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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lessons presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Biology and You Table of Contents Section 1 Themes of Biology Section 2 Biology in Your World Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Themes of Biology Objectives Relate the seven properties of life to a living organism. Describe seven themes that can help you organize what you learn about biology. Identify the tiny structures that make up all living organisms. Differentiate between reproduction and heredity and between metabolism and homeostasis. Chapter 1

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Characteristics of Living Organisms Biology is the study of _____. All living organisms share certain general properties that separate them from nonliving things. Properties of Life »Cellular organization »Reproduction »Metabolism »Homeostasis »Heredity »Responsiveness »Growth and development Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Characteristics of Living Organisms, continued ________ organization - every living thing is composed of one or more cells ____________ - all living things are able to reproduce Metabolism - all obtain and use ______ to run the processes of life Homeostasis - living organisms maintain a __________ internal environment Heredity - living things pass ______ to _________ Responsiveness - all living things _______ and adjust to the ___________ ______ and development - all living things grow and develop Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Biology Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Unifying Themes of Biology As you study biology you will repeatedly encounter the following seven themes. 1.Cellular Structure and Function 2.Reproduction 3.Metabolism 4.Homeostasis 5.Heredity 6.Evolution 7.Interdependence Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu The Seven Properties of Life Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Unifying Themes of Biology, continued 1. Cellular Structure and Function Cells are highly organized, tiny structures with thin coverings called _________. All living things are made of one or more cells. A cell is the ________ ____ capable of all ____ functions. Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Unifying Themes of Biology, continued 2. Reproduction Reproduction is the process by which organisms ____ ____ of their own kind from one __________ to the next. Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Unifying Themes of Biology, continued 3. Metabolism Metabolism is the sum of all the ________ reactions carried out in an organism. Almost all energy used by living organisms is originally captured from ________. Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Unifying Themes of Biology, continued 4. Homeostasis Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable ________ conditions in spite of changes in the ________ environment. An organism unable to balance its internal conditions with its environmental conditions could become ill and ___. Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Unifying Themes of Biology, continued 5. Heredity Heredity is the passing of traits from parent to offspring. The basic unit of heredity is called a gene. Genes are _____ in a molecule called deoxyribonucleic acid (___). Genes determine an organisms ______. A change in the DNA of a gene is called a mutation. Most mutations are ________, but some mutations can help an organism survive. Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Heredity Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Unifying Themes of Biology, continued 6. Evolution Evolution is defined as _______ in the inherited characteristics of species over generations. A species is a group of genetically similar organisms that can produce _______ offspring. Natural selection is the process in which organisms with favorable traits are more likely to _______ and _________. Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Evolution Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Unifying Themes of Biology, continued 7. Interdependence The organisms in a biological community ____ and ________ with other organisms. Ecology is the branch of biology that studies the interactions of organisms with one another and with the _________ part of their environment. Organisms are dependent on each other and on their environment. Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Unifying Themes of Biology Section 1 Themes of Biology Chapter 1

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Biology in Your World Objectives Evaluate the impact of scientific research on the environment. Evaluate the impact of scientific research on society with respect to increasing food supplies. Explain the primary task of the Human Genome Project. Describe the contributions of scientists in fighting AIDS and cancer. Define the term gene therapy. Chapter 1

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Solving Real-World Problems Biologists are working to solve todays problems, such as: Preserving our environment Improving the food supply Understanding the human genome Fighting disease Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Solving Real-World Problems, continued Preserving our environment Conservation biologists are exploring ways to achieve a balance between peoples growing need for land and the need to preserve the environment. Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Solving Real-World Problems, continued Improving the food supply Genetic engineering of crop plants has made some plants resistant to herbicides, or poisonous to insect pests, or more nutritious. Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Climate and Environmental Change Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Solving Real-World Problems, continued Understanding the human genome A genome is the complete genetic material contained in an individual. Government-funded and private research teams from several countries completed sequencing of the human genome. Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fighting Disease AIDS is a fatal disease caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), a virus that attacks and destroys the human immune system. New vaccines are being tested that attack two or more parts of the HIV virus at the same time. So that while one part may mutate, it us unlikely that both parts will mutate in the same virus particle. There is finally hope of a successful vaccine to control the outbreak of AIDS. Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fighting Disease, continued Cancer is a growth defect in cells, a breakdown of the mechanism that controls cell division. Great progress is being made in curing many cancers. Several forms of cancer result from having too many copies of a certain protein. Anticancer drugs that stick to these extra cell proteins appear to offer great promise. Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fighting Disease, continued Emerging diseases Biologists are fighting new diseases not known in the past. Some of these diseases include West Nile virus and mad cow disease. Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Fighting Disease, continued Gene Therapy is the replacement of a defective gene with a normal one. Researchers believe it is possible to use a virus to transfer a normal copy of a gene into a cell. Researchers hoped to cure cystic fibrosis, a hereditary disease in which a thick sticky mucus clogs the bodys breathing passages. Early attempts failed because the virus used caused health problems. New attempts using a different virus are more promising. Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Cystic Fibrosis Section 2 Biology in Your World Chapter 1

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Scientific Processes Objectives Describe the stages common to scientific investigations. Distinguish between forming a hypothesis and making a prediction. Differentiate a control group from an experimental group and an independent variable from a dependent variable. Define the word theory as used by a scientist. Chapter 1

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Observation: The Basis of Scientific Research Observation is the act of noting or perceiving objects or events using the senses. All scientists have a certain way of investigating the world. Scientific investigations begin with observations. Observations cause scientists to ___ _________ about their observations. Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Stages of Scientific Investigations Scientific investigations tend to have common stages. These stages are called the __________ ______. There is more than one way to conduct an investigation. Scientific Methods or Scientific Processes are more accurate terms for the stages of scientific investigation. Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Stages of Scientific Investigations, continued Scientific Processes include the following stages. Collecting ____________ Asking _________ Forming ___________ and making ___________ Confirming predictions (with __________ when needed) Drawing ___________ Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Scientific Processes Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Stages of Scientific Investigations, continued Hypothesisan explanation that _____ be true, a statement that can be ______ by additional observations or experimentation Predictionthe ________ outcome of a test, assuming the hypothesis is correct. Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Stages of Scientific Investigations, continued Experimenta planned procedure to ____ a hypothesis. Control groupa group in an experiment that receives __ ____________ treatment. The control group is necessary for comparing the results of the experiment. Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Stages of Scientific Investigations, continued Independent variablethe factor that is _______ in an experiment. Dependent variablethe variable that is ________ in an experiment, the outcome of the dependent variable depends on what is done to the independent variable. Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Stages of Scientific Investigations, continued Drawing Conclusions Once data are collected and analyzed, a conclusion is made as to whether the data _______ the __________. Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Stages of Scientific Investigations, continued Viewing Conclusions in Context There is often ____ ____ ___ possible reason for a result. All of the factors that may affect an outcome must be considered. Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Scientific Explanations Constructing a Theory Theory a set of related hypotheses that have been ______ and _________ many times by many scientists. A theory unites and explains a broad range of observations. The word theory is used by the general public to mean a guess, or lack of certainty. In science, a theory is a well-supported scientific explanation that makes useful predictions. Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Scientific Explanations, continued Constructing a Theory Scientists report their results. Scientific reports are reviewed by other scientists. Scientific reports allow other scientists to use the information obtained in an experiment. Scientific reports also allow other scientists to ______ and ____ experiments. Section 3 Scientific Processes Chapter 1

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice Use the chart below and your knowledge of science to answer questions 1–3. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 1

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.According to the chart, which makes up the greatest proportion of waste? A. paper and cardboard B. metals containing iron C. yard waste, glass, and plastics D. other waste Standardized Test Prep Chapter 1

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.According to the chart, which makes up the greatest proportion of waste? A. paper and cardboard B. metals containing iron C. yard waste, glass, and plastics D. other waste Standardized Test Prep Chapter 1

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. If each type of solid waste were recycled, which type would have the biggest impact on conserving trees? F. aluminum G. glass H. plastics J. paper and cardboard Standardized Test Prep Chapter 1

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. If each type of solid waste were recycled, which type would have the biggest impact on conserving trees? F. aluminum G. glass H. plastics J. paper and cardboard Standardized Test Prep Chapter 1

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of these types of waste can easily be recycled at home? A. glass B. plastics C. yard wastes D. metals containing iron Standardized Test Prep Chapter 1

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which of these types of waste can easily be recycled at home? A. glass B. plastics C. yard wastes D. metals containing iron Standardized Test Prep Chapter 1


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