2/13/2014 2 Europe faced hard economic times in the 1920s and 30s, just like America did. The Treaty of Versailles failed to address the problems after WWI, causing many hardships. Germany blamed for the war, stripped of all overseas colonies and border territories. Russia lost huge territories. Many young democracies collapsed and desperate countries turned to strong, outspoken leaders.
2/13/2014 3 Soviet Union = Josef Stalin Italy = Benito Mussolini Germany = Adolph Hitler Japan = Military Rule
2/13/2014 4 All encouraged fierce Nationalism All were experiencing an extreme economic crisis. All promised that they would restore their countries to their previous greatness All wanted to gain new lands for resources (and ego).
2/13/2014 5 Soviet Union Stalin tries to create a communist state country. He created a police state. Creates a TOTALITARIAN state. –Def: a country that maintains complete control over its citizens, individuals have no rights, and all political opposition is oppressed. Seized all farms and put farmers into 100 family collectives. Productivity decreases led to famine. He exiles or kills any political enemies. (Somewhere between 8 and 13 million people)
7 1931- Invaded China (Manchuria). The League of Nations did nothing. Began conquering Pacific Islands. LON= Nothing The U.S. worried about the Japanese presence in the Pacific and placed an embargo on oil and steel. This eventually leads the Japanese to plan the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941.
9 Under pressure of violence the king appointed Benito Mussolini when fascists were elected to other important posts. Benito Mussolini created his own totalitarian regime. Fascists- intense nationalism, also called black shirts. People called him IL Duce (the Chief). He became popular because of his efficiency, he made the country work. –He made the trains run on time. 1935- Invaded Ethiopia –LON did nothing.Italy
2/13/2014 11 Germany Hitler and the Nazi (National Socialist German Workers) Party gained power in Germany in the early 1930s. The Nazis were elected the majority party in 1932. Hitler was appointed Chancellor in 1933. Hitler began to violate the Treaty of Versailles. Remember what it did? He began to improve the economy by increasing size and power of the military.
During WWI, Germany borrowed heavily expecting that they would win the war and have the losers repay the loans. In addition to these debts, Germany faced huge reparation payments. Together, these debts exceeded Germany's GDP. In 1923, when Germany could no longer pay reparations, French and Belgium troops moved in to occupy the Ruhr, Germany's main industrial area. Without this major source of income, the government took to printing money which resulted in hyperinflation. At its most severe, the monthly rate of inflation reached 3.25 billion percent, equivalent to prices doubling every 49 hours. The US Dollar to Mark conversion rate peaked at $1 to 80 billion Marks. 2/13/2014 12
2/13/2014 21 Hitler began to violate the Treaty of Versailles. Remember what it did? Dropped out of the League of Nations Sent troops onto the Rhineland. He began to improve the economy by increasing size and power of the military.
2/13/2014 22 How does a bigger army help the country? 1. It gives people jobs. 2. Armies require stuff, which increases production. 3. It makes you feel strong!! *He addresses the same four things that Roosevelt did (remember). He just does it differently. Instead of parks schools and dams, they built tanks planes and bombs.
2/13/2014 23 Lebensraum = Living space Germany lost a lot of land after WWI. Hitler wanted to get these lands back and reunite the German speaking peoples. –to secure for the German people the land and soil to which they are entitled on this earth even if it required the might of the victorious sword.
2/13/2014 28 The Sudetenland- Czechoslovakia –Hitler demanded lands where Germans lived. –He massed troops on the border. –At the last minute he invited France and Great Britain to Berlin to discuss it. The result was…
2/13/2014 29 Def: giving in to the demands of an aggressor in return for peace. Hitler said that it would be his last demand. Why is this a bad idea?
2/13/2014 30 Hitler was given the Sudetenland. On March 15 th 1939 he took the rest of Czechoslovakia. Then he signed the Non-Aggression Pact with the Soviet Union. UH OH!! Why?
2/13/2014 32 Step by Step Adolf Hitler ripped up the dictated Treaty of Versailles! 1933 Germany leaves the League of Nations created by Versailles 1934 Reconstruction of the Wehrmacht, the navy and the Luftwaffe begun! 1935 Saarland brought back home! Armed power of the Reich regained! 1936 Rhineland completely liberated! 1937 The myth of war guilt ceremoniously extinguished! 1938 Germany and Austria united in the Reich! Greater Germany achieved! Therefore the whole of Germany will acknowledge its liberator on 10 April. Adolf Hitler All say: YES! Translation
2/13/2014 33 The Germans invaded on Sept. 9 th 1939. –BLITZKRIEG!! France and Great Britain declared war. This is the official start of WWII in Europe.
Planes attack enemy forces. New technology makes the attacks more effective. Accurate bombsights, New plane designs, Dive sirens to terrify troops on the ground, Better radios to communicate locations When bombing is through, tanks and armor attack destroying whatever resistance is left. Faster tanks, More accurate guns, Better armor plating, New tank tactics When the armor is through, infantry moves in to occupy the territory. Better light weapons, Portable radios 2/13/2014