5Tomb of Charles V 1500-1558 crowned 1520 abdicates 1556
6Charles V “the scholar king” Son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad of Castile, grandson of EmperorMaximilian I (Hapsburg).Ruler of the Burgundian territories ( ), King of Castile (1516 – 1556)King of Castile, King of Aragon ( ), King of Naples and Sicily ( ), Archduke of Austria ( ), King of the Romans (or German King), ( ) and Holy Roman Emperor ( )
30France - inherited by Louis XIV (blue)captured by 1659 (purple)captured by 1680 (light blue)captured by 1680, given back 1713 (light green)1713 boundary of France (red line)remaining Spanish (yellow)Dutch Republic 1648 captured by 1680 captured by 1680, given back 1713 1713 boundary of France remaining Spanish Dutch Republic 1648 (orange)
34Spanish ArmadaIn 1587 King Philip II of Spain drew up plans for war against Queen Elizabeth. A huge fleet, or armada of 130 ships was to sail up the English Channel to the Netherlands. It would be joined by an army of 30,000 men and take them to the English coast. Where they would land and invade England returning it to the Catholic religion. The Armada left Lisbon in May 1588, but ran into a storm and lost supplies. The English fleet, led by Lord Howard and Sir Francis Drake, attacked the Armada on 21 July near Plymouth. They tried to escape but knew they were trapped and decided to drop anchor near Calais harbour. That night Drake and Howard sent eight fire ships towards Calais harbour. The Spaniards were afraid and cut their anchor ropes and fled out to sea. When the battle began the Spaniards were already beginning to fall. The English destroyed four Spanish ships and damaged many more. The Spaniards were beaten but their only way home was to sail right round the north of Scotland and into the Atlantic Ocean. Just 60 ships made it back to Spain.
42Ferdinand II ( ) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary, He acquired the Imperial title just as the Bohemian revolt broke out, starting the 30 Years' War. Tilly served him ably as general until his death in 1632. Wallenstein as a general proved to be much more difficult to direct. Ferdinand's victory in 1635 and the Peace of Prague cost him the friendship of France.
43Rebels crushed at the White Mountain BOHEMIAN PHASE1618Defenestration of Prague.Bohemians rebel aided by the Transylvanians.Elector Frederick of the Palatinate becomes King of Bohemia, rebels march on ViennaDanger of electing a Protestant emperor encourages Ferdinand II to appeal to Spain and Maximilian of Bavaria1620Rebels crushed at the White Mountain
44Martinic and Jaroslav (cushioned in their fall by a dung heap) survived the defenestration of Prague and escaped.
45Albrecht E. W. von Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland and Mecklenburg (1583-1634) DANISH PHASE1623Bohemia ceded to the Hapsburg family, Protestant countries alarmed - Financal intervention by Christian IV of Denmark. Ferdinand II, having no army, commissions Wallenstein to fight for the Imperial cause - Bavarians and Imperialists defeat the Danes.1626Northern Germany under Imperial hegemony. England and France withdraw from the war1629Edict of Restitution – Catholics and Lutherans allowed, no other denominations/sects.
46Maximilian I of Bavaria (1623 -1651) Duke of Bavaria, , Elector, ). Founder and leader of the Catholic League and major supporter of Ferdinand II during the 30 Years' War. Maximillian demanded of Ferdinand II both his lands and electoral title as the price of his support. His jealousy of Wallenstein proved to be very damaging to his own interests--and resulted in Bavaria being occupied at one point by Swedish troops. He was one of the few participants in the War who successfully survived the struggle
47The Dutch were also defeated and in 1625 lost Breda to the Spanish.
48SWEDISH PHASE1630Swedish Intervention1631Tilly routed at Breitenfeld1632Wallenstein recalled. Gustavus killed at Lutzen.1634Wallenstein murdered.Swedes defeated at Nordlingen Ferdinand makes peace in Germany, abandons Edict of Restitution
49Gustavus Adolphus( )"The Lion of the North - Savior of Protestants"
50Lützen was at once a victory and a disaster, for Gustavus Adolphus was killed. His heir was his daughter, Christina - six years old at the time.
51Cardinal Richelieu 1585-1642 1624 –Prime Minister If you give me six lines written by the most honest man, I will find something in them to hang him. —Cardinal Richelieu
52FRENCH PHASE1635France enters the war against Spain, with Holland and Sweden.1643Battle of Rocroi - Spanish army of Flanders destroyed1648Treaty of Westphalia confirmed independence of German princes with the settlement of religion to remain as under the terms of the Peace Augsburg.1659Treaty of the Pyrenees
53“Tie fighters” -Croatian horsemen hired by King Louis XIV