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Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation Original.

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Presentation on theme: "Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation Original."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation Original

2 An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy Study of ____________________ Gross = large Microscopic = very small Physiology Study of _________________________ Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology _______________________- (ex: digestive system is tubes)

3 An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy Study of shape/structure Gross = large Microscopic = very small Physiology Study of how body/parts function Relationship between Anatomy and Physiology Structure determines function (ex: digestive system is tubes)

4 Levels of Structural Organization From Atoms to Organisms (Fig. 1.1 pg 3) (C_______ _____: atoms/molecules) C_________ level: smallest unit of all living things Tissue level: _______________ O______ level: two or more tissues O_________ level: _____________ working together Organismal level: ____________________ _________________

5 Levels of Structural Organization From Atoms to Organisms (Fig. 1.1 pg 3) (Chemical level: atoms/molecules) Cellular level: smallest unit of all living things Tissue level: similar cells Organ level: two or more tissues Organ system level: group of organs working together Organismal level: Humans made of many systems

6 Checkpoint Quiz What is the difference between Anatomy and Physiology? What are the levels of organization from smallest to largest?

7 Pre-quiz Name as many organ systems as you can.

8 Levels of Structural Organization Organ System Overview (11) Fig 1.2 pgs 5-6

9 Organ Systems Integumentary system _________ __________ body __________ ____________ (makes) vitamin D _______________

10 Organ Systems Integumentary system Skin Covers body Protects Synthesizes (makes) vitamin D Receptors

11 Organ Systems Skeletal system _______, cartilage, ligaments, ______ P________ P_________ _______ M________ ________ M___________ S__________

12 Organ Systems Skeletal system Bones, cartilage, ligaments, joints Protects Produce blood Minerals stored Movement Shape Supports

13 Organ Systems Muscular system __________ muscles Not cardiac or smooth ___________ Contract only

14 Organ Systems Muscular system Skeletal muscles Not cardiac or smooth Movement Contract only

15 Organ Systems Nervous system _______, spinal _____, nerves, sensory ____________ Fast-acting control system Senses changes _____________

16 Organ Systems Nervous system Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors Fast-acting control system Senses changes Responds

17 Organ Systems Endocrine system __________, hormones _______-acting control system ____________ travel through ______

18 Organ Systems Endocrine system Glands, hormones Slow-acting control system Chemicals travel through blood

19 Organ Systems Cardiovascular system _______, ________ _______, blood Transport ________, _______, nutrients, ________ blood cells (immunity)

20 Organ Systems Cardiovascular system Heart, blood vessels, blood Transport oxygen, waste, nutrients, white blood cells (immunity)

21 Organ Systems Lymphatic system Lymphatic _________, lymph _______, spleen, __________. Returns fluid to _______ ________ _____________

22 Organ Systems Lymphatic system Lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils. Returns fluid to blood stream Immunity

23 Organ Systems Respiratory system _____ passages, ____ynx, ___ynx, trachea, bronchi, _____, alveoli Take in _________ O 2 Remove __________ __________ CO 2

24 Organ Systems Respiratory system Nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli Take in oxygen O 2 Remove Carbon Dioxide CO 2

25 Organ Systems Digestive system Oral cavity, _______, stomach, small and large __________, rectum (liver, pancreas) Break down ____ Deliver ________ Reclaim _____ Removes undigested food (_____)

26 Organ Systems Digestive system Oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, rectum (liver, pancreas) Break down food Deliver products Reclaim water Removes undigested food (feces)

27 Organ Systems Urinary system (_________) Kidneys, ureters, _______, urethra Remove _____ (urea) Balance _____/salt and acid/base

28 Organ Systems Urinary system (Excretory) Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra Remove waste (urea) Balance water/salt and acid/base

29 Organ Systems Male reproductive system Female reproductive system Produce _________

30 Organ Systems Male reproductive system Female reproductive system Produce offspring

31 Checkpoint quiz What is the anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) of… Integumentary system? Endocrine system? Lymphatic system?

32 Pre-quiz What does your body need to do to stay alive? What things does your body need to stay alive?

33 Maintaining Life Organ systems work together (Fig 1.3) Necessary Life Functions Maintaining B________________ Cell membrane, skin R________________ (irritability) Reflexes, breathing heavier D____________ Breaking down food into simple molecules M_____________ Whole body, internal substances

34 Maintaining Life Organ systems work together (Fig 1.3) Necessary Life Functions Maintaining Boundaries Cell membrane, skin Responsiveness (irritability) Reflexes, breathing heavier Digestion Breaking down food into simple molecules Movement Whole body, internal substances

35 Maintaining Life Necessary Life Functions cont… M__________ Chemical reactions E__________ Remove waste R___________ Cellular or organismal G________ Increase size (usually more cells) B i RD MMERG

36 Maintaining Life Necessary Life Functions cont… Metabolism Chemical reactions Excretion Remove waste Reproduction Cellular or organismal Growth Increase size (usually more cells) B i RD MMERG

37 Maintaining Life Survival Needs N________ Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins O_____ Used to release energy in foods (cellular respiration) W_____ 60%-80% of body weight Appropriate T______________ 37 o C = 98.6 o F Too high- breaks down proteins (cook) Too low- reactions slow down Atmospheric P_________ Breathing

38 Maintaining Life Survival Needs Nutrients Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins Oxygen Used to release energy in foods (cellular respiration) Water 60%-80% of body weight Appropriate Temperature 37 o C = 98.6 o F Too high- breaks down proteins (cook) Too low- reactions slow down Atmospheric Pressure Breathing

39 Checkpoint quiz List the life functions. List the survival needs.

40 Homeostasis The ability to maintain ________ internal conditions (balance). (Fig. 1.4) Control Mechanisms ________ Receptor (sensor) Control center ________

41 Homeostasis The ability to maintain stable internal conditions (balance). (Fig. 1.4) Control Mechanisms Variable Receptor (sensor) Control center Effector

42 Homeostasis Negative feedback mechanism __________ (hypothalamus) Positive feedback mechanism Blood clotting _____

43 Homeostasis Negative feedback mechanism Thermostat (hypothalamus) Positive feedback mechanism Blood clotting Birth

44 Homeostasis Homeostatic Imbalance _______ ______

45 Homeostasis Homeostatic Imbalance Disease Injury

46 Checkpoint quiz Explain homeostasis using an example.

47 Pre-quiz If we had a dorsal fin, where would it be?

48 The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Position ________ up, arms at _____, palms _______

49 The Language of Anatomy Anatomical Position Standing up, arms at sides, palms forward

50 The Language of Anatomy Directional Terms (Table 1.1) ________ (cranial/cephalad) = above ________ (caudal) = below ________ (ventral) = front _________ (dorsal) = behind ______ = middle _______ = outer side ____________ = between medial & lateral

51 The Language of Anatomy Directional Terms (Table 1.1) Superior (cranial/cephalad) = above Inferior (caudal) = below Anterior (ventral) = front Posterior (dorsal) = behind Medial = middle Lateral = outer side Intermediate = between medial & lateral

52 The Language of Anatomy Directional Terms (Table 1.1) ________ = close to point of attachment ______ = farther from point of attachment ___________ = toward surface ____ = more internal

53 The Language of Anatomy Directional Terms (Table 1.1) Proximal = close to point of attachment Distal = farther from point of attachment Superficial = toward surface Deep = more internal

54 Checkpoint quiz The wrist is ______________ to the hand. The breastbone is ____________ to the spine. The brain is ______________ to the spinal cord. The lungs are ____________ to the stomach. The thumb is ___________ to the fingers.

55 Pre-quiz Where is your abdominal region?

56 The Language of Anatomy Regional Terms (Fig. 1.5 pg 14) Anterior Abdominal = anterior body trunk inferior to ____ Acromial = point of ________ Antecubital = anterior surface of _____ Axillary = ______ Brachial = ___ Buccal = _____ area Carpal = _____ Cervical = ____ region Coxal = ___ Crural = ___ Digital = fingers, ____ Femoral = _____

57 The Language of Anatomy Regional Terms (Fig. 1.5 pg 14) Anterior Abdominal = anterior body trunk inferior to ribs Acromial = point of shoulder Antecubital = anterior surface of elbow Axillary = armpit Brachial = arm Buccal = cheek area Carpal = wrist Cervical = neck region Coxal = hip Crural = leg Digital = fingers, toes Femoral = thigh

58 The Language of Anatomy Regional Terms: Anterior cont… Fibular = lateral part of ___ Inguinal = where thigh meets trunk, _____ Nasal = ____ Oral = _____ Orbital = ___ Patellar = anterior ____ Pelvic = overlying ______ anteriorly Pubic = genital ______ Sternal = _________ Tarsal = _____ Thoracic = _____ Umbilical = _____

59 The Language of Anatomy Regional Terms: Anterior cont… Fibular = lateral part of leg Inguinal = where thigh meets trunk, groin Nasal = nose Oral = mouth Orbital = eye Patellar = anterior knee Pelvic = overlying pelvis anteriorly Pubic = genital region Sternal = breastbone Tarsal = ankle Thoracic = chest Umbilical = navel

60 The Language of Anatomy Regional Terms: Posterior Cephalic = _____ Deltoid = curve of ________ Gluteal = _______ Lumbar = area of back between ribs and ____ Occipital = posterior surface of ____ Popliteal = posterior knee area (____ ___) Sacral = between ____ Scapular = shoulder _____ region Sural = posterior surface of lower leg, ____ Vertebral = area of _____

61 The Language of Anatomy Regional Terms: Posterior Cephalic = head Deltoid = curve of shoulder Gluteal = buttock Lumbar = area of back between ribs and hips Occipital = posterior surface of head Popliteal = posterior knee area (knee pit) Sacral = between hips Scapular = shoulder blade region Sural = posterior surface of lower leg, calf Vertebral = area of spine

62 The Language of Anatomy Body Planes and Sections (Fig 1.6 pg 15) Sagittal (Sagit/tal) __________, right and left parts ___________/Median _____ _____, down the middle _______/coronal Lengthwise, front and back parts Transverse/cross section __________

63 The Language of Anatomy Body Planes and Sections (Fig 1.6 pg 15) Sagittal (Sagit/tal) Lengthwise, right and left parts Midsagittal/Median Equal parts, down the middle Frontal/coronal Lengthwise, front and back parts Transverse/cross section Horizontal

64 The Language of Anatomy Body Cavities Dorsal Cranial ______ _______ Thoracic __________ Abdominopelvic Abdominal Pelvic

65 The Language of Anatomy Body Cavities Dorsal Cranial Spinal Ventral Thoracic Diaphragm Abdominopelvic Abdominal Pelvic


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