3France in the 1700’s Most advanced country in Europe Center of the EnlightenmentCultural CenterLarge population> 25 millionProsperous foreign tradeBUT………..
4Underlying issues Old Regime- 3 Estates $ division between the “haves” and “have-nots”= revolutionEnlightenment ideas- Equality, Liberty, democracy- American Revolution- “Popular sovereignty”Economic problems: High taxes, debt from warsWeak leader: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
5Causes-Social Inequality Social Inequality - three estatesThree estatesFirst Estate (upper clergy) - 1% of population, taxed peasantsSecond Estate (nobles) - 2-3% of population, paid no taxes, taxed peasantsThird Estate (Bourgeoisie, peasants, workers) - paid up to 1/2 of income in taxes1st estate - about 100,000 Roman Catholic clergy2nd Estate
6Estates GeneralFirst Estate- this was the Roman Catholic Church, whose clergy owned 10% of the land in France. It didn’t have to pay taxes, but about 2% of its income (tithe) went to the government.2nd Estate- this was made up of rich nobles—who only made up 2% of the population. They own 20% of the land in France and paid no taxes.
73rd Estate3rd Estate- 98% of the population belonged to this group. This was made up of 3 different groups:Bourgeoisie-these were merchants and artisans. They believed in the ideas of the Enlightenment. They paid high taxes and were not allowed the social recognition of the 2nd estate.Workers- these were the cooks, servants, and blue collar workers. They were paid low wages and often had to resort to stealing to stay alivePeasants-this group made up 80% of the population and this group had over 50% of their income going to pay for taxes.This third estate was sick of the status quo and they wanted to change it.
8Causes-Ideas Enlightenment Ideas/ American Rev. Belief all men should have liberal freedomsRight and just to remove unjust gov’tEquality for allUnited States Dec. of Independence and Constitution-France helped Colonies win their independence
9Causes-Political King Louis XVI Weak leader Preferred personal interests, delegated authorityIncapable of decisive actionWife- Marie Antoinette-Not well-liked-Austrian- Married Louis 14 years old- Lived luxuriously (diamond necklace affair)
12Causes - Economic Economic Crisis French economy bankrupt Wars, Louis XVI lifestyleNobles not taxedCrop failuresDebt - 1/2 budget goes to interestBourgeoisie begin questioning King
13The Forces of ChangeEconomic hardship-high taxes, crop failures in the 1780s, which led to the price of bread doubling, and the country was in debt due to the Louis XVI.A weak leader-Louis XVI could not make decisions and he married a member of the Austrian royal family, Marie Antoinette, who was hated by the public. Marie spent so much money that she was known as Madame Deficit.Louis XVI was forced into making changes when his country went bankrupt. Louis thought he could simply tax, but the 2nd Estate, forced him into calling an Estates General-a representative group-to get approval for taxes.
14Revolution DawnsPrior to the Estates-General the delegates from the 1st and 2nd Estates had more weight or value to the votes their delegates placed. This led for the 1st and 2nd Estate to always outvote the 3rd estate even though the 3rd Estate had more delegates.Delegates from the 3rd Estate wanted to change that though-they believed everyone should have the same value to their vote. Therefore, the 3rd estate would always out vote the 1st and 2nd estates.
15One delegate from the 3rd Estate, Abbe Sieyes, said,” What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has to been up to now in the political order? Nothing. What does it demand? To become something herein.” Sieyes suggested the 3rd Estate form the National Assembly and pass laws and reforms in the name of the French people.
16On June 17, 1789 the third estate voted to have a National Assembly On June 17, 1789 the third estate voted to have a National Assembly. This was the 1st move toward revolution.The 3rd Estate was immediately locked out of the Estates General and they broke into an indoor tennis court where they agreed to stay until a new constitution was written.They called their agreement the Tennis Court Oath.
18The BastilleLouis realized he needed to do something before he lost all of France, so he ordered the clergy and the nobles to join the National Assembly. He also brought in Swiss guards to protect him in Paris.People heard about the Swiss guards and they immediately began to gather weapons in order to protect themselves from a possible massacre. On July 14th an angry group went to the Bastille, a prison, looking for gunpowder. The angry crowd overthrew the kings guards and the people took control of the Bastille. July 14th is known as a French national holiday.
20A Great Fear Sweeps France People began to panic which led to a period called the Great Fear. This period occurred when rebellion spread to the countryside. Peasants began to attack their feudal lords and demand their freedom.A group of 6,000 women protested the rising cost of bread. “Let them eat cake”They lashed out the king and the queen and they demanded they immediately leave Versailles and return to France. This was the last time the king was at Versailles.
21Revolution Brings Terror The National Assembly adopted a statement of Revolutionary Ideas— A Declaration on the Rights of Man.—All men are born and remain free and equal in rights. It also included equal justice, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion.Olympe de Gouge wrote—a Declaration on the Rights of Women
23State Controlled Church The state took cover church lands and said that priests had to be elected by property owners and paid as state officials. The church lost its land and political power. The church land was sold off to pay off debt.This act angered the peasants---why?Louis escapes, but is caught
24Conflicting Goals Cause Division A limited constitutional monarchy was created—the king would still hold executive powers but the assemblymen would make the laws.1791-the National Assembly closed because the constitution was complete and the Legislative Assembly took over.
253 Divisions of the Legislative Assembly Radicals (Liberals)-They sat on the left side of the hall and were called “left winged” The most extreme of this group were also called Sans-Culottes (those without knee breeches) They wanted extreme changes in the government---common people should hold the powerModerates—sat in the middle—wanted some changes, but not as extreme as the radicals.Conservatives- They sat on the right side of the hall and they liked the limited monarchy. Emigres were the most extreme group within the conservatives.
27War and Extreme Measures Austria and Prussia demanded that Louis be brought back to the crown. In response the Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria.The French were not prepared to fight Austria and Prussia who joined in when war was declared—(why??)When the Prussians threatened to destroy Paris if the revolutionaries hurt Louis and his family, Parisians invaded the Royal Palace and Louis and his family were kept in a stone tower.
28The fighting continues As the war went on the Legislative Assembly decided to get rid of the current constitution which called for a constitutional monarchy and therefore get rid of the king.The new governing body was the National Convention.
29The JacobinsThe people in the street had more power than the National Convention and the most radical group was called the Jacobins.Jacobins were middle class people who wanted to get rid of the king and create a republic. Jean Paul Marat and George Danton were leaders of the Jacobins and with their influence they was able to get enough support to have France abolish the monarchy and create a republic.
31The death of a kingJacobins tried Louis for treason, found him guilty and sentenced him to death. Louis was killed by the guillotine in front of thousands.Jacobins realized they still had a war to fight, so they initiated the draft—women were included in the draft.
32Terror Grips FranceA group developed in France that wanted to create a “republic of virtue”—they wanted to rid France of all of its past nobility and monarchy.This group led by Maximillien Robespierre changed the calendar to be more scientific—they divided the calendar into 12 months and 30 days and they closed all churches in Paris.
35Committee of Public Safety (?) Robespierre became leader of the Committee of Public Safety, which would get rid of people that were deemed by Robespierre to be enemies of the Republic. People would be tried in the morning and guillotined in the afternoon.July 1793-July 1794 Robespierre ruled France as a dictator and his rule was called the Reign of Terror— the most famous victim was….
36Marie AntoinetteOn her way to the guillotine she said, “Monsieur, I beg your pardon. I did not do it on purpose.”
38George Danton was also a victim of the Reign. In the end 3,000 were in killed in Paris and some speculate 40,000 were killed in total.
39End of TerrorNational Convention turns on Robespierre in 1794 and they put him to death by guillotine…The Reign of Terror ended with his death.1795 Moderates drafted a new constitution which called for 2 house legislature and a 5 member executive branch called the Directory.
40Napoleon Forges an Empire Great military geniusTook control of France in a coup d’etatGains peace agreement w/Britain, Austria and RussiaFrance under Napoleon:Fairer taxesImproved schoolsNapoleonic Code- some restrictions
41Napoleon Creates Empire 1804- Crowned EmperorNew World Problems Haiti- Defeated by slaves led by Toussaint L’OuvertureSells Louisiana Territory to United StatesTurns attention to Europe-Builds empireLoses Battle of Trafalgar-1805 to BritishOnly able to control empire from
43Napoleon’s Empire Collapses Three big Mistakes:Continental system- designed to hurt Great Britain & make Europe more self-sufficient- weakened economy of FrancePeninsular War- conflict w/ Spain & Portugal-fuels “nationalism”Invasion of Russia- scorched earth- Decimates Napoleon’s armyApril Surrenders to Coalition Forces
44Hundred Days-March-June, 1815 Banished to Elba (1814)New King Louis XVIII (Louis XVI’s brother)- becomes unpopular- Napoleon comes back (March 1815)Defeated at Waterloo 1815 (Hundred Days ends)Banished to St. Helena’s –dies 1821
45Congress of ViennaLasted 8 months- wanted to create a “Balance of Power” and peaceKlemens von Metternich-Austria-3 goals:Limit France’s powerRestore “balance of power”Return monarchs to thrones (Hobbes)Established peace for nearly 40 yearsSome were constitutional monarchies and some Absolute Monarchies (Enlightened)Set the seeds for Nationalistic revolutions to come