Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution and Napoleon"— Presentation transcript:
1The French Revolution and Napoleon Section ThreeNapoleon Forges an Empire
2Napoleon Seizes PowerNapoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 on the island of CorsicaAt the age of nine his parents sent him to a military schoolAt the age of sixteen, he finished school and became a lieutenant in the artilleryWhen the Revolution broke out he joined the army of the new government
3Hero of the HourIn October of 1795 royalist rebels marched on the National ConventionNapoleon was ordered to defend the delegatesHe and his gunners successfully protected the ConventionHe was considered a savior of the French RepublicIn 1796 the Directory appointed him to lead French armies against the forces of Austria and SardiniaHe won a series of victories in Italy and became a national heroHe lost battles in Egypt against Britain, but managed to keep the information out of the public eye
4Coup d’EtatBy 1799 the Directory had lost control of the political situation in FranceNapoleon returned from Egypt and decided to take control of the nationHe surrounded the national legislature and got them to dissolve the DirectoryThey established a group of three consuls with Napoleon as one of themNapoleon soon took control as first consul and seized power as a dictatorThis is called a coup d’Etat, or French for “blow to the state”Britain, Austria and Russia all wanted napoleon out of powerNapoleon could not be defeated and by 1802 all three signed peace treaties with France
5Napoleon Rules FranceIn 1800 a plebiscite (vote of the people), was held for a new constitutionThe people voted overwhelmingly for the constitutionNapoleon got all real power as first consul
6Restoring Order at Home Napoleon supported laws that would both strengthen the central government and uphold the goals of the Revolution.He set up an efficient method of tax collection and a national banking system.He dismissed corrupt officials.He set up lycees (government – run public schools. Open to all male students, graduates were appointed to public office based on merit, not social status.)He signed a concordat (agreement), with the Pope Pius VII. It recognized the influence of the Church on French society, but the Church would stay out of national affairs.He set up the Napoleonic code, (a system of laws), this code limited free speech and freedom of the press. It also restored slavery in French colonies.
7Napoleon Crowned as Emperor In 1804 Napoleon decided to make himself emperor, and the French people supported him.On December 2, 1804 he walked down the aisle of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. The pope waited for him with a crown, which Napoleon took from him and placed on his own head.This act implied he was more powerful than even the Church.
8Napoleon Creates an Empire Napoleon wanted to control all of Europe and have more influence in the AmericasHe wanted his empire to include Louisiana, Florida, French Guiana, and the French West Indies.He knew the key to this was control of the sugar producing colony of Saint Dominique (Haiti), on the island of Hispaniola.
9Loss of American Territories In 1789 the people of Saint Dominique demanded equal rights with the people of France.The slaves demanded their freedom.Civil war broke out under the leadership of Toussaint L’OuvertureIn 1801 Napoleon tried to take back control of the colony.He failed due to disease and fierce resistance.Napoleon now decided to cut his loses and pull out of the Americas.He sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States for 15 million dollars.He felt this would give him money he needed to wage war in Europe and create a permanent power to counter the British.
10Conquering Europe Napoleon now turned his attention toward Europe. He had already annexed the Netherlands and parts of Italy. He set up a puppet government in Switzerland.Britain, Russia, Austria, and Sweden united against France.Napoleon’s armies could not be defeated.In time Austria, Prussia, and Russia signed peace treaties with France.He now ruled the largest empire in Europe since Roman times.His only major enemy was Britain.
11The Battle of Trafalgar Napoleon lost only one major battle in his drive for a European empire.The Battle of Trafalgar took place in 1805 off the southwest coast of Spain.The British commander, Horatio Nelson, was a brilliant naval commander. He split Napoleon’s navy and captured many ships.After this battle Napoleon no longer tried to conquer England.
12The French Empire By 1812 Napoleon’s Empire controlled most of Europe. The only countries free of his influence or control were: Britain, Portugal, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire.Napoleon directly controlled many countries.These included: Spain, the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, and many German kingdoms.He indirectly controlled some other nations through intimidation, these included: Russia, Prussia, and Austria.Napoleon had total control of his Empire for a total of five years from 1807 to 1812.