Presentation on theme: "Chapter Fifteen The British Isles and Nordic Nations Section Two Scotland and Wales."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Fifteen The British Isles and Nordic Nations Section Two Scotland and Wales
Scotlands Physical Characteristics Scotland occupies one third of the land area in the United Kingdom. Only 10% of the United Kingdoms population lives in Scotland. The Cheviot Hills and the Tweed River form the border between Scotland and England. Scotland is divided into three formal regions.
The Highlands This is a large, high plateau with many lakes called lochs. The Grampian Mountains cut across the region. The coast is etched by the sea with inlets called firths. The Highlands are covered with moors. Moors- broad, treeless rolling plains. The moors are dotted with bogs. Bogs- areas of wet, spongy ground. There is a great deal of rain and most of the vegetation is grasses and low shrubs. The regions economy is based on fishing and sheep herding, as well as the weaving of tweed. (a hand-woven woolen cloth)
The Central Lowlands This region is south of the Highlands. 75% of Scotlands people live here. It is located between, and includes the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. Glasgow became a major shipbuilding region in the early 1800s. Industry has fallen on hard times today. Lack of jobs has forced 1/3 of Glasgows people to move.
The Southern Uplands This region is closest to the English border. This area is primarily a sheep-raising region. The Tweed River and Cheviot Hills are found here. These hills are home to many Medieval abbeys which draw tourists to the area.
Scottish Culture New industries are replacing mining, steel making, and shipbuilding. Oil drilling in the North Sea and computer and electronics businesses in the Clyde Valley or glen are developing. Glen- a narrow valley. Politically, Scotland is united with England since Scotland has kept many important trading and political rights. The national church of Scotland is the Presbyterian Church, unlike the Church of England or Anglican Church is in England. Scottish voters approved a creation of their own parliament and some even favor independence from England.
Wales Wales is also very independent minded. It has its own capital city, postage stamps, flag, and language. Wales has, however, been united to England politically since 1284.
Welsh Physical Characteristics Wales is a peninsula of the island of Great Britain. It is about the size of Massachusetts. It has a landscape similar to Scotland, with highlands in the north, lowlands in the south, and the Cambrian Mountains in the center. Wales gets a large amount of rain, more than any part of England.
A Separate Language Most of the 2.9 million people of Wales speak English. Nearly 20% speak Welsh as their first language. This language has been handed down from the early Celtic peoples who lived in Wales for thousands of years. Today, even some Welsh television broadcasts are in Welsh.
Economic Activities The economy of Wales was largely based on industry and coal mining. Coal mines in Southern Wales produced most of Englands coal. By the 1980s, most mines had closed and unemployment was high. High tech industries began to develop in the 1990s as did tourism.