Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View on the menu bar and click on Slide Show. To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lessons presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key. How to Use This Presentation

2 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Chapter Presentation TransparenciesStandardized Test Prep Visual Concepts Resources

3 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Introduction to Plants Chapter 23 Table of Contents Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Section 2 Kinds of Plants Section 3 Plants in Our Lives

4 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Objectives Summarize how plants are adapted to living on land. Distinguish nonvascular plants from vascular plants. Relate the success of plants on land to seeds and flowers. Describe the basic structure of a vascular plant sporophyte. Chapter 23

5 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Characteristics of Plants Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

6 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Establishment of Plants on Land Plants are the dominant group of organisms on land, based on weight. Plants probably evolved from multicellular aquatic green algae that could not survive on land. Before plants could thrive on land, they had to be able to do three things: absorb nutrients from their surroundings, prevent their bodies from drying out, and reproduce without water to transmit sperm. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

7 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Evolutionary Relationships Between Plants and Green Algae Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

8 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Establishment of Plants on Land, continued Absorbing Nutrients Aquatic algae and plants take nutrients from the water around them. On land, most plants take nutrients from the soil with their roots. Botanists think that fungi may have helped early land plants to get nutrients from Earths rocky surface. Symbiotic relationships between fungi and the roots of plants are called mycorrhizae. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

9 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Establishment of Plants on Land, continued Preventing Water Loss A watertight covering, which reduces water loss, made it possible for plants to live on land. This covering, called a cuticle, is a waxy layer that covers the nonwoody aboveground parts of most plants. Pores called stomata permit plants to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. A pair of specialized cells called guard cells border each stoma. Stomata open and close as the guard cells change shape. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

10 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Stomata and Guard Cells Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

11 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Establishment of Plants on Land, continued Reproducing on Land In most plants, sperm are enclosed in a structure that keeps them from drying out. The structures that contain sperm make up pollen. Pollen permits the sperm of most plants to be carried by wind or animals rather than by water. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

12 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Requirements of Plants to Survive on Land Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

13 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers Advantages of Conducting Tissue Specialized cells that transport water and other materials within a plant are found in vascular tissues. The larger, more-complex plants have a vascular system, a system of well-developed vascular tissues that distribute materials more efficiently. Relatively small plants that have no vascular system are called nonvascular plants. Plants that have a vascular system are called vascular plants. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

14 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Vascular Tissue Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

15 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Transporting Materials Throughout the Plant Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

16 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers, continued Advantages of Seeds A seed is a structure that contains the embryo of a plant. An embryo is an early stage in the development of plants and animals. Most plants living today are seed plantsvascular plants that produce seeds. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

17 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers, continued Advantages of Seeds Seeds offer a plant several survival advantages: 1. The seed coat protects the embryo from drying out, injury, and disease. 2. Most kinds of seeds store a supply of nutrients. 3. Seeds disperse the offspring of seed plants. 4. Seeds make it possible for plant embryos to survive through unfavorable periods such as droughts. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

18 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structure and Function of Seeds Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

19 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers, continued Advantages of Flowers The last important adaptation to appear as plants evolved was the flower, a reproductive structure that produces pollen and seeds. Most plants living today are flowering plantsseed plants that produce flowers. Flowering plants that are pollinated by animals produce less pollen, and cross-pollination can occur between individuals that live far apart. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

20 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plant Life Cycles Plants have life cycles in which haploid plants that make gametes (gametophytes) alternate with diploid plants that make spores (sporophytes). A life cycle in which a gametophyte alternates with a sporophyte is called alternation of generations. Unlike the green algae with alternation of generations, plants have gametophytes and sporophytes that look very different. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

21 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Life Cycle of Angiosperm Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

22 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Alternation of Generations Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

23 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plant Life Cycles, continued The Vascular-Plant Sporophyte The sporophytes of vascular plants have a vascular system with two types of vascular tissue. Relatively soft-walled cells transport organic nutrients in a kind of tissue called phloem. Hard-walled cells transport water and mineral nutrients in a kind of tissue called xylem. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

24 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plant Life Cycles, continued The Vascular-Plant Sporophyte The part of a plants body that grows mostly upward is called the shoot. In most plants, the part of the body that grows downward is called the root. Zones of actively dividing plant cells, called meristems, produce plant growth. Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

25 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Structure of a Vascular Plant Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

26 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Meristem Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Chapter 23

27 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 2 Kinds of Plants Objectives Describe the key features of the four major groups of plants. Classify plants into one of the 12 phyla of living plants. Chapter 23

28 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Nonvascular Plants Key Features of Nonvascular Plants All nonvascular plants are small and relatively simple. The gametophytes of nonvascular plants are larger and more noticeable than the sporophytes. Hairlike projections called rhizoids anchor the gametophytes to the surfaces on which they grow. Nonvascular plants must be covered by a film of water in order for fertilization to occur. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

29 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Characteristics of Nonvascular Plants Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

30 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Nonvascular Plants, continued Kinds of Nonvascular Plants The mosses (phylum Bryophyta) are the most familiar nonvascular plants. Like the mosses, liverworts (phylum Hepatophyta) grow in mats of many individuals. Liverworts have no conducting cells, no cuticle, and no stomata. The hornworts (phylum Anthocerophyta) are a small group of nonvascular plants that, like the liverworts, completely lack conducting cells. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

31 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Nonvascular Plants Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

32 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Parts of a Moss Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

33 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Seedless Vascular Plants Vascular plants that do not produce seeds are called seedless vascular plants. The earliest known seedless vascular plant, Cooksonia, had sporophytes that had branched, leafless stems that were only a few centimeters long. Rhynia, another early seedless vascular plant, had horizontal underground stems, or rhizomes. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

34 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Seedless Vascular Plants, continued Key Features of Seedless Vascular Plants Seedless vascular plants have a vascular system with both xylem and phloem. The sporophytes of seedless vascular plants are larger than the gametophytes. The spores of the seedless vascular plants have thickened walls that are resistant to drying. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

35 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Characteristics of Vascular Plants Without Seeds Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

36 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Seedless Vascular Plants, continued Kinds of Seedless Vascular Plants The ferns (phylum Pterophyta) are the most common and most familiar seedless vascular plants. Most fern sporophytes have a rhizome that is anchored by roots and leaves called fronds. Unlike true mosses, the club mosses (phylum Lycophyta), have roots, stems, and leaves. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

37 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Parts of a Fern Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

38 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Seedless Vascular Plants, continued Kinds of Seedless Vascular Plants Some club mosses have clusters of nongreen spore- bearing leaves form a structure called a cone. The vertical stems of horsetails, which grow from a rhizome, are hollow and have joints. The whisk ferns (phylum Psilotophyta) probably most closely resemble the earliest vascular plants. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

39 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Needles and Cones Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

40 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Seedless Vascular Plants Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

41 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Gymnosperms Gymnosperms are seed plants whose seeds do not develop within a sealed container (a fruit). The word gymnosperm comes from the Greek words gymnos, meaning naked, and sperma, meaning seed. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

42 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Gymnosperms, continued Key Features of Gymnosperms All gymnosperms produce seeds. All seed plants produce very tiny gametophytes of two typesmale and female. The sperm of gymnosperms do not swim through water to reach and fertilize eggs. Instead, the sperm are carried to the structures that contain eggs by pollen, which can drift on the wind. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

43 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Characteristics of Gymnosperms Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

44 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Gymnosperms, continued Kinds of Gymnosperms The conifers (phylum Coniferophyta) are the most familiar, and most successful, gymnosperms. The cycads (phylum Cycadophyta) have short stems and palmlike leaves. The only living species of ginkgo (phylum Ginkgophyta), or maidenhair tree, has fan-shaped leaves that resemble the leaves of the maidenhair fern. The gnetophytes (phylum Gnetophyta) are a diverse group of trees, shrubs, and vines that produce pollen and seeds in cones that resemble flowers. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

45 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Types of Gymnosperms Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

46 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Angiosperms Most seed plants are flowering plants, or angiosperms. Angiosperms produce seeds that develop enclosed within a specialized structure called a fruit. The word angiosperm comes from the Greek words angeion, meaning case, and sperma, meaning seed. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

47 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Angiosperms, continued Key Features of Angiosperms The male and female gametophytes of angiosperms develop within flowers, which promote pollination and fertilization more efficiently than do cones. Although fruits provide some protection for developing seeds, their primary function is to promote seed dispersal. The seeds of angiosperms have a supply of stored food called endosperm at some time during their development. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

48 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Characteristics of Angiosperms Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

49 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Endosperm Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

50 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Angiosperms, continued Kinds of Angiosperms Botanists divide the angiosperms into two subgroupsmonocots and dicots. The monocots are flowering plants that produce seeds with one seed leaf (cotyledon). The dicots are flowering plants that produce seeds with two seed leaves. Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

51 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Familiar Families of Angiosperms Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

52 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

53 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Comparing Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots Section 2 Kinds of Plants Chapter 23

54 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Objectives Identify foods that come from plants and their dietary importance. Describe several ways that wood is used. Explain how plants are used to treat human ailments. Identify plants that are used to make paper and cloth. Chapter 23

55 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plants as Food Fruits and Vegetables The United States government identifies foods that comes from a plant as an agricultural commodity. To a botanist, a fruit is the part of a plant that contains seeds, and a vegetative part is any nonreproductive part of a plant. Fruits and vegetables provide dietary fiber and are important sources of essential vitamins and minerals. Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

56 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Parts of Plants Eaten as Food Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

57 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plants as Food, continued Root Crops Potatoes are classified as a root crop because they grow underground. But, potatoes are actually tubers, modified underground stems that store starch. Yams, an essential food crop in many tropical parts of the world, are also tubers. Sweet potatoes, carrots, radishes, turnips, beets, and cassava are also important root crops. Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

58 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Plants as Food, continued Legumes Many members of the pea family, which are called legumes, produce protein-rich seeds in long pods. Peas, peanuts, and the many different types of beans are the seeds of legumes. Like many legumes, alfalfa has nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which add nitrogen compounds to the soil, in its roots. Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

59 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Cereals Cereals are grasses that are grown as food for humans and livestock. Cereal grasses produce large numbers of a type of edible, dry fruit called a grain. A grain contains a single seed with a large supply of endosperm. Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

60 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Cereals, continued Wheat For more than one-third of the worlds population, wheat is the primary source of food. The endosperm of wheat grains, which is high in carbohydrates, is commonly ground into white flour and used to make breads and pasta. One of the worlds best wheat-growing areas is the Great Plains region of the United States and Canadaa temperate grassland biome. Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

61 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Cereals, continued Corn Corn is the most widely cultivated crop in the United States. Corn is also one of the worlds chief foods for farm animals. About 70 percent of the corn crop harvested in the United States is consumed by livestock. Other uses for corn include the production of corn syrup, margarine, corn oil, cornstarch, and fuel-grade ethanol. Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

62 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Cereals, continued Rice For more than half of the people in the world, rice is the main part of every meal. Although it is low in protein, rice is an excellent source of energy-rich carbohydrates. In the United States, rice is grown in central California, in the Southeast, and along the Gulf Coast in fields. Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

63 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Major Crop-Producing Regions of the World Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

64 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Nonfood Uses of Plants Wood After food, wood is the single most valuable resource obtained from plants. Nearly 75 percent of the lumber cut in the United States is used for building construction. The rest is used to make products that contain wood, or it is ground and moistened to make wood pulp. Wood pulp is made into paper, rayon, and many other products. Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

65 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Nonfood Uses of Plants, continued Medicines People have always used substances obtained from plants to treat a variety of ailments. By studying the plants traditionally used to treat human ailments, researchers have developed many modern medicines. For example, willow tree (Salix) bark was a traditional cure for aches. Salicin is the pain-relieving chemical found in willows. Acetylsalicylic acid, a derivative of salicin, was first sold under the name aspirin. Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

66 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Some Drugs Originally Derived from Plants Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

67 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Nonfood Uses of Plants, continued Fibers In plants, fibers help provide support for the plant body. The strength and flexibility of plant fibers make them ideal materials for making paper, cloth, and rope. Most of the fibers used to make paper come from wood. For centuries, people have made clothing with cloth made of cotton, the worlds most important plant fiber. Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Chapter 23

68 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice Use the figure below to answer questions 1–3. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 23

69 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.In which pair of families do all of the plants produce seeds with two seed leaves? A.Liliaceae and Bromeliaceae B.Umbelliferae and Labiatae C.Palmae and Malvaceae D.Labiatae and Liliaceae Standardized Test Prep Chapter 23

70 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 1.In which pair of families do all of the plants produce seeds with two seed leaves? A.Liliaceae and Bromeliaceae B.Umbelliferae and Labiatae C.Palmae and Malvaceae D.Labiatae and Liliaceae Standardized Test Prep Chapter 23

71 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. Of the plants listed in the chart, which one is most likely to produce flowers with flower parts that are in multiples of three? F.rosemary G.celery H.palmetto J.hibiscus Standardized Test Prep Chapter 23

72 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 2. Of the plants listed in the chart, which one is most likely to produce flowers with flower parts that are in multiples of three? F.rosemary G.celery H.palmetto J.hibiscus Standardized Test Prep Chapter 23

73 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which statement is true about all of the plants listed in the chart? A.Their sperm must swim through water to fertilize eggs. B.They produce fruits. C.Their gametophytes develop inside cones. D.They reproduce by releasing spores. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 23

74 Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which statement is true about all of the plants listed in the chart? A.Their sperm must swim through water to fertilize eggs. B.They produce fruits. C.Their gametophytes develop inside cones. D.They reproduce by releasing spores. Standardized Test Prep Chapter 23


Download ppt "Copyright © by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved. ResourcesChapter menu To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select View."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google