 Nov. 14, 1989


82 German Unification Who was worried?

83 Czechoslovakia Velvet Revolution



86 Vaclav Havel

87 President Havel demonstrated key ringing. In 1989 protesters shook key rings to symbolize the end of the communist rule in the country.

88 The Romanian flag with the communist logo cut out became the symbol of the 1989 Revolution





93 Break-up of Soviet Union, 1991 Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania left USSR 1991 USSR dissolved Dec Commonwealth of Independent States, led by Russia under Boris Yeltsin. By 1992, 17 republics had left Economic, religious, and crime problems tCyc&feature=related tCyc&feature=related


95 More Freedom Yeltsin began to allow private ownership of businesses, land Business owners, workers able to take advantage of economic opportunities However, lost guarantee of government-backed job, other government supports Economic Change Soviet Union fell; communism ended in former Soviet republics In largest republic, Russia, Boris Yeltsin began campaign to alter economys basic structure Goal to make economy function like capitalist system

96 Mixed Results Early results of Russias reforms mixed Some entrepreneurs prospered, most ordinary Russians did not Prices rose sharply –Many Russians could not afford to buys goods in stores –Some questioned benefits of market reform Early 2000s, Russia rebounded somewhat from economic crises; still, path from communism to capitalism not easy

97 Boris Yeltsin Shock therapy –Price controls lifted –Govt steps out of the economy –inflation

98 Ethnic Unrest After Soviet Union fell, underlying issues in region bubbled to top Two were ethnic unrest, need for new governments One example of ethnic unrest took place in Chechnya, in Caucasus region Azerbaijan Early 1990s, another example of ethnic conflict occurred when ethnic Armenian minority sought to break away from country of Azerbaijan Tens of thousands died in fighting that followed Chechnya Chechnya considered part of Russia When Chechens tried to gain independence from Russia, dispute led to bloody fighting, insurgency that still affects region today Other Issues

99 Post-Soviet Problems Economic dislocation Resurgence of ethnic tensions, anti-Semitism Limited political experience with democracy led to shaky governments, widespread corruption and crime Legacy of terror from worst dictatorships left scars Velvet divorce: Czech Republic & Slovakia split. –Official Jan. 1, 1993

100 The collapse of the Iron Curtain brought new opportunities and new challenges to Europe. The end of communism brought much economic change as well as new threats to peace. Communist governments with strict control In Yugoslavia, control helped suppress tensions between various ethnic, religious groups living there Yugoslavia Tensions began to surface Nationalism grew as ethnic, religious tensions increased Independence Serbia tried to prevent breakup of Yugoslavia Nationalism Conflict broke out Bosnia and Herzegovina at war Independence declared in 1992 Bosnian Serbs went to war to stop independence Bosnian Serbs Europe after Communism

101 Fighting in Kosovo Soon fighting began in Serbian province of Kosovo Serbs, ethnic Albanians fought over control of area 1999, NATO airplanes bombed Serbian targets to stop conflict NATO peacekeepers eventually maintained order there, although Kosovo remains Serbian province today War in Bosnia Serbs used policy of ethnic cleansing against Bosnian Muslims Ethnic cleansing means elimination of an ethnic group from society through killing or forced emigration U.S.-led diplomatic efforts finally ended violence in Bosnia in 1995

102 Market Reforms End of communism brought mixed results for Eastern European economies Market reforms created new opportunities for many people Some started businesses; some got management, technical jobs The European Union European Union (EU), single economic unit in competition with U.S. Many of newer members far poorer than older Western Europe members; some in wealthier nations worry their economies will suffer Strain on Western Europe Others fared less well; earnings not increasing for all workers High unemployment in some areas, forcing many to move to West Newcomers compete with longtime residents for jobs, resources Economic Change

103 Part II: European Union Part II: European Union

104 European Economic Integration General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] 23 nations. 23 nations. Became the foundation of postwar global commerce. Became the foundation of postwar global commerce. It set up procedures to handle commercial complaints. It set up procedures to handle commercial complaints. It provided a framework for continuing negotiations [rounds]. It provided a framework for continuing negotiations [rounds]. By 1990, 99 nations were participating. By 1990, 99 nations were participating.

105 European Economic Integration European Coal & Steel Community [ECSC]. HQ in Luxembourg. HQ in Luxembourg. Inner Six Benelux nations, France, Italy, W. Germany. Inner Six Benelux nations, France, Italy, W. Germany. Placed their coal and steel industries under a form of supranational authority. Placed their coal and steel industries under a form of supranational authority. Eliminated tariff duties and quotas on coal and steel. Eliminated tariff duties and quotas on coal and steel.

106 European Economic Integration European Economic Community [EEC] HQ Brussels. HQ Brussels. Treaty of Rome. Treaty of Rome.


108 European Economic Integration European Economic Community [EEC] France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux. France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux. Created a larger free trade area, or customs union. Created a larger free trade area, or customs union. Eliminate all trade barriers. Eliminate all trade barriers. One common tariff with the outside world. One common tariff with the outside world. Free movement of capital & labor. Free movement of capital & labor.

109 European Economic Integration combined the ECSC & EEC to form the European Community [EC]. HQ Brussels. HQ Brussels. European Parliament. European Parliament. Eurocrats. Eurocrats. 518 members [elected by all voters in Europe]. 518 members [elected by all voters in Europe]. Only limited legislative power. Only limited legislative power. Court of Justice. Court of Justice.

110 European Economic Integration Maastricht Agreements European Union [EU] created from the EC. European Union [EU] created from the EC. One currency, one culture, one social area, and one environment! One currency, one culture, one social area, and one environment! Create a frontier-free Europe a common EU passport. Create a frontier-free Europe a common EU passport. One large common market. One large common market. Goods coming into the EU would have high tariffs placed on them. Goods coming into the EU would have high tariffs placed on them a common currency [Euro] 2002 a common currency [Euro] ,000 men EU rapid defense force was created ,000 men EU rapid defense force was created.

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