Presentation on theme: "19 c Conservatism 4 Conservatism arose in reaction to liberalism 4 for those who were frightened by the violence unleashed by the French Revolution. 4."— Presentation transcript:
19 c Conservatism 4 Conservatism arose in reaction to liberalism 4 for those who were frightened by the violence unleashed by the French Revolution. 4 Early conservatism was allied to the restored monarchical governments of Austria, Prussia, France, and England. 4 Support for conservatism: Came from the traditional ruling class. Also supported by the peasants.
Characteristics of Conservatism 4 Stability & longevity, not progress and change, mark a good society. 4 The only legitimate sources of political authority were God and history. They rejected the social contract theory. Metternich.
John Locke Contract theory of government. Regarded the state as a human construction, established by an original contract. Limited, constitutional government. Civil society of free men, equal under the rule of law, bound together by no common purpose but sharing respect for each others rights. natural rights. Links private property with individual liberty.
Characteristics Demanded rep govt Equality before the law Freedom of the press Speech Assembly Arbitrary assembly rights guaranteed by written constitution favored republican form of govt property requirements identified with Middle class Liberals hoped to achieve a free society governed by a constitution that valued individual rights.
Radical Drastic change to extend democracy to all people Ideals of the French revolution
Nationalism Nationalism- loyalty to people with common culture and history Nation-State- ind. Govt and defended territory
Revolutionary Movements in the Early 19 c p11
Independence Movements in the Balkans Wallachia & Moldavia
Greek Revolution From the Ottoman Empire Greek Revolution From the Ottoman Empire
Greek Independence 4 Popular w/ Europeans Why? 4 Supported by FR, Eng Rus Greece declared an independent nation [Treaty of London]. 4 Sig 3/5 of concert of Europe supported a nationalistic movement Greece on the Ruins of Missilonghi by Delacroix, 1827
Lord Byron – Martyr in Greece
The 1830 Revolutions
Belgian Independence, The first to follow the lead of France. 4 There had been very little popular agitation for Belgian nationalism before 1830 seldom had nationalism arisen so suddenly. 4 Wide cultural differences: North Dutch Protestant seafarers and traders. South French Catholic farmers and individual workers.
France: The Restoration Era ( ) 4 France emerged from the chaos of its revolutionary period as the most liberal large state in Europe. 4 Louis XVIII governed France as a Constitutional monarch. He agreed to observe the 1814 Charter or Constitution of the Restoration period. Limited royal power. Granted legislative power. Protected civil rights. Upheld the Napoleon Code. Louis XVIII (r )
The Ultras 4 France was divided by those who had accepted the ideals of the Fr. Revolution and those who didnt. 4 The Count of Artois was the leader of the Ultra-Royalists 4 Want a return to Absolute monarchy The Count of Artois, the future King Charles X (r )
France: Conservative Backlash 1824 L 18 Kicks the bucket Charles X New King
King Charles X of France (r ) Limited royal power. Granted 1824 L 18 Kicks the bucket Charles X New King
Election brought in another liberal majority. 4 July Ordinances He dissolved the entire parliament. Strict censorship imposed. Changed the voting laws so that the government in the future could be assured of a conservative victory. King Charles X of France (r )
To the Barracades Revolution, Again!! Workers, students and some of the middle class call for a Republic!
Louis Philippe The Citizen King 4 The Duke of Orleans. 4 Relative of the Bourbons, but had stayed clear of the Ultras. 4 Lead a thoroughly bourgeois life. 4 His Program: Property qualifications reduced enough to double eligible voters. Press censorship abolished. The Fr Revolutions tricolor replaced the Bourbon flag. 4 The government was now under the control of the wealthy middle class. (r )
Louis Philippe The Citizen King 4 His government ignored the needs and demands of the workers in the cities. They were seen as another nuisance -disorder. 4 July, 1832 an uprising in Paris was put down by force and 800 were killed or wounded. A caricature of Louis Philippe
Europe in 1830
The Results of the 1820s-1830 Revolutions? 1.The Concert of Europe provided for a recovery of Europe after the long years of Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. 2.The conservatives did NOT reverse ALL of the reforms put in place by the French Revolution. 3.Liberalism would challenge the conservative plan for European peace and law and order. 4.The successful revolutions had benefited the middle class the workers, who had done so much of the rioting and fighting, were left with empty hands! 5.Therefore, these revolutions left much unfinished & a seething, unsatisfied working class.
Louis Philippe, The Pear, 1848
Prince Louis : Not Too Steady! Victor Hugo & Miguel de Girardin try to raise Prince Louis upon a shield. [Honoré Damiers lithograph published in Charavari, December 11, 1848].
The Revolutions Of 1848 The Springtime of Peoples
Pre Tensions: Long - Term Industrialization Economic challenges to rulers. Rapid urbanization. Challenges to the artisan class.- mass production Ideological Challenges Liberalism, nationalism, democracy, socialism. Romanticism
Pre Tensions: Short - Term Agricultural Crises Poor cereal harvests prices rose 60% in one year. Potato blight Ireland Prices rose 135% for food in one year! Financial Crises Investment bubbles burst railways, iron, coal. Unemployment increased rapidly [esp. among the artisan class]. Working & middle classes are now joined in misery as are the urban and agricultural peasantry!
Prince Metternich 1815: We have redrawn Europes map for eternity.
The February Revolution Reform Banquets used to protest against the King. Paris Banquet banned. Troops open fire on peaceful protestors. Barricades erected; looting. National Guard [politically disenfranchised] defects to the radicals. King Louis Philippe loses control of Paris and abdicates on February 24.
The June Days Worker groups in Paris rose up in insurrection. They said that the government had betrayed the revolution. Workers wanted a redistribution of wealth. Barricades in the streets. Victor Hugos Les Miserables was based on this event.
Paris: To the Barricades Again!
The 2 nd French Republic ( ). Nov., 1848 a new constitution provided for: An elected President. A one-house legislature. The Republic by Jean-Leon Gerome
President Louis Napoleon The December election: The law and order candidate, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte This was a big shift in middle class opinion to the right! The New President: Purged the govt. of all radical officials. Replaced them with ultra-conservative and monarchists. Disbanded the National Assembly and held new elections. Represented himself as a Man of the People. His government regularly used forced against dissenters.
1851 Coup dEtat President Louis Napoleon declared a hereditary 2 nd French Empire. A national plebiscite confirmed this.
The HAPSBURG EMPIRE
The Austrian Empire: 1830
The nature of the Austrian Empire: Very conservative monarchy [liberal institutions didnt exist]. Corrupt and inefficient. Competition with an increasingly powerful Prussia. Ferdinand I ( ) Therefore, the Empire was vulnerable to revolutionary challenges.
Austrian Students Form a Militia
The February Revolution in France triggered a rebellion for liberal reforms. March 13 rioting broke out in Vienna. The Austrian Empire collapsed. Metternich fled. Constituent Assembly met. The revolution began to wane. The revolutionary government failed to govern effectively. Vienna, 1848 : The Liberal Revolution
The New Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I [ r ]
The Hungarian Revolution
Lajos Kossuth ( ) Hungarian revolutionary leader. Austrians invade. Hungarian armies drove within sight of Vienna! Slavic minorities resisted Magyar invasion & the Hungarian army withdrew. Austrian & Russian armies defeated the Hungarian army. Hungary would have to wait until 1866 for autonomy.
Bohemia, 1848 Bohemia was split between Pan-Slavs & Pan-Germans. The Austrian military ultimately attacked Prague, occupied Bohemia & crushed the rebellion. The Prague Barricades
The Decline of the Ottoman Empire Evident after the Greek Revolution in 1821
The Ottoman Empire -- Late 19 c The Sicker Man of Europe
The Crimean War Causes Russia vs. Ottoman Empire The Dardanelles
British and French ill-founded fear of Russian strength: Russia is the strongest state in Europe! Illusion of Russian expansionism Russia plans to carve up Turkey Ill-founded belief the Turkey was collapsing
Russian Imperial Flag
Nicholas I [r ] Autocracy! Orthodoxy! Nationalism!
Modernization of Russia 1850s Russia was poor agricultural society 90% of the people lived off the land Serfdom was still the basic institution
Alexander II [r ] Defeat in the Crimean War. Reform from above Emancipation of the Russian serfs [ ]. 1/2 land to nobles/ peasants Communally held 49 years to pay
Industrialization Until the 20th century Russia made great progress in industry not politics After 1860 the govt. encouraged and subsidized railway companies By 1880 Russia had a well developed rail-equipment industry Industries grew in the suburbs of Moscow and St. Petersburg Industrial success strengthened the military as the country expanded south and east
Alexander III [r ] Reactionary. Russification program. Jews forced migration to the Pale- pograms
Austrian Empire Many ethnic groups Hungarian-magyar Demand rights And Emperor gives in Result Austria-Hungary
Forced Migration of Russias Jews
Italian Unification Unite Italy and throw out the Austrians Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi Was there another way?
Italian Unification Count Camillo Cavour ( ) Prime Minister of Sardinia (Northern Italy) Believed in Italian unification, but not by forming a republic
Count Camillo Cavour
Italian Unification Cavour allies Sardinia with France Cavour works with Garibaldi to take over southern Italy
Garibaldi and Red Shirts
Italian Unification Cavour dies in 1861 Italy united under Sardinian monarchy by 1870
Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel
German Unification Frankfurt Assembly fails to unite German states into a democratic state in 1849 German states already linked economically
German Unification Otto von Bismarck ( ) Junker (Prussian nobleman) Chancellor of Prussia Realpolitik
German Unification Bismarck uses unification issue to strengthen Prussia Step One: take out Austria Danish War
German Unification Bismarck picks a fight with Austria Seven Weeks War ends with Austrian defeat Prussia wins rivalry with Austria
German Unification Step Two: Unite Southern German States and take out France Vacancy on Spanish throne Provoke France into a war Franco-Prussian War, 1870
Franco - Prussian War
German Unification German Empire declared Balance of power in Europe altered