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Engine Construction & Principles of Operation page 63

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1 Engine Construction & Principles of Operation page 63
Chapter 4 Engine Construction & Principles of Operation page 63

2 Gasoline Engines A gasoline fueled engine is a mechanism designed to transform the chemical energy of burning fuel into mechanical energy. Single cylinder Multi-cylinder V-inline- Rotary All have similar Fuel systems, Cooling and lubrication systems.

3 Simple Engine operation
Intake fuel/air Compression compress it Power Spark Exhaust get rid of it 4 Cycles

4 Gasoline HydroCarbon (HC) Refined from Petroleum Must: Ignite readily
Burn Cleanly Resist detonation Vaporize easily w/o impeding flow- Be free of dirt

5 Gasoline Assign Octane # 87-89-93 Higher # for higher compression
Shelf life Leaded/Lead Free Tetraethyl lead Additives Ethanol Methanol ether

6 Gas MUST Burn Quickly Not over 10% Ethanol
Liquid gas burns cold & Slow

7 Fuel is Atomized Must be in mist/vapor/atomized Increase surface area
Droplets (Spray paint, Air brush, mist)

8 Explosion must be contained
Need to contain to perform work Tube Sliding plug Cap Inlet\Outlet Direct the flame/explosion

9 Further Improvements Limit area of Explosion Tube = Cylinder
Sliding Plug = Piston Cap = Head Inlet/Outlet = Valves

10 Basics for an Engine Systems of the engine Mechanical Carburetion
Ignition Cooling Lubrication

11 Cylinder Block Frame of engine Keeps parts in alignment
Iron or Aluminum Holes “Bored” Cooling fins Water Jacket

12 Crankshaft Major Rotating part
Changes Reciprocating motion into rotary motion Fly Wheel/Snout Output Counter weights Crank pin / connecting rod journal Throw Key way

13 Crankcase Rigid Hold seals Hold oil Extreme pressure

14 Piston Sliding plug Expands during operation Ring grooves
Piston pin/wrist pin Head constructions

15 Pistons

16 Connecting Piston to Crankshaft
Wrist Pin Retaining clips Connecting Rod Bearings Cap Retainer Bolts

17 Intake & Exhaust Ports Ports (openings) Passages
                                Intake & Exhaust Ports Ports (openings) Passages Capped w/ poppet valves

18 Poppet Valves 4 stroke engines Door ways Pop open Sit in Valve guides

19 Valve Spring Assembly Holds valve in place Closes valve Valve Spring
Retainer Keeper

20 Valve Lifters/Tappets
Rides on Camshaft Taps/Lifts Valves Some adjustable

21 Cam Shaft Controls OPENING of valves Duration (time) Reach (distance)
½ crank speed www.

22 Fly Wheel smoothes engine operation Magnets cast into Key way/groove
Metal fins cooling Clutch

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