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EXPLORATION & THE COLONIAL ERA

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Presentation on theme: "EXPLORATION & THE COLONIAL ERA"— Presentation transcript:

1 EXPLORATION & THE COLONIAL ERA
CHAPTER 1

2 TIMELINE OF CHAPTER 1 1492: Columbus reaches Americas
1607:Jamestown is founded 1620: “Pilgrims” settle in Plymouth 1681: William Penn founds Pennsylvania 1754: French & Indian War

3 THE AMERICAS, WEST AFRICA, & EUROPE
Sec. 1

4 ANCIENT CULTURES IN AMERICA
Hunters and Gatherers – Nomads Some traveled to what Is now Mexico Mayas, Aztecs, and Incas flourish

5 NATIVE AMERICAN SOCIETIES OF 1400’S
SOUTHWEST NATIVES: Pueblos tribe lived in stone or adobe homes. Grew maize, beans, melons, and squash Dry, warm climate NORTHEAST NATIVES: Iroquois tribe nomadic. Hunted/fished & used wild animals for clothing and food Harsh winters, cool climate

6 WEST AFRICAN SOCIETIES OF 1400’S

7 CULTURE OF WEST AFRICAN SOCIETIES OF 1400’S
Small villages w/strong family theme Usually worshiped 1 god (Islam) Farming, herding, hunting, fishing, mining, and trading. Portuguese began European trade in enslaved W. Africans

8 EUROPEAN SOCIETIES OF 1400’S
“BIG 4” were Portugal, Spain, France, England. Merchants and Traders European Monarchs searched for new lands and trading routes(gold). Improved sailing techniques and technology (caravel ship and compass) Christopher Columbus believed shorter route to Asia existed by going west across the Atlantic Ocean.

9 SPANISH NORTH AMERICA SEC. 2

10 COLUMBUS CROSSES THE ATLANTIC
In 1492, Columbus found the Caribbean islands. Thought he had landed on islands off Asia called “Indies”…. Therefore, called people “Indians”.

11 IMPACT ON 3 SOCIETIES

12 COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE What Americas Got: What Europe Got: Disease
Livestock Grains Sugar Cane Grapes Banana Citrus Fruits Olive Onion Coffee Bean What Europe Got: Squash Quinine Sweet Potato Corn Avocado Peanuts Potato Tomato Tobacco Pumpkin Turkey Peppers Pineapple Vanilla Beans Cacao Bean

13 SPAIN CLAIMS A NEW EMPIRE

14 HERNANDO CORTEZ VS. AZTECS
1519, Cortez discovers city of Tenochtitlan. Conquers Aztec and leader Montezuma Forced them to mine for gold and silver

15 SPANISH PATTERN OF CONQUEST
Lived among native people & intermarried (mestizos) Forced Native American to labor (encomienda system) Priests demanded end to encomienda system. 1542, Spanish monarch ended encomienda system and began using Africans.

16 NEW SPAIN Spain conquers Mexico, part of Guatemala, parts of Central and South America and Caribbean. Spain also conquers Florida….1565, St. Augustine ….. Oldest European founded city in U.S.

17 SPAIN EXPLORES SOUTHWEST & WEST
Establish New Mexico, Texas, and California Set up Spanish Missions to convert people to Catholicism.

18 RESISTANCE TO SPANISH Native Americans resisted by 1680.
Spain regained control but never completely because……….. England began to colonize after defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588.

19 EARLY BRITISH COLONIES Sec. 3

20 ENGLISH SETTLE AT JAMESTOWN
Jamestown, Va. Established by John Smith, and the Virginia Company Wanted gold….neglected farming Smith took control , got help from Powhatan tribe After almost failing, new colonists and discovery of Tobacco helped to thrive.

21 INDENTURED SERVANTS Tobacco required supply of labor
Indentured servants came from England Served 4-7 yrs.

22 BRITISH COLONISTS CLASH WITH NATIVE AMERICANS
Needed more space for crops and population Differed from Spanish….. British drove Natives away or defeated them.

23 PURITANS CREATE A “NEW ENGLAND”
Puritans separated (“Separatists”) from Church of England 1 group of Separatists (Pilgrims) to America in 1620 Pilgrims founded 2nd permanent English colony called PLYMOUTH. Mayflower Compact

24 MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY (lower red) EST. 1630
Capital was Boston Eventually incorporated Plymouth Colony Strict Puritan laws

25 DISSENT IN PURITAN COMMUNITY
Roger Williams was extreme Separatist He believed in purchasing land from Indians Felt every person should have religious freedom Providence, R.I. resulted

26 NATIVE AMERICANS RESIST COLONIAL EXPANSION
As more colonies were settled, problems arose over land and religion

27 KING PHILIPS WAR King Philip was the Wampanong Chief, Metacom
He organized tribes to fight British. Began in 1675 for 2 years Indians eventually worn down by food shortages, disease, and heavy casualties.

28 SETTLEMENT OF MIDDLE COLONIES
Dutch went South of New England to form… “New Amsterdam” in Now NYC Opened door to all ethnic/religious groups Quakers settle in Pennsylvania Founded by William Penn Penn was against war and paid Indians for land.

29 ENGLAND & ITS COLONIES PROSPER
Original 13 colonies over 125 yrs beginning in 1600’s. Colonies existed primarily to benefit England

30 MERCHANTILISM & NAVIGATION ACTS
Mercantilism: Practice of selling more goods than buying Navigation Acts: Acts to benefit England by having control of all colonial trade.

31 COLONIES COME OF AGE Sec. 4

32 Even though colonies prospered, many colonists began to
Even though colonies prospered, many colonists began to ? British authority

33 PLANTATION ECONOMY ARISES IN THE SOUTH
Single cash crop on plantations Most southerners were small farmers By 1750, more than 200,000 slaves in Southern colonies

34 MIDDLE PASSAGE Triangular trade = process in which good and enslaved people were exchanged across Atlantic Ocean. Middle passage= Voyage that brought Africans to W. Indies & later N. America.

35

36 COMMERCE GROWS IN NORTH

37 THE ENLIGHTENMENT European ideas inspire Colonists
Enlightenment= Philosophers valued reason & scientific methods. Enlightenment ideas spread to colonies by such men as Benjamin Franklin.

38 THE GREAT AWAKENING Series of religious revivals aimed at restoring intensity & dedication of early Puritan church

39 RELIGIOUS REVIVALS Jonathan Edwards
Preachers traveled village to village Some colonists abandoned old Puritan/Anglican congregations and established Baptists & Methodists

40 EFFECTS OF GREAT AWAKENING & ENLIGHTENMENT
Both Caused people to ? Traditional authority (British) Leads to American Revolution

41 As French empire expanded, collided w/growing British empire.
FRENCH & INDIAN WAR 1754 As French empire expanded, collided w/growing British empire.

42 Rivals for an Empire Most French colonists were single men
Fur traders or Catholic priests Better relationship w/Indians than British.

43 WAR ERUPTS Fought over rich Ohio River Valley
French est. Fort Duquesne despite already claimed by the British British militia (led by George Washington) sent to F.D. and defeated 2nd attempt, Indians helped French defeat British again

44 George Washington During the French and Indian War

45 BRITAIN DEFEATS OLD ENEMY
King George II sick of losing to French. Appoints William Pitt (1757) to run government

46 British In/French Out

47 CHANGES FOR NATIVE AMERICANS
French loss was a loss for Native Americans

48 PROCLAMATION OF 1763 British government set line along Appalachian Mountains to keep settlers and Native Americans separate. Settlers ignored Proclamation.


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