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EXPLORATION & THE COLONIAL ERA CHAPTER 1. TIMELINE OF CHAPTER 1 1492: Columbus reaches Americas 1492: Columbus reaches Americas 1607:Jamestown is founded.

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Presentation on theme: "EXPLORATION & THE COLONIAL ERA CHAPTER 1. TIMELINE OF CHAPTER 1 1492: Columbus reaches Americas 1492: Columbus reaches Americas 1607:Jamestown is founded."— Presentation transcript:

1 EXPLORATION & THE COLONIAL ERA CHAPTER 1

2 TIMELINE OF CHAPTER : Columbus reaches Americas 1492: Columbus reaches Americas 1607:Jamestown is founded 1607:Jamestown is founded 1620: Pilgrims settle in Plymouth 1620: Pilgrims settle in Plymouth 1681: William Penn founds Pennsylvania 1681: William Penn founds Pennsylvania 1754: French & Indian War 1754: French & Indian War

3 THE AMERICAS, WEST AFRICA, & EUROPE Sec. 1

4 ANCIENT CULTURES IN AMERICA Hunters and Gatherers – Nomads Hunters and Gatherers – Nomads Some traveled to what Is now Mexico Some traveled to what Is now Mexico Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas flourish Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas flourish

5 NATIVE AMERICAN SOCIETIES OF 1400S SOUTHWEST NATIVES: SOUTHWEST NATIVES: Pueblos tribe lived in stone or adobe homes. Grew maize, beans, melons, and squash Dry, warm climate NORTHEAST NATIVES: NORTHEAST NATIVES: Iroquois tribe nomadic. Hunted/fished & used wild animals for clothing and food Harsh winters, cool climate

6 WEST AFRICAN SOCIETIES OF 1400S Benin Kongo Songhai

7 CULTURE OF WEST AFRICAN SOCIETIES OF 1400S Small villages w/strong family theme Small villages w/strong family theme Usually worshiped 1 god (Islam) Usually worshiped 1 god (Islam) Farming, herding, hunting, fishing, mining, and trading. Farming, herding, hunting, fishing, mining, and trading. Portuguese began European trade in enslaved W. Africans Portuguese began European trade in enslaved W. Africans

8 EUROPEAN SOCIETIES OF 1400S BIG 4 were Portugal, Spain, France, England. BIG 4 were Portugal, Spain, France, England. Merchants and Traders Merchants and Traders European Monarchs searched for new lands and trading routes(gold). European Monarchs searched for new lands and trading routes(gold). Improved sailing techniques and technology (caravel ship and compass) Improved sailing techniques and technology (caravel ship and compass) Christopher Columbus believed shorter route to Asia existed by going west across the Atlantic Ocean. Christopher Columbus believed shorter route to Asia existed by going west across the Atlantic Ocean.

9 SPANISH NORTH AMERICA SEC. 2

10 COLUMBUS CROSSES THE ATLANTIC In 1492, Columbus found the Caribbean islands. Thought he had landed on islands off Asia called Indies…. Therefore, called people Indians.

11 IMPACT ON 3 SOCIETIES

12 COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE What Americas Got: What Americas Got: Disease Disease Livestock Livestock Grains Grains Sugar Cane Sugar Cane Grapes Grapes Banana Banana Citrus Fruits Citrus Fruits Olive Olive Onion Onion Coffee Bean Coffee Bean What Europe Got: What Europe Got: Squash Squash Quinine Quinine Sweet Potato Sweet Potato Corn Corn Avocado Avocado Peanuts Peanuts Potato Potato Tomato Tomato Tobacco Tobacco Pumpkin Pumpkin Turkey Turkey Peppers Peppers Pineapple Pineapple Vanilla Vanilla Beans Beans Cacao Bean Cacao Bean

13 SPAIN CLAIMS A NEW EMPIRE

14 HERNANDO CORTEZ VS. AZTECS 1519, Cortez discovers city of Tenochtitlan. 1519, Cortez discovers city of Tenochtitlan. Conquers Aztec and leader Montezuma Conquers Aztec and leader Montezuma Forced them to mine for gold and silver Forced them to mine for gold and silver

15 SPANISH PATTERN OF CONQUEST Lived among native people & intermarried (mestizos) Lived among native people & intermarried (mestizos) Forced Native American to labor (encomienda system) Forced Native American to labor (encomienda system) Priests demanded end to encomienda system. Priests demanded end to encomienda system. 1542, Spanish monarch ended encomienda system and began using Africans. 1542, Spanish monarch ended encomienda system and began using Africans.

16 NEW SPAIN Spain conquers Mexico, part of Guatemala, parts of Central and South America and Caribbean. Spain conquers Mexico, part of Guatemala, parts of Central and South America and Caribbean. Spain also conquers Florida….1565, St. Augustine ….. Oldest European founded city in U.S. Spain also conquers Florida….1565, St. Augustine ….. Oldest European founded city in U.S.

17 SPAIN EXPLORES SOUTHWEST & WEST Establish New Mexico, Texas, and California Establish New Mexico, Texas, and California Set up Spanish Missions to convert people to Catholicism. Set up Spanish Missions to convert people to Catholicism.

18 RESISTANCE TO SPANISH Native Americans resisted by Native Americans resisted by Spain regained control but never completely because……….. Spain regained control but never completely because……….. England began to colonize after defeating the Spanish Armada in England began to colonize after defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588.

19 EARLY BRITISH COLONIES Sec. 3

20 ENGLISH SETTLE AT JAMESTOWN Jamestown, Va. Established by John Smith, and the Virginia Company Jamestown, Va. Established by John Smith, and the Virginia Company Wanted gold….neglected farming Wanted gold….neglected farming Smith took control, got help from Powhatan tribe Smith took control, got help from Powhatan tribe After almost failing, new colonists and discovery of Tobacco helped to thrive. After almost failing, new colonists and discovery of Tobacco helped to thrive.

21 INDENTURED SERVANTS Tobacco required supply of labor Tobacco required supply of labor Indentured servants came from England Indentured servants came from England Served 4-7 yrs. Served 4-7 yrs.

22 BRITISH COLONISTS CLASH WITH NATIVE AMERICANS Needed more space for crops and population Needed more space for crops and population Differed from Spanish….. British drove Natives away or defeated them. Differed from Spanish….. British drove Natives away or defeated them.

23 PURITANS CREATE A NEW ENGLAND Puritans separated (Separatists) from Church of England Puritans separated (Separatists) from Church of England 1 group of Separatists (Pilgrims) to America in group of Separatists (Pilgrims) to America in 1620 Pilgrims founded 2 nd permanent English colony called PLYMOUTH. Pilgrims founded 2 nd permanent English colony called PLYMOUTH. Mayflower Compact Mayflower Compact

24 MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY (lower red) EST Capital was Boston Capital was Boston Eventually incorporated Plymouth Colony Eventually incorporated Plymouth Colony Strict Puritan laws Strict Puritan laws

25 DISSENT IN PURITAN COMMUNITY Roger Williams was extreme Separatist Roger Williams was extreme Separatist He believed in purchasing land from Indians He believed in purchasing land from Indians Felt every person should have religious freedom Felt every person should have religious freedom Providence, R.I. resulted Providence, R.I. resulted

26 NATIVE AMERICANS RESIST COLONIAL EXPANSION As more colonies were settled, problems arose over land and religion

27 KING PHILIPS WAR King Philip was the Wampanong Chief, Metacom King Philip was the Wampanong Chief, Metacom He organized tribes to fight British. He organized tribes to fight British. Began in 1675 for 2 years Began in 1675 for 2 years Indians eventually worn down by food shortages, disease, and heavy casualties. Indians eventually worn down by food shortages, disease, and heavy casualties.

28 SETTLEMENT OF MIDDLE COLONIES Dutch went South of New England to form… New Amsterdam in Now NYC Opened door to all ethnic/religious groups Quakers settle in Pennsylvania Founded by William Penn Penn was against war and paid Indians for land.

29 ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES PROSPER Original 13 colonies over 125 yrs beginning in 1600s. Original 13 colonies over 125 yrs beginning in 1600s. Colonies existed primarily to benefit England Colonies existed primarily to benefit England

30 MERCHANTILISM & NAVIGATION ACTS Mercantilism: Practice of selling more goods than buying Mercantilism: Practice of selling more goods than buying Navigation Acts: Acts to benefit England by having control of all colonial trade. Navigation Acts: Acts to benefit England by having control of all colonial trade.

31 COLONIES COME OF AGE Sec. 4

32 Even though colonies prospered, many colonists began to ? British authority

33 PLANTATION ECONOMY ARISES IN THE SOUTH Single cash crop on plantations Single cash crop on plantations Most southerners were small farmers Most southerners were small farmers By 1750, more than 200,000 slaves in Southern colonies By 1750, more than 200,000 slaves in Southern colonies

34 MIDDLE PASSAGE Triangular trade = process in which good and enslaved people were exchanged across Atlantic Ocean. Triangular trade = process in which good and enslaved people were exchanged across Atlantic Ocean. Middle passage= Voyage that brought Africans to W. Indies & later N. America. Middle passage= Voyage that brought Africans to W. Indies & later N. America.

35

36 COMMERCE GROWS IN NORTH Port cities (philadelphia) Multiple crops (no need for slave labor) Ships & iron (1/3 of all British ships) (more iron than England)

37 THE ENLIGHTENMENT European ideas inspire Colonists Enlightenment= Philosophers valued reason & scientific methods. Enlightenment ideas spread to colonies by such men as Benjamin Franklin.

38 THE GREAT AWAKENING Series of religious revivals aimed at restoring intensity & dedication of early Puritan church

39 RELIGIOUS REVIVALS Jonathan Edwards Jonathan Edwards Preachers traveled village to village Preachers traveled village to village Some colonists abandoned old Puritan/Anglican congregations and established Baptists & Methodists Some colonists abandoned old Puritan/Anglican congregations and established Baptists & Methodists

40 EFFECTS OF GREAT AWAKENING & ENLIGHTENMENT Both Caused people to ? Traditional authority (British) Both Caused people to ? Traditional authority (British) Leads to American Revolution Leads to American Revolution

41 FRENCH & INDIAN WAR 1754 As French empire expanded, collided w/growing British empire.

42 Rivals for an Empire Most French colonists were single men Most French colonists were single men Fur traders or Catholic priests Fur traders or Catholic priests Better relationship w/Indians than British. Better relationship w/Indians than British.

43 WAR ERUPTS Fought over rich Ohio River Valley Fought over rich Ohio River Valley French est. Fort Duquesne despite already claimed by the British French est. Fort Duquesne despite already claimed by the British British militia (led by George Washington) sent to F.D. and defeated British militia (led by George Washington) sent to F.D. and defeated 2 nd attempt, Indians helped French defeat British again 2 nd attempt, Indians helped French defeat British again

44 George Washington During the French and Indian War

45 BRITAIN DEFEATS OLD ENEMY King George II sick of losing to French. Appoints William Pitt (1757) to run government

46 British In/French Out 1759, French lose Quebec 1763 War Ends Iroquois aid British

47 CHANGES FOR NATIVE AMERICANS French loss was a loss for Native Americans

48 PROCLAMATION OF 1763 British government set line along Appalachian Mountains to keep settlers and Native Americans separate. British government set line along Appalachian Mountains to keep settlers and Native Americans separate. Settlers ignored Proclamation. Settlers ignored Proclamation.


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