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Chapter 9 Section 3 Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement.

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1 Chapter 9 Section 3 Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement

2 1. President Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt was experienced with city and state politics. He was a war hero. As vice president he was next inline when President McKinley was assassinated. His enemies feared that he could not be controlled as he promoted his agenda. Results: Roosevelt became the first progressive president working to balance the public good with big business interests. He used the presidency as a bully pulpit to promote his Square Deal programs to benefit the people.

3 2. Square Deal Roosevelts progressive reform program The Square Deal focused on the federal governments responsibility for the national welfare. Roosevelt thought the government should assume control whenever states proved incapable of dealing with problems. Results: Overall United States prosperity A balance between the needs of the majority against the pursuits of private interests – big business.

4 3. Trustbusting, Northern Securities vs. United States Roosevelt did not believe that all trusts were harmful, but worked to protect the publics best interest. Supreme Court case- Northern Securities for violation of Shermans Anti-trust Act. Great Northern Railroad and Northern Pacific Railroad combined to create Northern Securities. The new company combined to eliminate competition, thus restricting commerce, violating Shermans Anti-Trust. Results: Roosevelt as the Trustbuster, protector of the public good. Competition was healthy for the marketplace.

5 4. Coal Strike of 1902 Pennsylvanias coal miners versus the mine owners. Miners wanted more pay, less hours and recognition of their right to a union. Owners did not want to negotiate a settlement. Roosevelt felt that he had to intervene for the publics welfare. Results: President Roosevelt promoted arbitration (a 3 rd party used to settle a dispute between two sides). The government became a honest broker to settle disputes for the public good through arbitration and the use of experts.

6 – Elkin Act and 1906 – Hepburn Act These Acts strengthened the Interstate Commerce Commission. Both allowed the government power to set railroad rates, reduce corruption and bribery. Results: The acts boosted the governments power to regulate the railroads. Rates could not be raised without public notification.

7 – Meat Inspection Act This Act provided for federal inspection of all meat sold through interstate commerce. The Agriculture Department was to set standards of cleanliness. Upton Sinclairs book The Jungle prompted this act by exposing the horrible conditions in the meat packing industry. Results: The protection of the public health. Confidence for the consumer that the meat they purchased was safe to eat. Additional changes came again in the 1990s.

8 This Act prohibited the manufacturing, sale or shipment of impure or falsely labeled food and drugs. Products had to be properly labeled and proven to provide to intended outcome. Scientific studies were used to prove the data. Results: The protection of public health and safety. This Act reduced fraud for the consumer – Food and Drug Act

9 – Newlands Reclamation Act Federal funds from sales of public lands would be used to pay for irrigation and development of western lands. Other lands and resources were to be protected for the future. Roosevelt was the first president to promote conservation. Results: Large scale transformation of western lands. The Act helped develop agriculture and stimulated the economy of the West.

10 9. Roosevelt and Civil Rights Roosevelt like other progressives – failed to fully support civil rights for African Americans. He did award individuals with political appointments. Results: Individuals like Booker T. Washington (gradual) and WEB Dubois (immediate) worked to change segregation with different approaches. Dubois and the NAACP promoted full equality among the races.

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