4ANCIENT CULTURES IN AMERICA Hunters and Gatherers – NomadsSome traveled to what Is now MexicoMayas, Aztecs, and Incas flourish
5NATIVE AMERICAN SOCIETIES OF 1400’S SOUTHWEST NATIVES:Pueblos tribe lived in stone or adobe homes.Grew maize, beans, melons, and squashDry, warm climateNORTHEAST NATIVES:Iroquois tribe nomadic.Hunted/fished & used wild animals for clothing and foodHarsh winters, cool climate
7CULTURE OF WEST AFRICAN SOCIETIES OF 1400’S Small villages w/strong family themeUsually worshiped 1 god (Islam)Farming, herding, hunting, fishing, mining, and trading.Portuguese began European trade in enslaved W. Africans
8EUROPEAN SOCIETIES OF 1400’S “BIG 4” were Portugal, Spain, France, England.Merchants and TradersEuropean Monarchs searched for new lands and trading routes(gold).Improved sailing techniques and technology (caravel ship and compass)Christopher Columbus believed shorter route to Asia existed by going west across the Atlantic Ocean.
12COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE What Americas Got: What Europe Got: Disease LivestockGrainsSugar CaneGrapesBananaCitrus FruitsOliveOnionCoffee BeanWhat Europe Got:SquashQuinineSweet PotatoCornAvocadoPeanutsPotatoTomatoTobaccoPumpkinTurkeyPeppersPineappleVanillaBeansCacao Bean
14HERNANDO CORTEZ VS. AZTECS 1519, Cortez discovers city of Tenochtitlan.Conquers Aztec and leader MontezumaForced them to mine for gold and silver
15SPANISH PATTERN OF CONQUEST Lived among native people & intermarried (mestizos)Forced Native American to labor (encomienda system)Priests demanded end to encomienda system.1542, Spanish monarch ended encomienda system and began using Africans.
16NEW SPAINSpain conquers Mexico, part of Guatemala, parts of Central and South America and Caribbean.Spain also conquers Florida….1565, St. Augustine ….. Oldest European founded city in U.S.
17SPAIN EXPLORES SOUTHWEST & WEST Establish New Mexico, Texas, and CaliforniaSet up Spanish Missions to convert people to Catholicism.
18RESISTANCE TO SPANISH Native Americans resisted by 1680. Spain regained control but never completely because………..England began to colonize after defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588.
20ENGLISH SETTLE AT JAMESTOWN Jamestown, Va. Established by John Smith, and the Virginia CompanyWanted gold….neglected farmingSmith took control , got help from Powhatan tribeAfter almost failing, new colonists and discovery of Tobacco helped to thrive.
21INDENTURED SERVANTS Tobacco required supply of labor Indentured servants came from EnglandServed 4-7 yrs.
22BRITISH COLONISTS CLASH WITH NATIVE AMERICANS Needed more space for crops and populationDiffered from Spanish….. British drove Natives away or defeated them.
23PURITANS CREATE A “NEW ENGLAND” Puritans separated (“Separatists”) from Church of England1 group of Separatists (Pilgrims) to America in 1620Pilgrims founded 2nd permanent English colony called PLYMOUTH.Mayflower Compact
24MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY (lower red) EST. 1630 Capital was BostonEventually incorporated Plymouth ColonyStrict Puritan laws
25DISSENT IN PURITAN COMMUNITY Roger Williams was extreme SeparatistHe believed in purchasing land from IndiansFelt every person should have religious freedomProvidence, R.I. resulted
26NATIVE AMERICANS RESIST COLONIAL EXPANSION As more colonies were settled, problems arose over land and religion
27KING PHILIPS WAR King Philip was the Wampanong Chief, Metacom He organized tribes to fight British.Began in 1675 for 2 yearsIndians eventually worn down by food shortages, disease, and heavy casualties.
28SETTLEMENT OF MIDDLE COLONIES Dutch went South of New England to form…“New Amsterdam” in Now NYCOpened door to all ethnic/religious groupsQuakers settle in PennsylvaniaFounded by William PennPenn was against war and paid Indians for land.
29ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES PROSPER Original 13 colonies over 125 yrs beginning in 1600’s.Colonies existed primarily to benefit England
30MERCHANTILISM & NAVIGATION ACTS Mercantilism: Practice of selling more goods than buyingNavigation Acts: Acts to benefit England by having control of all colonial trade.
37THE ENLIGHTENMENT European ideas inspire Colonists Enlightenment= Philosophers valued reason & scientific methods.Enlightenment ideas spread to colonies by such men as Benjamin Franklin.
38THE GREAT AWAKENINGSeries of religious revivals aimed at restoring intensity & dedication of early Puritan church
39RELIGIOUS REVIVALS Jonathan Edwards Preachers traveled village to villageSome colonists abandoned old Puritan/Anglican congregations and established Baptists & Methodists
40EFFECTS OF GREAT AWAKENING & ENLIGHTENMENT Both Caused people to ? Traditional authority (British)Leads to American Revolution
41As French empire expanded, collided w/growing British empire. FRENCH & INDIAN WAR 1754As French empire expanded, collided w/growing British empire.
42Rivals for an Empire Most French colonists were single men Fur traders or Catholic priestsBetter relationship w/Indians than British.
43WAR ERUPTS Fought over rich Ohio River Valley French est. Fort Duquesne despite already claimed by the BritishBritish militia (led by George Washington) sent to F.D. and defeated2nd attempt, Indians helped French defeat British again
44George Washington During the French and Indian War
45BRITAIN DEFEATS OLD ENEMY King George II sick of losing to French. Appoints William Pitt (1757) to run government