Presentation on theme: "Section Four The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolutions"— Presentation transcript:
1Section Four The Enlightenment and Democratic Revolutions PrologueSection FourThe Enlightenment and Democratic Revolutions
2EnlightenmentEnlightenment- an intellectual movement during the 17th and 18th centuries that attempted to apply the principles of reason and methods of science to all aspects of society.
3Great Enlightenment Thinkers Thomas HobbesEnglish philosopherBook Leviathan(1651)- “People are by nature selfish and ambitious.”Monarchy was needed to control selfish ambitions.In a “social contract”, people submitted to an authoritarian ruler to prevent disorder.Social Contract- agreement among members of society.
4Great Enlightenment Thinkers 2. John LockeEnglish philosopherBook, Two Treatises of Government, (1690) “English people were justified in overthrowing King James II.”All human beings have the right to Life, Liberty, and Property.These are “Natural Rights”, given by God.Governments exist primarily to protect these rights.People have an absolute right to rebel against governments that violate or fail to protect these rights.Government’s power comes from the people, not from God.
5Great Enlightenment Thinkers 3. VoltaireFrench HistorianArgued in favor of tolerance, freedom of religion, and free speechHe criticized the French government (an absolute monarchy) and Christianity.
6Great Enlightenment Thinkers 4. RousseauWrote, The Social Contract,(1762). He advocated democracy in this work.He considered a social contract to be an agreement between free individuals to create a government that would respond to the peoples’ will.Only government “by the consent of the governed” was proper government.
7Great Enlightenment Thinkers 5. MontesquieuFrench philosopherWrote, Spirit of the Laws, (1748), “any person or group of people in power will try to increase its power”.He agreed with Aristotle and searched for a way to control government.Separation of Powers- dividing government into three separate branches.Legislature to make lawsExecutive to enforce lawsJudicial to interpret laws