2Political Machines Boss Tweed Fixing the problems of cities requires huge sums of money.Without proper management that money can be misused.Controlling the money becomes an important part of city politics.Boss Tweed
7Political MachinesAs cities grew larger the men who ran them became more powerful.City BossWard BossesPrecinct Captains
8Precinct Captains & Ward Bosses Give jobs to people who promise support.Do favors in order to win support. “You can owe me one.”Give contracts to people in order to win support.Make sure people get out and vote.
9City Boss Controlled jobs Controlled contracts and licenses Police, fire etc.Controlled contracts and licensesGave away money. Why?Embraced ethnic groups. Why?Used his influence to get candidates elected.
10This leads to …SCANDAL Election fraud Bribes Kickbacks Paid by people who want to be elected.Needed to get contracts or jobs.KickbacksUsed to steal tax money.And it was easy to do because no one was looking
12PatronageDef: when elected officials or political organizations give out jobs to people who support them in getting elected.Often given to unqualified people.Led to incompetence and fraud.
13Solution = Create a Merit System Civil Service System=Jobs go to qualified individuals only.They keep those jobs so long as they perform well.Used tests to determine qualification.Postal workers, government employees
14Reformers of Civil Service. Rutherford P. Hayes-Hired independents for key positionsFired workers who did not produce.Investigated customs houses and fired corrupt workers.Followed by Garfield who died.Then Chester A. Arthur who fought for…
15The Pendleton Act 1883 Created a Civil Service commission. Gave jobs to qualified people.40% of government jobs by 1909.