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19c European Liberalism.

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Presentation on theme: "19c European Liberalism."— Presentation transcript:

1 19c European Liberalism

2 19c Conservatism Conservatism arose in reaction to liberalism
for those who were frightened by the violence unleashed by the French Revolution. Early conservatism was allied to the restored monarchical governments of Austria, Prussia, France, and England. Support for conservatism: Came from the traditional ruling class. Also supported by the peasants.

3 Characteristics of Conservatism
Stability & longevity, not progress and change, mark a good society. The only legitimate sources of political authority were God and history. They rejected the “social contract” theory. Metternich .

4 John Locke Contract theory of government.
Regarded the state as a human construction, established by an original contract. Limited, constitutional government. Civil society of free men, equal under the rule of law, bound together by no common purpose but sharing respect for each other’s rights. natural rights. Links private property with individual liberty.

5 Characteristics Demanded rep gov’t Equality before the law
Freedom of the press Speech Assembly Arbitrary assembly rights guaranteed by written constitution favored republican form of gov’t property requirements identified with Middle class Liberals hoped to achieve a free society governed by a constitution that valued individual rights.

6 Radical Drastic change to extend democracy to all people
Ideals of the French revolution

7 Nationalism Nationalism- loyalty to people with common culture and history Nation-State- ind. Gov’t and defended territory

8 Revolutionary Movements in the Early 19c p11

9 Independence Movements in the Balkans
Wallachia & Moldavia Independence Movements in the Balkans

10 From the Ottoman Empire
Greek Revolution From the Ottoman Empire

11 Greece on the Ruins of Missilonghi by Delacroix, 1827
Greek Independence Popular w/ Europeans Why? Supported by FR, Eng Rus 1830  Greece declared an independent nation [Treaty of London]. Sig 3/5 of concert of Europe supported a nationalistic movement Greece on the Ruins of Missilonghi by Delacroix, 1827

12 Lord Byron – Martyr in Greece

13 The 1830 Revolutions

14 Belgian Independence, 1830 The first to follow the lead of France.
There had been very little popular agitation for Belgian nationalism before  seldom had nationalism arisen so suddenly. Wide cultural differences: North  Dutch  Protestant  seafarers and traders. South  French  Catholic  farmers and individual workers.

15 France: The “Restoration” Era (1815-1830)
France emerged from the chaos of its revolutionary period as the most liberal large state in Europe. Louis XVIII governed France as a Constitutional monarch. He agreed to observe the “Charter” or Constitution of the Restoration period. Limited royal power. Granted legislative power. Protected civil rights. Upheld the Napoleon Code. Louis XVIII (r )

16 The Count of Artois, the future King Charles X (r. 1824-1830)
The “Ultras” France was divided by those who had accepted the ideals of the Fr. Revolution and those who didn’t. The Count of Artois was the leader of the “Ultra-Royalists” Want a return to Absolute monarchy The Count of Artois, the future King Charles X (r )

17 France: Conservative Backlash
1824 L 18 Kicks the bucket Charles X New King

18 King Charles X of France (r. 1824-1830)
1824 L 18 Kicks the bucket Charles X New King Limited royal power. Granted

19 King Charles X of France (r. 1824-1830)
1830 Election brought in another liberal majority. July Ordinances He dissolved the entire parliament. Strict censorship imposed. Changed the voting laws so that the government in the future could be assured of a conservative victory.

20 To the Barracades  Revolution, Again!!
Workers, students and some of the middle class call for a Republic!

21 Louis Philippe  The “Citizen King”
The Duke of Orleans. Relative of the Bourbons, but had stayed clear of the Ultras. Lead a thoroughly bourgeois life. His Program: Property qualifications reduced enough to double eligible voters. Press censorship abolished. The Fr Revolution’s tricolor replaced the Bourbon flag. The government was now under the control of the wealthy middle class. (r )

22 Louis Philippe  The “Citizen King”
His government ignored the needs and demands of the workers in the cities. They were seen as another nuisance -disorder. July, 1832  an uprising in Paris was put down by force and 800 were killed or wounded. A caricature of Louis Philippe

23 Europe in 1830

24 The Results of the 1820s-1830 Revolutions?
The Concert of Europe provided for a recovery of Europe after the long years of Revolution and Napoleonic Wars. The conservatives did NOT reverse ALL of the reforms put in place by the French Revolution. Liberalism would challenge the conservative plan for European peace and law and order. The successful revolutions had benefited the middle class  the workers, who had done so much of the rioting and fighting, were left with empty hands! Therefore, these revolutions left much unfinished & a seething, unsatisfied working class.

25 Louis Philippe, “The Pear,” 1848

26 Prince Louis: Not Too Steady!
Victor Hugo & Miguel de Girardin try to raise Prince Louis upon a shield. [Honoré Damier’s lithograph published in Charavari, December 11, 1848].

27 “The Springtime of Peoples”
The Revolutions Of 1848 “The Springtime of Peoples”

28 Pre-1848 Tensions: Long-Term
Industrialization Economic challenges to rulers. Rapid urbanization. Challenges to the artisan class.- mass production Ideological Challenges Liberalism, nationalism, democracy, socialism. Romanticism

29 Pre-1848 Tensions: Short-Term
Agricultural Crises Poor cereal harvests prices rose 60% in one year. Potato blight  Ireland Prices rose 135% for food in one year! Financial Crises Investment bubbles burst  railways, iron, coal. Unemployment increased rapidly [esp. among the artisan class]. Working & middle classes are now joined in misery as are the urban and agricultural peasantry!

30 1815: We have redrawn Europe’s map for eternity.
Prince Metternich 1815: We have redrawn Europe’s map for eternity.


32 The February Revolution
Reform Banquets used to protest against the King. Paris Banquet banned. Troops open fire on peaceful protestors. Barricades erected; looting. National Guard [politically disenfranchised] defects to the radicals. King Louis Philippe loses control of Paris and abdicates on February 24.

33 The “June Days” Worker groups in Paris rose up in insurrection.
They said that the government had betrayed the revolution. Workers wanted a redistribution of wealth. Barricades in the streets. Victor Hugo’s Les Miserables was based on this event.

34 Paris: To the Barricades Again!

35 The 2nd French Republic (1848-1852)
. Nov., 1848  a new constitution provided for: An elected President. A one-house legislature. The Republic by Jean-Leon Gerome

36 President Louis Napoleon
The December election: The “law and order” candidate, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte This was a big shift in middle class opinion to the right! The New President: Purged the govt. of all radical officials. Replaced them with ultra-conservative and monarchists. Disbanded the National Assembly and held new elections. Represented himself as a “Man of the People.” His government regularly used forced against dissenters.

37 1851 Coup d’Etat President Louis Napoleon declared a hereditary 2nd French Empire. A national plebiscite confirmed this.


39 The Austrian Empire: 1830

40 Therefore, the Empire was vulnerable to revolutionary challenges.
Ferdinand I ( ) The nature of the Austrian Empire: Very conservative monarchy [liberal institutions didn’t exist]. Corrupt and inefficient. Competition with an increasingly powerful Prussia. Therefore, the Empire was vulnerable to revolutionary challenges.

41 Austrian Students Form a Militia

42 Vienna, 1848: The Liberal Revolution
The “February Revolution” in France triggered a rebellion for liberal reforms. March 13  rioting broke out in Vienna. The Austrian Empire collapsed. Metternich fled. Constituent Assembly met. The revolution began to wane. The revolutionary government failed to govern effectively.

43 The New Austrian Emperor Franz Joseph I [r. 1848-1916]

44 The Hungarian Revolution

45 Lajos Kossuth (1802-1894) Hungarian revolutionary leader.
Austrians invade. Hungarian armies drove within sight of Vienna! Slavic minorities resisted Magyar invasion & the Hungarian army withdrew. Austrian & Russian armies defeated the Hungarian army. Hungary would have to wait until 1866 for autonomy.

46 Bohemia, 1848 Bohemia was split between Pan-Slavs & Pan-Germans.
The Austrian military ultimately attacked Prague, occupied Bohemia & crushed the rebellion. The Prague Barricades

47 The Decline of the Ottoman Empire
Evident after the Greek Revolution in 1821

48 The Ottoman Empire -- Late 19c “The Sicker Man of Europe”

49 The Crimean War Causes Russia vs. Ottoman Empire The Dardanelles

50 Crimean War

51 Crimean War British and French ill-founded fear of Russian strength: “Russia is the strongest state in Europe!” Illusion of Russian expansionism “Russia plans to carve up Turkey” Ill-founded belief the Turkey was collapsing

52 Florence Nightingale

53 Russian Imperial Flag

54 Nicholas I [r ] Autocracy! Orthodoxy! Nationalism!

55 Modernization of Russia
1850s Russia was poor agricultural society 90% of the people lived off the land Serfdom was still the basic institution

56 Alexander II [r. 1855-1881] Defeat in the Crimean War.
Reform from above Emancipation of the Russian serfs [ ]. 1/2 land to nobles/ peasants Communally held 49 years to pay

57 Industrialization Until the 20th century Russia made great progress in industry not politics After 1860 the govt. encouraged and subsidized railway companies By 1880 Russia had a well developed rail-equipment industry Industries grew in the suburbs of Moscow and St. Petersburg Industrial success strengthened the military as the country expanded south and east

58 Alexander III [r. 1881-1894] Reactionary. “Russification” program.
Jews  forced migration to the Pale-pograms

59 Austrian Empire Many ethnic groups Hungarian-magyar Demand rights
And Emperor gives in Result Austria-Hungary

60 Forced Migration of Russia’s Jews

61 Italian Unification Unite Italy and throw out the Austrians
Giuseppe Mazzini and Giuseppe Garibaldi Was there another way?

62 Italian Unification Count Camillo Cavour (1810-1861)
Prime Minister of Sardinia (Northern Italy) Believed in Italian unification, but not by forming a republic

63 Count Camillo Cavour

64 Italian Unification Cavour allies Sardinia with France
Cavour works with Garibaldi to take over southern Italy

65 Garibaldi and Red Shirts

66 Italian Unification Cavour dies in 1861
Italy united under Sardinian monarchy by 1870

67 Garibaldi and Victor Emmanuel

68 Italian Unification

69 German Unification Frankfurt Assembly fails to unite German states into a democratic state in 1849 German states already linked economically

70 German Unification Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898)
Junker (Prussian nobleman) Chancellor of Prussia Realpolitik

71 German Unification Bismarck uses unification issue to strengthen Prussia Step One: take out Austria Danish War

72 German Unification Bismarck picks a fight with Austria
Seven Weeks’ War ends with Austrian defeat Prussia wins rivalry with Austria

73 German Unification Step Two: Unite Southern German States and take out France Vacancy on Spanish throne Provoke France into a war Franco-Prussian War, 1870

74 Franco-Prussian War

75 German Unification German Empire declared
Balance of power in Europe altered

76 Wilhelm I Declared Emperor

77 German Unification

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