219c Conservatism Conservatism arose in reaction to liberalism for those who were frightened by the violence unleashed by the French Revolution.Early conservatism was allied to the restored monarchical governments of Austria, Prussia, France, and England.Support for conservatism:Came from the traditional ruling class.Also supported by the peasants.
3Characteristics of Conservatism Stability & longevity, not progress and change, mark a good society.The only legitimate sources of political authority were God and history.They rejected the “social contract” theory.Metternich.
4John Locke Contract theory of government. Regarded the state as a human construction, established by an original contract.Limited, constitutional government.Civil society of free men, equal under the rule of law, bound together by no common purpose but sharing respect for each other’s rights.natural rights.Links private property with individual liberty.
5Characteristics Demanded rep gov’t Equality before the law Freedom of the pressSpeechAssemblyArbitrary assemblyrights guaranteed by written constitutionfavored republican form of gov’tproperty requirementsidentified with Middle classLiberals hoped to achieve a free society governed by a constitution that valued individual rights.
6Radical Drastic change to extend democracy to all people Ideals of the French revolution
7NationalismNationalism- loyalty to people with common culture and historyNation-State- ind. Gov’t and defended territory
9Independence Movements in the Balkans Wallachia & MoldaviaIndependence Movements in the Balkans
10From the Ottoman Empire Greek RevolutionFrom the Ottoman Empire
11Greece on the Ruins of Missilonghi by Delacroix, 1827 Greek IndependencePopular w/ EuropeansWhy?Supported by FR, Eng Rus1830 Greece declared an independent nation [Treaty of London].Sig 3/5 of concert of Europe supported a nationalistic movementGreece on the Ruins of Missilonghi by Delacroix, 1827
14Belgian Independence, 1830 The first to follow the lead of France. There had been very little popular agitation for Belgian nationalism before seldom had nationalism arisen so suddenly.Wide cultural differences:North Dutch Protestant seafarers and traders.South French Catholic farmers and individual workers.
15France: The “Restoration” Era (1815-1830) France emerged from the chaos of its revolutionary period as the most liberal large state in Europe.Louis XVIII governed France as a Constitutional monarch.He agreed to observe the “Charter” or Constitution of the Restoration period.Limited royal power.Granted legislative power.Protected civil rights.Upheld the Napoleon Code.Louis XVIII (r )
16The Count of Artois, the future King Charles X (r. 1824-1830) The “Ultras”France was divided by those who had accepted the ideals of the Fr. Revolution and those who didn’t.The Count of Artois was the leader of the “Ultra-Royalists”Want a return to Absolute monarchyThe Count of Artois, the future King Charles X (r )
17France: Conservative Backlash 1824 L 18 Kicks the bucketCharles X New King
18King Charles X of France (r. 1824-1830) 1824 L 18 Kicks the bucketCharles X New KingLimited royal power.Granted
19King Charles X of France (r. 1824-1830) 1830 Election brought in another liberal majority.July OrdinancesHe dissolved the entire parliament.Strict censorship imposed.Changed the voting laws so that the government in the future could be assured of a conservative victory.
20To the Barracades Revolution, Again!! Workers, students and some of the middle class call for a Republic!
21Louis Philippe The “Citizen King” The Duke of Orleans.Relative of the Bourbons, but had stayed clear of the Ultras.Lead a thoroughly bourgeois life.His Program:Property qualifications reduced enough to double eligible voters.Press censorship abolished.The Fr Revolution’s tricolor replaced the Bourbon flag.The government was now under the control of the wealthy middle class.(r )
22Louis Philippe The “Citizen King” His government ignored the needs and demands of the workers in the cities.They were seen as another nuisance -disorder.July, 1832 an uprising in Paris was put down by force and 800 were killed or wounded.A caricature of Louis Philippe
24The Results of the 1820s-1830 Revolutions? The Concert of Europe provided for a recovery of Europe after the long years of Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.The conservatives did NOT reverse ALL of the reforms put in place by the French Revolution.Liberalism would challenge the conservative plan for European peace and law and order.The successful revolutions had benefited the middle class the workers, who had done so much of the rioting and fighting, were left with empty hands!Therefore, these revolutions left much unfinished & a seething, unsatisfied working class.
26Prince Louis: Not Too Steady! Victor Hugo & Miguel de Girardin try to raise Prince Louis upon a shield. [Honoré Damier’s lithograph published in Charavari, December 11, 1848].
27“The Springtime of Peoples” The Revolutions Of 1848“The Springtime of Peoples”
28Pre-1848 Tensions: Long-Term IndustrializationEconomic challenges to rulers.Rapid urbanization.Challenges to the artisan class.- mass productionIdeological ChallengesLiberalism, nationalism, democracy, socialism.Romanticism
29Pre-1848 Tensions: Short-Term Agricultural CrisesPoor cereal harvestsprices rose 60% in one year.Potato blight IrelandPrices rose 135% for food in one year!Financial CrisesInvestment bubbles burst railways, iron, coal.Unemployment increased rapidly [esp. among the artisan class].Working & middle classes are now joined in misery as are the urban and agricultural peasantry!
301815: We have redrawn Europe’s map for eternity. Prince Metternich1815: We have redrawn Europe’s map for eternity.
32The February Revolution Reform Banquets used to protest against the King.Paris Banquet banned.Troops open fire on peaceful protestors.Barricades erected; looting.National Guard [politically disenfranchised] defects to the radicals.King Louis Philippe loses control of Paris and abdicates on February 24.
33The “June Days” Worker groups in Paris rose up in insurrection. They said that the government had betrayed the revolution.Workers wanted a redistribution of wealth.Barricades in the streets.Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables was based on this event.
35The 2nd French Republic (1848-1852) .Nov., 1848 a new constitution provided for:An elected President.A one-house legislature.The Republic by Jean-Leon Gerome
36President Louis Napoleon The December election:The “law and order” candidate, Louis Napoleon BonaparteThis was a big shift in middle class opinion to the right!The New President:Purged the govt. of all radical officials.Replaced them with ultra-conservative and monarchists.Disbanded the National Assembly and held new elections.Represented himself as a “Man of the People.”His government regularly used forced against dissenters.
371851 Coup d’EtatPresident Louis Napoleon declared a hereditary 2nd French Empire.A national plebiscite confirmed this.
40Therefore, the Empire was vulnerable to revolutionary challenges. Ferdinand I ( )The nature of the Austrian Empire:Very conservative monarchy [liberal institutions didn’t exist].Corrupt and inefficient.Competition with an increasingly powerful Prussia.Therefore, the Empire was vulnerable to revolutionary challenges.
42Vienna, 1848: The Liberal Revolution The “February Revolution” in France triggered a rebellion for liberal reforms.March 13 rioting broke out in Vienna.The Austrian Empire collapsed.Metternich fled.Constituent Assembly met.The revolution began to wane.The revolutionary government failed to govern effectively.
43The New Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I [r. 1848-1916]
45Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894) Hungarian revolutionary leader. Austrians invade.Hungarian armies drove within sight of Vienna!Slavic minorities resisted Magyar invasion & the Hungarian army withdrew.Austrian & Russian armies defeated the Hungarian army.Hungary would have to wait until 1866 for autonomy.
46Bohemia, 1848 Bohemia was split between Pan-Slavs & Pan-Germans. The Austrian military ultimately attacked Prague, occupied Bohemia & crushed the rebellion.The Prague Barricades
47The Decline of the Ottoman Empire Evident after the Greek Revolution in 1821
48The Ottoman Empire -- Late 19c “The Sicker Man of Europe”
49The Crimean WarCausesRussia vs. Ottoman EmpireThe Dardanelles
51Crimean WarBritish and French ill-founded fear of Russian strength: “Russia is the strongest state in Europe!”Illusion of Russian expansionism “Russia plans to carve up Turkey”Ill-founded belief the Turkey was collapsing
55Modernization of Russia 1850s Russia was poor agricultural society90% of the people lived off the landSerfdom was still the basic institution
56Alexander II [r. 1855-1881] Defeat in the Crimean War. Reform from aboveEmancipation of the Russian serfs [ ].1/2 land to nobles/ peasantsCommunally held49 years to pay
57IndustrializationUntil the 20th century Russia made great progress in industry not politicsAfter 1860 the govt. encouraged and subsidized railway companiesBy 1880 Russia had a well developed rail-equipment industryIndustries grew in the suburbs of Moscow and St. PetersburgIndustrial success strengthened the military as the country expanded south and east
58Alexander III [r. 1881-1894] Reactionary. “Russification” program. Jews forced migration to the Pale-pograms
59Austrian Empire Many ethnic groups Hungarian-magyar Demand rights And Emperor gives inResult Austria-Hungary