Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution Chapter Nine"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Industrial Revolution Chapter Nine IndustrializationManchesterSection Two
2 Class Tensions GrowThough poverty gripped England’s working class, the Industrial Revolution created enormous amounts of wealth in the nationThe middle class grew and became wealthier.This class included factory owners, shippers, and merchants. It also included skilled workers, professionals, business people and wealthy farmers.
3 The Middle ClassIn the past only landowners and aristocrats had occupied the top position in British society.Now factory owners, merchants, and bankers grew wealthier than some landowners or aristocrats.It wasn’t until the late 1800’s before these “new money” business people were considered the equals of the noble classes in England.Gradually a larger middle class emerged. It was divided into two categories:Upper Middle Class- government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers of factories, mines and shops.Lower Middle Class- factory overseers, toolmakers, mechanical drafters, printers, and other skilled workers.These people all enjoyed a comfortable standard of living.
4 The Working ClassDuring the years 1800 to 1850, laborers saw little improvement in their standard of living and working conditions.Many watched their livelihoods slowly disappear as better inventions and machines replaced them.In frustration many revolted by attacking factories and destroying the machines.Outside factories, workers rioted because of poor living and working conditions.
5 Positive Effects of the Industrial Revolution Despite the problems that followed industrialization, the Industrial Revolution had a number of positive effects:It created new jobs for workersIt contributed to the wealth of the nation.It fostered technological progress and invention.It greatly increased the production of goods.It raised the standard of living.It provided hope for improvement in people’s lives.It created healthier diets.It created better housing.It created cheaper clothing.It expanded educational opportunities.The middle and upper classes prospered immediately.The working class prospered over time.
6 The Mills of Manchester The city of Manchester England is a perfect example of the successes and problems of the Industrial Revolution.Manchester is in northern England. It is near waterpower labor from the countryside, and the port city of Liverpool.“From this filthy sewer pure gold flows.” Alexis de Tocqueville wrote in 1835.The city’s rapid and unplanned growth made it an unhealthy place for poor people who lived and worked there.Wealth flowed from its factories. First to the owners and new middle class, but also eventually to the workers.The city’s business owners risked their money to invest in the city’s future and they were rewarded. They built large homes and enjoyed the fruits of their labors.To provide the owners with these profits, children as young as six joined their parents in the factories. They worked from 7:00am to 8:00pm with few breaks.To keep the children awake, some owners ordered them beaten. Machines injured many and changes did not begin to take place until at least 1819.The coal that heated the homes and made the factories run polluted the air and the dye from the fabrics polluted the rivers.Manchester stood as a reminder of the ills of rapid unplanned industrialization.
7 Industrialization Changes Life By the 1800’s, people could earn higher wages working in factories than on farms.They could now afford to heat their homes with coal, eat beef, and wear better clothes.City populations swelled with waves of new job seekers.
8 Industrial Cities Rise For centuries Europeans lived and worked in rural areas.After 1800, the balance shifted toward cities.This shift was caused by the growth of factories concentrated in a central location.Between 1800 and 1850, the number of European cities with populations over 100,000 grew from 22 to 47.This period is known as a period of urbanization.Factories were built near sources of energy.The largest growth occurred in England. London became Europe’s largest city with over one million people.Other cities developed and grew as well.Birmingham and Sheffield- iron smelting centersLeeds and Manchester- textile manufacturing centersLiverpool and Manchester- cotton industry centerManchester grew from 45,000 in 1760 to 300,000 by 1850.
9 Living ConditionsBecause of rapid development, England’s cities had no sanitary or building codes.They also lacked adequate housing, education and police protection.Most streets were unpaved, had no drains, and piles of uncollected garbage.Workers lived in small, dark, dirty shelters. Many people crammed into one room.Sickness was widespread. The average lifespan of city workers at this time was 17, as opposed to 38 in the countryside.Well-to-do merchants and factory owners lived in luxurious homes in the suburbs.
10 Working ConditionsWorkers spent 14 hours a day at their jobs, 6 days per week.Factories were poorly lit and dirty.Machines often injured workers, with aid offered to the injured workers.Coal mines were the most dangerous, with average life spans being ten years less than other workers.Women and children were employed in the mining industry because they were the cheapest source of labor.