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The Early Cold War: 1947-1970.

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Presentation on theme: "The Early Cold War: 1947-1970."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Early Cold War:

2 The Consequences of WWII
Staggering casualties and refugee problems Rise of the USSR and US/decline of Europe Decolonization worldwide Discrediting of “scientific racism” Dachau, 1945

3 Founding of the United Nations
Established immediately after WWII Military power, unlike the League of Nations Permanent council members (veto powers): U.S., U.S.S.R. (now Russia), France, Great Britain, China

4 Causes Yalta postwar plan Germ into zones $ to USSR
Stalin joins war against Japan Eastern Eur = free elections

5 More Causes Failure to agree on compliance with Yalta Agreements
Stalinist elections: Poland (1947), Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia ( ) Allied 2nd Front Containment of Communism

6 The Ideological Struggle
Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL  spread world-wide Communism GOAL  “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy]  “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]

7 The Cold War: Division of E. and W. Europe

8 The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

9 Post-War Germany

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12 Truman Doctrine [1947] Civil War in Greece.
Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.

13 Truman Doctrine Promised US aid to any nation fighting communism

14 Containment of Communism
Winston Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech (1946) Truman Doctrine, 1947 Marshall Plan, 1947 Berlin Airlift, North Atlantic Treaty Organization “NATO,” 1949 Warsaw Pact, 1955

15 Marshall Plan [1948] “European Recovery Program.”
Secretary of State, George Marshall The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. $12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR.

16 Marshall Plan Stalin refused to allow East to take part

17 Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)
Germany & Berlin divided at Potsdam into four zones 1948: Three zones united into West Germany Stalin blockaded West Berlin 321 day airlift Stalin withdrew blockade in 1949 Result: two Germanys, East and West

18 Berlin Blockade & Airlift (1948-49)

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20 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949)
United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain

21 Warsaw Pact (1955) U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia
East Germany Hungary Poland Rumania

22 The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?”
The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. Now there were two nuclear superpowers! Hydrogen bomb 1952

23 USSR use an ICBM to push to space
Sputnik I (1957) USSR use an ICBM to push to space The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!

24 Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace.
U-2 Spy Incident (1960) Col. Francis Gary Powers’ plane was shot down over Soviet airspace. Right before Krusch and nixon summit --- freezing of relations - wants an apology- traded for russian spy- Eisenhower had proposed that

25 Who lost China? – A 2nd Power!
Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2nd Power!

26 The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953)
Kim Il-Sung Syngman Rhee “Domino Theory”

27 Increasing Cold War Tensions, 1950’s – early 1960’s
1949: Chinese Revolution 1949: Soviets get atomic bomb : Korean War 1959: Sputnik 1960: U-2 incident 1961: Bay of Pigs 1961: Berlin Wall 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis

28 Premier Nikita Khrushchev De-Stalinization Program
About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you De-Stalinization Program

29 An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen
Who buried who?

30 Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

31 E. European Revolts, 1950’s 1956: Poland strikers had a limited success 1956: more ambitious Hungarian revolt under Imre Nagy crushed by Soviet troops

32 The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 Imre Nagy, Hungarian Prime Minister
Promised free elections. This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.

33 Ruined statue of Stalin in Budapest

34 Soviet Tanks in Budapest

35 Paris, 1961 Khrushchev & JFK meet to discuss Berlin and nuclear proliferation. Khrushchev thinks that JFK is young, inexperienced, and can be rolled.

36 The Berlin Wall, Built to stop the flow of refugees to the West Most visible symbol of the division of East and West “Checkpoint Charlie” 10, 315 days

37 The Berlin Wall Goes Up (1961)
Checkpoint Charlie

38 August, 1961

39 October, 1961

40 President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!
Ich bin ein Berliner! (1963) President Kennedy tells Berliners that the West is with them!

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42 Potsdamer Platz 1963

43 Khruschev Embraces Castro, 1961

44 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

45 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
We went eyeball-to-eyeball with the Russians, and the other man blinked!

46 Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

47 Vietnam War:

48 “Prague Spring” (1968) Former Czech President, Alexander Dubček
Communism with a human face!

49 Prague Spring,1968 Led by Alexander Dubcek—trying to get partial independence/free elections for local positions Result: Brezhnev Doctrine /Invasion of Czechoslovakia

50 “Prague Spring” Dashed!
Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like Vaclav Havel—future president of a free Czech Republic].

51 Cold War Society, East and West
Eastern Bloc: low production, losing propaganda war with West, economic troubles after 1980s due to arms race Western Bloc: prosperous but politically tumultuous 1950s: McCarthy decade, stable and conservative Social Movements of 1960s: grew out of social and population changes as well as unhappiness with Vietnam Peace Movement Anti-Nuclear (European) Civil Rights Movement Feminist Revolution

52 4th French Republic: Democratic, but politically unstable [27 governments!] Universal suffrage. Weak President; powerful legislature Many political parties [coalition governments] Failure to gracefully leave Indochina. Botched the Suez War. Failed to settle the Algerian Crisis.

53 5th French Republic (1958-Present)
Powerful President. * first: Charles DeGaulle Weak Cabinet. Weakened legislature. Separation of powers.

54 DeGaulle’s Achievements
Settled the Algerian Crisis. Made France a nuclear power. Sustained general prosperity. Maintained a stable, democratic government. Made France more politically independent. BUT, late ’60s student unrest and social changes challenged him. In 1968 he resigned & died of a heart attack in 1970.

55 Student Riots in Paris (May, 1968)

56 Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951
Limited socialist program [modern welfare state]. Natl. Insurance Act Natl. Health Service Act Nationalized coal mines, public utilities, steel industry, the Bank of England, RRs, motor transportation, and aviation. Social insurance legislation: “Cradle-to-Grave” security. Socialized medicine  free national health care.

57 Clement Attlee & the Labor Party: 1945-1951
Britain is in a big debt! The beginning of the end of the British Empire. India – 1947 Palestine – 1948 Kenya  Mau Mau uprising

58 Churchill Returns: He never really tried to destroy the “welfare state” established by Attlee’s government.

59 The Federated Republic of Germany
Created in 1949 with the capital at Bonn. Its army limited to 12 divisions [275,000]. Konrad Adenauer, a Christian Democrat, was its 1st President. Coalition of moderates and conservatives. Pro-Western foreign policy. German “economic miracle.” “Father of Modern Germany.”

60 Soviet-Afghanistan War
Communist state toppled by internal rebellion in 1978, Soviets sent in 5000 advisors. rebellion against Soviet control Resistance led by mujahidin (Islamic freedom fighters) backed by U.S. - Soviets withdrew 1989, but civil war into the 1990s Taliban (from mujahidin) imposed government in late 1990s. Similar to vietnam stuck- thought fast- but the muj fought hard US boycotts olympics and stops grain shipments

61 A Thaw in the Cold War The Soviet Union By the late 1970s the Soviet economy was shrinking. Industrial and farm production, population growth, education, and medical care all fell. The Soviet Union started importing food U.S.-Soviet Relations A visionary leader came to power in the Soviet Union—Mikhail Gorbachev. Believed the only way to save the Soviet Union was to strike a deal with the United States Between 1985 and 1988 Reagan and Gorbachev met four times and produced the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. First treaty to actually reduce nuclear arms INF Treaty destroyed a whole class of weapons (more than 2,500 missiles).

62 Soviet Union to 1985 “The country went through a social rev while Brezhnev slept.” Growth of cities=sophistication, education, job skills (not peasants) Large number of highly trained scientist, managers, experts- want to confer w/ others in field= intellectual freedom Educated people read, discussed ideas PolitburoMost powerful decision making group

63 Gorbachev’s Reforms, 1980’s
Soviet Union by late 1980s weakened by Afghanistan, Chernobyl accident arms race

64 Glasnost Gorbachev announced a new era of glasnost, or “opening.”
Lifted media censorship, allowing public criticism of the government Gorbachev held press interviews. Political prisoners Slowly Soviet citizens began to speak out. They complained about the price of food, of empty store shelves, and of their sons dying in Afghanistan.

65 Perestroika Was to revive the Economy
Gorbachev began the process of perestroika, the “restructuring” of the corrupt government economy and bureaucracy. Dismantled the Soviet central planning system Was to revive the Economy

66 Results Free elections took place in 1989 - Boris Yeltsin
Withdrew from Afghanistan Visited with China to ease tensions between the nations Attempted to cover up the Chernobyl nuclear accident Chernobyl 1 Chernobyl 20 years later

67 Gorbachev tried initially to work within Communist party (politburo), until attempted coup in Summer 1991 Gorbachev placed under house arrest in Crimean, but Russian president Boris Yeltsin led massive protests

68 The Collapse of the Soviet Empire
The call for glasnost and perestroika awakened a spirit of nationalism in the subject nations of Eastern Europe. economies. Gorbachev knew the USSR could not support the ailing Eastern European He ordered a large troop pullback from the region and warned leaders to adopt reforms. Revolutions swept across Eastern Europe in the late 1980s.

69 Lech Walesa August 1980 Solidarity put forward 21 demands to government including free trade unions and the right to strike. The government agreed to all 21 demands= Gdansk agreements Organized free and demo trade union= solidarity By the end of 1980 membership had grown to over 9 million.

70 Collapse of Soviet Bloc, 1989
Poland’s Solidarity Party ( ): Catholics and workers 1989: Poland gained right to multiparty elections; elected Lech Walesa, threw out communists Example led to revolts in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Albania, East Germany, Romania

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73 This monument, found currently in the city of Gdansk, honors the workers in the Gdansk shipyard who sacrificed their lives and careers to form the Solidarity Trade Union.

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75 Hungary Opens borders

76 Fall of the Berlin Wall, 1989 Triggered by flood of refugees flowing east to west through Hungary Govt closes border into Hungary Communist party boss resigns Wall came down Nov. 9, 1989 Germany began reunification process; completed Oct. 3, 1990.

77 Leipzig Demonstration, Oct. 1989

78 Crossing Berlin- Checkpoint Charlie

79 Nov. 14, 1989

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81 German Unification Who was worried?

82 Czechoslovakia Velvet Revolution

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85 Vaclav Havel

86 President Havel demonstrated key ringing
President Havel demonstrated key ringing. In 1989 protesters shook key rings to symbolize the end of the communist rule in the country.

87 The Romanian flag with the communist logo cut out became the symbol of the 1989 Revolution

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92 Break-up of Soviet Union, 1991
Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania left USSR 1991 USSR dissolved Dec “Commonwealth of Independent States,” led by Russia under Boris Yeltsin. By 1992, 17 republics had left Economic, religious, and crime problems

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94 Economic Change More Freedom
Soviet Union fell; communism ended in former Soviet republics In largest republic, Russia, Boris Yeltsin began campaign to alter economy’s basic structure Goal to make economy function like capitalist system More Freedom Yeltsin began to allow private ownership of businesses, land Business owners, workers able to take advantage of economic opportunities However, lost guarantee of government-backed job, other government supports

95 Mixed Results Early results of Russia’s reforms mixed
Some entrepreneurs prospered, most ordinary Russians did not Prices rose sharply Many Russians could not afford to buys goods in stores Some questioned benefits of market reform Early 2000s, Russia rebounded somewhat from economic crises; still, path from communism to capitalism not easy

96 Boris Yeltsin Shock therapy Price controls lifted
Govt steps out of the economy inflation

97 Other Issues Ethnic Unrest Chechnya Azerbaijan
After Soviet Union fell, underlying issues in region bubbled to top Two were ethnic unrest, need for new governments One example of ethnic unrest took place in Chechnya, in Caucasus region Chechnya Chechnya considered part of Russia When Chechens tried to gain independence from Russia, dispute led to bloody fighting, insurgency that still affects region today Azerbaijan Early 1990s, another example of ethnic conflict occurred when ethnic Armenian minority sought to break away from country of Azerbaijan Tens of thousands died in fighting that followed

98 Post-Soviet Problems Velvet divorce: Czech Republic & Slovakia split.
Economic dislocation Resurgence of ethnic tensions, anti-Semitism Limited political experience with democracy led to shaky governments, widespread corruption and crime Legacy of terror from worst dictatorships left scars Velvet divorce: Czech Republic & Slovakia split. Official Jan. 1, 1993

99 Europe after Communism
The collapse of the Iron Curtain brought new opportunities and new challenges to Europe. The end of communism brought much economic change as well as new threats to peace. Communist governments with strict control In Yugoslavia, control helped suppress tensions between various ethnic, religious groups living there Yugoslavia Tensions began to surface Nationalism grew as ethnic, religious tensions increased Independence Serbia tried to prevent breakup of Yugoslavia Nationalism Conflict broke out Bosnia and Herzegovina at war Independence declared in 1992 Bosnian Serbs went to war to stop independence Bosnian Serbs

100 War in Bosnia Fighting in Kosovo
Serbs used policy of ethnic cleansing against Bosnian Muslims Ethnic cleansing means elimination of an ethnic group from society through killing or forced emigration U.S.-led diplomatic efforts finally ended violence in Bosnia in 1995 Fighting in Kosovo Soon fighting began in Serbian province of Kosovo Serbs, ethnic Albanians fought over control of area 1999, NATO airplanes bombed Serbian targets to stop conflict NATO peacekeepers eventually maintained order there, although Kosovo remains Serbian province today

101 Economic Change Market Reforms Strain on Western Europe
End of communism brought mixed results for Eastern European economies Market reforms created new opportunities for many people Some started businesses; some got management, technical jobs Strain on Western Europe Others fared less well; earnings not increasing for all workers High unemployment in some areas, forcing many to move to West Newcomers compete with longtime residents for jobs, resources The European Union European Union (EU), single economic unit in competition with U.S. Many of newer members far poorer than older Western Europe members; some in wealthier nations worry their economies will suffer

102 Part II: “European Union”

103 European Economic Integration
1947  General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade [GATT] 23 nations. Became the foundation of postwar global commerce. It set up procedures to handle commercial complaints. It provided a framework for continuing negotiations [“rounds”]. By 1990, 99 nations were participating.

104 European Economic Integration
1952  European Coal & Steel Community [ECSC]. HQ in Luxembourg. “Inner Six”  Benelux nations, France, Italy, W. Germany. Placed their coal and steel industries under a form of supranational authority. Eliminated tariff duties and quotas on coal and steel.

105 European Economic Integration
1957  European Economic Community [EEC] HQ  Brussels. Treaty of Rome.

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107 European Economic Integration
1957  European Economic Community [EEC] France, W. Germany, Italy, Benelux. Created a larger free trade area, or customs union. Eliminate all trade barriers. One common tariff with the outside world. Free movement of capital & labor.

108 European Economic Integration
1967  combined the ECSC & EEC to form the European Community [EC]. HQ  Brussels. European Parliament. “Eurocrats.” 518 members [elected by all voters in Europe]. Only limited legislative power. Court of Justice.

109 European Economic Integration
 Maastricht Agreements European Union [EU] created from the EC. One currency, one culture, one social area, and one environment! Create a “frontier-free” Europe  a common EU passport. One large “common market.” Goods coming into the EU would have high tariffs placed on them. 2002  a common currency [Euro] 2003  60,000 men EU rapid defense force was created.


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