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By 1860, scientists had already discovered 60 elements and determined their atomic masses. The Search for a Periodic Table Periodic Table: Basic Concepts.

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Presentation on theme: "By 1860, scientists had already discovered 60 elements and determined their atomic masses. The Search for a Periodic Table Periodic Table: Basic Concepts."— Presentation transcript:

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2 By 1860, scientists had already discovered 60 elements and determined their atomic masses. The Search for a Periodic Table Periodic Table: Basic Concepts They noticed that some elements had similar properties. They gave each group of similar elements a name. Copper, silver, and gold were called the coinage metals; lithium, sodium, and potassium were known as the alkali metals; chlorine, bromine, and iodine were called the halogens. Topic 5 Topic 5

3 Chemists also saw differences among the groups of elements and between individual elements. The Search for a Periodic Table They wanted to organize the elements into a system that would show similarities while acknowledging differences. It was logical to use atomic mass as the basis for these early attempts. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

4 Döbereiners Triads In 1829, German chemist J.W. Döbereiner classified elements in groups of three which he called triads The elements in a triad had similar chemical properties, and their physical properties varied in an orderly way according to their atomic masses. Triads show a relationship among the densities that is true for many triads. Density increases with increasing atomic mass.

5 The Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev, was a professor of chemistry at the University of St. Petersburg when he developed a periodic table of elements. Mendeleevs Periodic Table Mendeleev was studying the properties of the elements and realized that the chemical and physical properties of the elements repeated in an orderly way when he organized the elements according to increasing atomic mass. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

6 Mendeleev later developed an improved version of his table with the elements arranged in horizontal rows. Mendeleevs Periodic Table This arrangement was the forerunner of todays periodic table. Patterns of changing properties repeated for the elements across the horizontal rows. Elements in vertical columns showed similar properties. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

7 Mendeleevs insight was a significant contribution to the development of chemistry. Mendeleevs Periodic Table He showed that the properties of the elements repeat in an orderly way from row to row of the table. This repeated pattern is an example of periodicity in the properties of elements. Periodicity is the tendency to recur at regular intervals. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

8 One of the tests of a scientific theory is the ability to use it to make successful predictions. Mendeleevs Periodic Table In order to group elements with similar properties in the same columns, Mendeleev had to leave some blank spaces in his table. He suggested that these spaces represented undiscovered elements. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5 Mendeleev correctly predicted the properties of several undiscovered elements. See text.

9 Mendeleevs Periodic Table Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

10 Periodic Table of the Elements Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

11 The Modern Periodic Table There are several places in the modern table where an element of higher atomic mass comes before one of lower atomic mass. The sequence of atomic masses does not increase from Co (27) to Ni (28) This is because the basis for ordering the elements in the table is the atomic number, not atomic mass. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

12 The Modern Periodic Table The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. Atomic number increases by one as you move from element to element across a row. Each row (except the first) begins with a metal and ends with a noble gas. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

13 The Modern Periodic Table In between, the properties of the elements change in an orderly progression from left to right. The pattern in properties repeats after column 18. This regular cycle illustrates periodicity in the properties of the elements. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

14 The Modern Periodic Table The statement that the physical and chemical properties of the elements repeat in a regular pattern when they are arranged in order of increasing atomic number is known as the periodic law. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

15 Relationship of the Periodic Table to Atomic Structure In the modern periodic table, elements are arranged according to atomic number. Moseley discovered that the nuclear charge increased by 1 for each element in the periodic table. He proposed arranging elements according to atomic nuclear charge or atomic number. The atomic number also tells the number of electrons it has. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

16 Elements Within a Group Four groups have commonly used names: the alkali metals in Group 1, the alkaline earth metals in Group 2, the halogens in Group 17, and the noble gases in Group 18. Representative elements include Group 1 and 2 (s electrons) and Groups (p electrons) Transition elements include Group 3-12 (d electrons) Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

17 Inner Transition Elements The two rows beneath the main body of the periodic table are the lanthanides (atomic numbers 58 to 71) and the actinides (atomic numbers 90 to 103). These two series are called inner transition elements because their last electron occupies inner-level 4f orbitals in the sixth period and the 5f orbitals in the seventh period. Topic 2 Topic 2 Atomic Structure: Additional Concepts

18 Structure of Inner Transition Elements Lanthanide Series together with Sc, Y and La, are collectively referred to as rare earth elements. Elements beyond Uranium are the transuranium elements. These elements do not occur naturally on Earth. Topic 5

19 Basic Assessment Questions Question 1 Match each element in Column A with the best matching description in Column B. Each Column A element may match more than one description from Column B. Topic 5 Topic 5

20 Basic Assessment Questions Question 1 1. strontium 2. chromium 3. iodine Column A Column B a. halogen b. alkaline earth metal c. representative element d. transition element Topic 5 Topic 5

21 Periodic Table: Additional Concepts Periodic Trends The electron structure of an atom determines many of its chemical and physical properties. Because the periodic table reflects the electron configurations of the elements, the table also reveals trends in the elements chemical and physical properties. Topic 5 Topic 5

22 Atomic radius The atomic radius is a measure of the size of an atom. The larger the radius, the larger is the atom. Periodic Table: Additional Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

23 Atomic radius Research shows that atoms tend to decrease in size across a period because the nuclei are increasing in positive charge while electrons are being added to sublevels that are very close in energy. As a result, the increased nuclear charge pulls the outermost electrons closer to the nucleus, making the atom smaller and therefore less reactive. Periodic Table: Additional Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

24 Atomic radius Moving down through a group, atomic radii increase. Even though the positive charge of the nucleus increases, each successive element has electrons in the next higher energy level and therefore more reactive in a chemical reaction. Periodic Table: Additional Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

25 Atomic radius Electrons in these higher energy levels are located farther from the nucleus than those in lower energy levels. The increased size of higher energy level outweighs the increased nuclear charge. Therefore, the atoms increase in size. Periodic Table: Additional Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

26 Additional Assessment Questions For each of the following pairs, predict which atom is larger. Question 1 a. Mg, Sr b. Sr, Sn c. Ge, Sn d. Ge, Br e. Cr, W Topic 5 Topic 5

27 Atomic radius and Valence electrons Electrons at the outer most energy level are highest in energy, farthest from the nucleus, and more available to react with another atom Elements within a group at a higher period will react similarly but more readily and more vigorously than elements in a lower period

28 Electrons in Energy Level The electrons in the outermost energy level are called valence electrons. Because the periodic table relates group and period numbers to valence electrons, its useful in predicting atomic structure and, therefore, chemical properties. Atomic Structure: Basic Concepts Topic 2 Topic 2

29 Atomic Structure of Elements Within the Periodic Table You can also use the periodic table as a tool to predict the number of valence electrons in any atom in Groups 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18. All atoms in Group 1, like hydrogen, have one valence electron. Likewise, atoms in Group 2 have two valence electrons. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

30 Atomic Structure of Elements Within a Period The first period is complete with two elements, hydrogen and helium. Hydrogen has one electron in its outermost energy level, so it has one valence electron. As you move from one element to the next across Periods 2 and 3, the number of valence electrons increases by one. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

31 Relationship of the Periodic Table to Atomic Structure Elements with atomic numbers 4 through 10 follow lithium and fill the second period. Each has one more electron than the element that preceded it. Neon, with atomic number 10, is at the end of the period. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

32 Atomic Structure of Elements Within a Period Group 18 elements have the maximum number of eight valence electrons in their outermost energy level. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5 The elements in Group 18 are called noble gases because they are much less reactive than most of the other elements.

33 Noble Gases Each period ends with a noble gas, so all the noble gases have filled energy levels and, therefore, stable electron configurations. Topic 2 Topic 2 Atomic Structure: Additional Concepts

34 Noble Gases These stable electron configurations explain the lack of reactivity of the noble gases. Noble gases dont need to form chemical bonds to acquire stability. Topic 2 Topic 2 Atomic Structure: Additional Concepts

35 Atomic Structure of Elements Within a Period Therefore, Group 1 elements have one valence electron. i.e. one highest energy level electron These elements have one electron at a higher energy level than the noble gas of the preceding period. Every period after the first starts with a Group 1 element. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

36 Atomic Structure of Elements Within a Group The number of valence electrons changes from one to eight as you move from left to right across a period; when you reach Group 18, the pattern repeats. For the main group (representative) elements, the group number is related to the number of valence electrons. The main group elements are those in Groups 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

37 Atomic Structure of Elements Within a Group For elements in Groups 1 and 2, the group number equals the number of valence electrons. For elements in Groups 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18, the second digit in the group number is equal to the number of valence electrons. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

38 Atomic Structure of Elements Within a Group Because elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons, they have similar properties. Sodium is in Group 1 because it has one valence electron. Because other elements in Group 1 also have one valence electron, they have similar chemical properties. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

39 Atomic Structure of Elements Within a Group For example, oxygen, in Group 16 and Period 2, has six valence electrons (the same as the second digit in the group number), and these electrons are in the second energy level (because oxygen is in the second period). Oxygen has the same number of valence electrons as all the other elements in Group 16 and, therefore, similar chemical properties. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

40 Atomic Structure of Elements Within a Group Chlorine is in Group 17 and has seven valence electrons. All the other elements in Group 17 also have seven valence electrons and, as a result, they have similar chemical properties. Throughout the periodic table, elements in the same group have similar chemical properties because the have the same number of valence electrons. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

41 Basic Assessment Questions How many valence electrons are in an atom of each of the following elements? Question 2 a. magnesium b. selenium c. tin Topic 5 Topic 5

42 Lewis Dot Diagrams Because valence electrons are so important to the behavior of an atom, it is useful to represent them with symbols. In our study we will only focus on the representative elements. Atomic Structure: Basic Concepts Topic 2 Topic 2

43 Lewis Dot Diagrams A Lewis dot diagram illustrates valence electrons as dots (or other small symbols) around the chemical symbol of an element. Atomic Structure: Basic Concepts Topic 2 Topic 2

44 Lewis Dot Diagrams Each dot represents one valence electron. In the dot diagram, the elements symbol represents the core of the atomthe nucleus plus all the inner electrons. Atomic Structure: Basic Concepts Topic 2 Topic 2

45 Relationship of the Periodic Table to Atomic Structure Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

46 Topic 2 Topic 2 Basic Concept Questions A. Chlorine Write a Lewis dot diagram for each of the following. Question 3 C. Potassium B. Calcium

47 Ionic radius When an atom gains or loses one or more electrons, it becomes an ion. Because an electron has a negative charge, gaining electrons produces a negatively charged ion, whereas losing electrons produces a positively charged ion. Periodic Table: Additional Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

48 Ionic radius As you might expect, the loss of electrons produces a positive ion with a radius that is smaller than that of the parent atom. The amount of energy necessary to remove an electron from a neutral atom in the gaseous state is called the ionization energy. Conversely, when an atom gains electrons, the resulting negative ion is larger than the parent atom. Periodic Table: Additional Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

49 Ionic radius Practically all of the elements to the left of group 4A of the periodic table commonly form positive ions. As with neutral atoms, positive ions become smaller moving across a period and become larger moving down through a group. Periodic Table: Additional Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

50 Ionic radius Most elements to the right of group 4A (with the exception of the noble gases in group 8A) form negative ions. These ions, although considerably larger than the positive ions to the left, also decrease in size moving across a period. Like the positive ions, the negative ions increase in size moving down through a group. Periodic Table: Additional Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

51 For each of the following pairs, predict which atom or ion is larger. Question 4 a. Mg, Mg 2+ b. S, S 2– c. Ca 2+, Ba 2+ d. Cl –, I – e. Na +, Al 3+ Topic 5 Topic 5 Additional Assessment Questions

52 For each of the following pairs, predict which atom has the higher first ionization energy. Question 5 a. Mg, Na b. S, O c. Ca, Ba d. Cl, I e. Na, Al f. Se, Br Topic 5 Topic 5 Additional Assessment Questions

53 Answers a. Mg, Na b. S, O c. Ca, Ba d. Cl, I Mg O Ca Cl e. Na, Al Al f. Se, BrBr Topic 5 Topic 5 Additional Assessment Questions

54 Physical States and Classes of the Elements Nonmetals occupy the upper-right- hand corner. Metalloids are located along the boundary between metals and nonmetals. The majority of the elements are metals. They occupy the entire left side and center of the periodic table. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

55 Physical States and Classes of the Elements Elements are classified as metals, metalloids, or nonmetals on the basis of their physical and chemical properties. Each of these classes has characteristic chemical and physical properties, so by knowing whether an element is a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid, you can make predictions about its behavior. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

56 Metals Metals are elements that have luster, conduct heat and electricity, and usually bend without breaking (malleability). The periodic table shows that most of the metals are not main group (representative) elements. All metals except mercury are solids at room temperature; in fact, most have extremely high melting points. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

57 Metals Some are less common but still important, such as titanium (Ti), manganese (Mn), and platinum (Pt). Some period 7 transition elements are synthetic and radioactive. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5 Many are commonplace, including chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag), and gold (Au).

58 Metals In the periodic table, two series of elements, atomic numbers and , are placed below the main body of the table. These elements are separated from the main table because putting them in their proper position would make the table very wide. The elements in these two series are known as the inner transition elements. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

59 Nonmetals Although the majority of the elements in the periodic table are metals, many nonmetals are abundant in nature The nonmetals oxygen and nitrogen make up 99 percent of Earths atmosphere. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

60 Nonmetals Carbon, another nonmetal, is found in more compounds than all the other elements combined. The many compounds of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen are important in a wide variety of applications. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

61 Nonmetals Most nonmetals dont conduct electricity, are much poorer conductors of heat than metals, and are brittle when solid. Many are gases at room temperature; those that are solids lack the luster of metals. Their melting points tend to be lower than those of metals. With the exception of carbon, nonmetals have five, six, seven, or eight valence electrons. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

62 Properties of Metals and Nonmetals Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

63 Metalloids Metalloids have some chemical and physical properties of metals and other properties of nonmetals. In the periodic table, the metalloids lie along the border between metals and nonmetals. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

64 Metalloids Topic 5 Topic 5 Silicon (Si) is probably the most well-known metalloid. Some metalloids such as silicon, germanium (Ge), and arsenic (As) are semiconductors.

65 Metalloids The ability of a semiconductor to conduct an electrical current can be increased by adding a small amount of certain other elements. Silicons semiconducting properties made the computer revolution possible. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5 A semiconductor is an element that does not conduct electricity as well as a metal, but does conduct slightly better than a nonmetal.

66 Semiconductors and Their Uses Your television, computer, handheld electronic games, and calculator are electrical devices that depend on silicon semiconductors. All have miniature electrical circuits that use silicons properties as a semiconductor. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5

67 Semiconductors and Their Uses You learned that metals generally are good conductors of electricity, nonmetals are poor conductors, and semiconductors fall in between the two extremes. Periodic Table: Basic Concepts Topic 5 Topic 5


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