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1 How to Use This Presentation
To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.” To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar. From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource. From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation. You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.

2 Standardized Test Prep
Resources Chapter Presentation Visual Concepts Transparencies Standardized Test Prep

3 Chapter 23 Table of Contents Section 1 Adaptations of Plants
Introduction to Plants Table of Contents Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Section 2 Kinds of Plants Section 3 Plants in Our Lives

4 Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Objectives Summarize how plants are adapted to living on land. Distinguish nonvascular plants from vascular plants. Relate the success of plants on land to seeds and flowers. Describe the basic structure of a vascular plant sporophyte.

5 Characteristics of Plants
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Characteristics of Plants

6 Establishment of Plants on Land
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Establishment of Plants on Land Plants are the dominant group of organisms on land, based on weight. Plants probably evolved from multicellular aquatic green algae that could not survive on land. Before plants could thrive on land, they had to be able to do three things: absorb nutrients from their surroundings, prevent their bodies from drying out, and reproduce without water to transmit sperm.

7 Evolutionary Relationships Between Plants and Green Algae
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Evolutionary Relationships Between Plants and Green Algae

8 Establishment of Plants on Land, continued
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Establishment of Plants on Land, continued Absorbing Nutrients Aquatic algae and plants take nutrients from the water around them. On land, most plants take nutrients from the soil with their roots. Botanists think that fungi may have helped early land plants to get nutrients from Earth’s rocky surface. Symbiotic relationships between fungi and the roots of plants are called mycorrhizae.

9 Establishment of Plants on Land, continued
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Establishment of Plants on Land, continued Preventing Water Loss A watertight covering, which reduces water loss, made it possible for plants to live on land. This covering, called a cuticle, is a waxy layer that covers the nonwoody aboveground parts of most plants. Pores called stomata permit plants to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. A pair of specialized cells called guard cells border each stoma. Stomata open and close as the guard cells change shape.

10 Stomata and Guard Cells
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Stomata and Guard Cells

11 Establishment of Plants on Land, continued
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Establishment of Plants on Land, continued Reproducing on Land In most plants, sperm are enclosed in a structure that keeps them from drying out. The structures that contain sperm make up pollen. Pollen permits the sperm of most plants to be carried by wind or animals rather than by water.

12 Requirements of Plants to Survive on Land
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Requirements of Plants to Survive on Land

13 Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers Advantages of Conducting Tissue Specialized cells that transport water and other materials within a plant are found in vascular tissues. The larger, more-complex plants have a vascular system, a system of well-developed vascular tissues that distribute materials more efficiently. Relatively small plants that have no vascular system are called nonvascular plants. Plants that have a vascular system are called vascular plants.

14 Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Vascular Tissue

15 Transporting Materials Throughout the Plant
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Transporting Materials Throughout the Plant

16 Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers, continued
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers, continued Advantages of Seeds A seed is a structure that contains the embryo of a plant. An embryo is an early stage in the development of plants and animals. Most plants living today are seed plants—vascular plants that produce seeds.

17 Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers, continued
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers, continued Advantages of Seeds Seeds offer a plant several survival advantages: 1. The seed coat protects the embryo from drying out, injury, and disease. 2. Most kinds of seeds store a supply of nutrients. 3. Seeds disperse the offspring of seed plants. 4. Seeds make it possible for plant embryos to survive through unfavorable periods such as droughts.

18 Structure and Function of Seeds
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Structure and Function of Seeds

19 Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers, continued
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Vascular Tissue, Seeds, and Flowers, continued Advantages of Flowers The last important adaptation to appear as plants evolved was the flower, a reproductive structure that produces pollen and seeds. Most plants living today are flowering plants—seed plants that produce flowers. Flowering plants that are pollinated by animals produce less pollen, and cross-pollination can occur between individuals that live far apart.

20 Chapter 23 Plant Life Cycles
Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Plant Life Cycles Plants have life cycles in which haploid plants that make gametes (gametophytes) alternate with diploid plants that make spores (sporophytes). A life cycle in which a gametophyte alternates with a sporophyte is called alternation of generations. Unlike the green algae with alternation of generations, plants have gametophytes and sporophytes that look very different.

21 Life Cycle of Angiosperm
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Life Cycle of Angiosperm

22 Alternation of Generations
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Alternation of Generations

23 Plant Life Cycles, continued
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Plant Life Cycles, continued The Vascular-Plant Sporophyte The sporophytes of vascular plants have a vascular system with two types of vascular tissue. Relatively soft-walled cells transport organic nutrients in a kind of tissue called phloem. Hard-walled cells transport water and mineral nutrients in a kind of tissue called xylem.

24 Plant Life Cycles, continued
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Plant Life Cycles, continued The Vascular-Plant Sporophyte The part of a plant’s body that grows mostly upward is called the shoot. In most plants, the part of the body that grows downward is called the root. Zones of actively dividing plant cells, called meristems, produce plant growth.

25 Structure of a Vascular Plant
Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Structure of a Vascular Plant

26 Chapter 23 Section 1 Adaptations of Plants Meristem

27 Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Objectives Describe the key features of the four major groups of plants. Classify plants into one of the 12 phyla of living plants.

28 Chapter 23 Nonvascular Plants Key Features of Nonvascular Plants
Section 2 Kinds of Plants Nonvascular Plants Key Features of Nonvascular Plants All nonvascular plants are small and relatively simple. The gametophytes of nonvascular plants are larger and more noticeable than the sporophytes. Hairlike projections called rhizoids anchor the gametophytes to the surfaces on which they grow. Nonvascular plants must be covered by a film of water in order for fertilization to occur.

29 Characteristics of Nonvascular Plants
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Characteristics of Nonvascular Plants

30 Nonvascular Plants, continued
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Nonvascular Plants, continued Kinds of Nonvascular Plants The mosses (phylum Bryophyta) are the most familiar nonvascular plants. Like the mosses, liverworts (phylum Hepatophyta) grow in mats of many individuals. Liverworts have no conducting cells, no cuticle, and no stomata. The hornworts (phylum Anthocerophyta) are a small group of nonvascular plants that, like the liverworts, completely lack conducting cells.

31 Types of Nonvascular Plants
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Types of Nonvascular Plants

32 Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Parts of a Moss

33 Seedless Vascular Plants
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Seedless Vascular Plants Vascular plants that do not produce seeds are called seedless vascular plants. The earliest known seedless vascular plant, Cooksonia, had sporophytes that had branched, leafless stems that were only a few centimeters long. Rhynia, another early seedless vascular plant, had horizontal underground stems, or rhizomes.

34 Seedless Vascular Plants, continued
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Seedless Vascular Plants, continued Key Features of Seedless Vascular Plants Seedless vascular plants have a vascular system with both xylem and phloem. The sporophytes of seedless vascular plants are larger than the gametophytes. The spores of the seedless vascular plants have thickened walls that are resistant to drying.

35 Characteristics of Vascular Plants Without Seeds
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Characteristics of Vascular Plants Without Seeds

36 Seedless Vascular Plants, continued
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Seedless Vascular Plants, continued Kinds of Seedless Vascular Plants The ferns (phylum Pterophyta) are the most common and most familiar seedless vascular plants. Most fern sporophytes have a rhizome that is anchored by roots and leaves called fronds. Unlike true mosses, the club mosses (phylum Lycophyta), have roots, stems, and leaves.

37 Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Parts of a Fern

38 Seedless Vascular Plants, continued
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Seedless Vascular Plants, continued Kinds of Seedless Vascular Plants Some club mosses have clusters of nongreen spore-bearing leaves form a structure called a cone. The vertical stems of horsetails, which grow from a rhizome, are hollow and have joints. The whisk ferns (phylum Psilotophyta) probably most closely resemble the earliest vascular plants.

39 Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Needles and Cones

40 Types of Seedless Vascular Plants
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Types of Seedless Vascular Plants

41 Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Gymnosperms Gymnosperms are seed plants whose seeds do not develop within a sealed container (a fruit). The word gymnosperm comes from the Greek words gymnos, meaning “naked,” and sperma, meaning “seed.”

42 Gymnosperms, continued
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Gymnosperms, continued Key Features of Gymnosperms All gymnosperms produce seeds. All seed plants produce very tiny gametophytes of two types—male and female. The sperm of gymnosperms do not swim through water to reach and fertilize eggs. Instead, the sperm are carried to the structures that contain eggs by pollen, which can drift on the wind.

43 Characteristics of Gymnosperms
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Characteristics of Gymnosperms

44 Gymnosperms, continued
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Gymnosperms, continued Kinds of Gymnosperms The conifers (phylum Coniferophyta) are the most familiar, and most successful, gymnosperms. The cycads (phylum Cycadophyta) have short stems and palmlike leaves. The only living species of ginkgo (phylum Ginkgophyta), or maidenhair tree, has fan-shaped leaves that resemble the leaves of the maidenhair fern. The gnetophytes (phylum Gnetophyta) are a diverse group of trees, shrubs, and vines that produce pollen and seeds in cones that resemble flowers.

45 Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Types of Gymnosperms

46 Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Angiosperms Most seed plants are flowering plants, or angiosperms. Angiosperms produce seeds that develop enclosed within a specialized structure called a fruit. The word angiosperm comes from the Greek words angeion, meaning “case,” and sperma, meaning “seed.”

47 Angiosperms, continued
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Angiosperms, continued Key Features of Angiosperms The male and female gametophytes of angiosperms develop within flowers, which promote pollination and fertilization more efficiently than do cones. Although fruits provide some protection for developing seeds, their primary function is to promote seed dispersal. The seeds of angiosperms have a supply of stored food called endosperm at some time during their development.

48 Characteristics of Angiosperms
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Characteristics of Angiosperms

49 Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Endosperm

50 Angiosperms, continued
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Angiosperms, continued Kinds of Angiosperms Botanists divide the angiosperms into two subgroups—monocots and dicots. The monocots are flowering plants that produce seeds with one seed leaf (cotyledon). The dicots are flowering plants that produce seeds with two seed leaves.

51 Familiar Families of Angiosperms
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Familiar Families of Angiosperms

52 Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots

53 Comparing Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots
Chapter 23 Section 2 Kinds of Plants Comparing Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots

54 Chapter 23 Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Objectives Identify foods that come from plants and their dietary importance. Describe several ways that wood is used. Explain how plants are used to treat human ailments. Identify plants that are used to make paper and cloth.

55 Chapter 23 Plants as Food Fruits and Vegetables
Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Plants as Food Fruits and Vegetables The United States government identifies foods that comes from a plant as an agricultural commodity. To a botanist, a fruit is the part of a plant that contains seeds, and a vegetative part is any nonreproductive part of a plant. Fruits and vegetables provide dietary fiber and are important sources of essential vitamins and minerals.

56 Parts of Plants Eaten as Food
Chapter 23 Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Parts of Plants Eaten as Food

57 Plants as Food, continued
Chapter 23 Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Plants as Food, continued Root Crops Potatoes are classified as a root crop because they grow underground. But, potatoes are actually tubers, modified underground stems that store starch. Yams, an essential food crop in many tropical parts of the world, are also tubers. Sweet potatoes, carrots, radishes, turnips, beets, and cassava are also important root crops.

58 Plants as Food, continued
Chapter 23 Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Plants as Food, continued Legumes Many members of the pea family, which are called legumes, produce protein-rich seeds in long pods. Peas, peanuts, and the many different types of beans are the seeds of legumes. Like many legumes, alfalfa has nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which add nitrogen compounds to the soil, in its roots.

59 Chapter 23 Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Cereals Cereals are grasses that are grown as food for humans and livestock. Cereal grasses produce large numbers of a type of edible, dry fruit called a grain. A grain contains a single seed with a large supply of endosperm.

60 Chapter 23 Cereals, continued Wheat
Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Cereals, continued Wheat For more than one-third of the world’s population, wheat is the primary source of food. The endosperm of wheat grains, which is high in carbohydrates, is commonly ground into white flour and used to make breads and pasta. One of the world’s best wheat-growing areas is the Great Plains region of the United States and Canada—a temperate grassland biome.

61 Chapter 23 Cereals, continued Corn
Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Cereals, continued Corn Corn is the most widely cultivated crop in the United States. Corn is also one of the world’s chief foods for farm animals. About 70 percent of the corn crop harvested in the United States is consumed by livestock. Other uses for corn include the production of corn syrup, margarine, corn oil, cornstarch, and fuel-grade ethanol.

62 Chapter 23 Cereals, continued Rice
Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Cereals, continued Rice For more than half of the people in the world, rice is the main part of every meal. Although it is low in protein, rice is an excellent source of energy-rich carbohydrates. In the United States, rice is grown in central California, in the Southeast, and along the Gulf Coast in fields.

63 Major Crop-Producing Regions of the World
Chapter 23 Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Major Crop-Producing Regions of the World

64 Chapter 23 Nonfood Uses of Plants Wood
Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Nonfood Uses of Plants Wood After food, wood is the single most valuable resource obtained from plants. Nearly 75 percent of the lumber cut in the United States is used for building construction. The rest is used to make products that contain wood, or it is ground and moistened to make wood pulp. Wood pulp is made into paper, rayon, and many other products.

65 Nonfood Uses of Plants, continued
Chapter 23 Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Nonfood Uses of Plants, continued Medicines People have always used substances obtained from plants to treat a variety of ailments. By studying the plants traditionally used to treat human ailments, researchers have developed many “modern” medicines. For example, willow tree (Salix) bark was a traditional cure for aches. Salicin is the pain-relieving chemical found in willows. Acetylsalicylic acid, a derivative of salicin, was first sold under the name “aspirin.”

66 Some Drugs Originally Derived from Plants
Chapter 23 Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Some Drugs Originally Derived from Plants

67 Nonfood Uses of Plants, continued
Chapter 23 Section 3 Plants in Our Lives Nonfood Uses of Plants, continued Fibers In plants, fibers help provide support for the plant body. The strength and flexibility of plant fibers make them ideal materials for making paper, cloth, and rope. Most of the fibers used to make paper come from wood. For centuries, people have made clothing with cloth made of cotton, the world’s most important plant fiber.

68 Chapter 23 Multiple Choice
Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice Use the figure below to answer questions 1–3.

69 Multiple Choice, continued
Chapter 23 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 1. In which pair of families do all of the plants produce seeds with two seed leaves? A. Liliaceae and Bromeliaceae B. Umbelliferae and Labiatae C. Palmae and Malvaceae D. Labiatae and Liliaceae

70 Multiple Choice, continued
Chapter 23 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued In which pair of families do all of the plants produce seeds with two seed leaves? A. Liliaceae and Bromeliaceae B. Umbelliferae and Labiatae C. Palmae and Malvaceae D. Labiatae and Liliaceae

71 Multiple Choice, continued
Chapter 23 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. Of the plants listed in the chart, which one is most likely to produce flowers with flower parts that are in multiples of three? F. rosemary G. celery H. palmetto J. hibiscus

72 Multiple Choice, continued
Chapter 23 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 2. Of the plants listed in the chart, which one is most likely to produce flowers with flower parts that are in multiples of three? F. rosemary G. celery H. palmetto J. hibiscus

73 Multiple Choice, continued
Chapter 23 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which statement is true about all of the plants listed in the chart? A. Their sperm must swim through water to fertilize eggs. B. They produce fruits. C. Their gametophytes develop inside cones. D. They reproduce by releasing spores.

74 Multiple Choice, continued
Chapter 23 Standardized Test Prep Multiple Choice, continued 3. Which statement is true about all of the plants listed in the chart? A. Their sperm must swim through water to fertilize eggs. B. They produce fruits. C. Their gametophytes develop inside cones. D. They reproduce by releasing spores.


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