Presentation on theme: "Map 14.1 The Global Empire of Charles V. Map 14.2 The Protestant and the Catholic Reformations."— Presentation transcript:
Map 14.1 The Global Empire of Charles V
Map 14.2 The Protestant and the Catholic Reformations
Overseas Exploration and Conquest, Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
The Worldwide Slave Trade
Tomb of Charles V crowned 1520 abdicates 1556
Charles V the scholar king Ruler of the Burgundian territories ( ), King of Castile (1516 – 1556)King of Castile, King of Aragon ( ), King of Naples and Sicily ( ), Archduke of Austria ( ), King of the Romans (or German King), ( ) and Holy Roman Emperor ( ) Son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad of Castile, grandson of Emperor Maximilian I (Hapsburg).
Charles V the warrior king
Philip II crowned 1556 Mary I (Tudor) Reign
Philip II & Mary I (Tudor)
Escorial – Philips Palace outside of Madrid
Francis I of France crowned 1515
Henry II Diane de Poitiers Crowned 1547
Chateau Chenonceaux Catherine de Medici
Francis II & Mary Stuart (Scots) born1544 crowned 1559 died 1560 Charles IX born 1550 crowned 1561 died 1574
Duke de Guise brother of Mary Guise mother of Mary Stuart Murdered 1563 Henry III crowned king of Poland 1573 crowned King of France 1575 murdered 1589
Marguerite de Valois /de Navarre /de France /Queen Margot ( ) married Henry 1572 Henry of Navarre (IV) (Bourbon) crowned 1589
Coligny, Gaspard de Châtillon, comte de escaped 1 st assassination attempt to be later killed two days later at St. Bartholomews Day Massacre
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (1572): Henry of Navarre
Map 15.1 The Netherlands, 1578–1609
Margaret of Savoy Maria of Habsburg (of Hungary) Emanuel Philibert of Savoy Margaret of Parma Ferdinand of Toledo, Duke of Alva Juan de la Cerda, Duke of Medina Celi Luis de Requesens
William of Orange
Elizabeth I crowned 1558
France - inherited by Louis XIV (blue) captured by 1659 (purple) captured by 1680 (light blue) captured by 1680, given back 1713 (light green) 1713 boundary of France (red line) remaining Spanish (yellow) Dutch Republic 1648 captured by 1680 captured by 1680, given back boundary of France remaining Spanish Dutch Republic 1648 (orange)
Spanish Armada In 1587 King Philip II of Spain drew up plans for war against Queen Elizabeth. A huge fleet, or armada of 130 ships was to sail up the English Channel to the Netherlands. It would be joined by an army of 30,000 men and take them to the English coast. Where they would land and invade England returning it to the Catholic religion. The Armada left Lisbon in May 1588, but ran into a storm and lost supplies. The English fleet, led by Lord Howard and Sir Francis Drake, attacked the Armada on 21 July near Plymouth. They tried to escape but knew they were trapped and decided to drop anchor near Calais harbour. That night Drake and Howard sent eight fire ships towards Calais harbour. The Spaniards were afraid and cut their anchor ropes and fled out to sea. When the battle began the Spaniards were already beginning to fall. The English destroyed four Spanish ships and damaged many more. The Spaniards were beaten but their only way home was to sail right round the north of Scotland and into the Atlantic Ocean. Just 60 ships made it back to Spain.
Europe in 1648
Ferdinand II ( ) Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia, King of Hungary, He acquired the Imperial title just as the Bohemian revolt broke out, starting the 30 Years' War. Tilly served him ably as general until his death in Wallenstein as a general proved to be much more difficult to direct. Ferdinand's victory in 1635 and the Peace of Prague cost him the friendship of France.
BOHEMIAN PHASE 1618 Defenestration of Prague. Bohemians rebel aided by the Transylvanians. Elector Frederick of the Palatinate becomes King of Bohemia, rebels march on Vienna Danger of electing a Protestant emperor encourages Ferdinand II to appeal to Spain and Maximilian of Bavaria 1620 Rebels crushed at the White Mountain
Martinic and Jaroslav (cushioned in their fall by a dung heap) survived the defenestration of Prague and escaped.
Albrecht E. W. von Wallenstein, Duke of Friedland and Mecklenburg ( ) DANISH PHASE 1623 Bohemia ceded to the Hapsburg family, Protestant countries alarmed - Financal intervention by Christian IV of Denmark. Ferdinand II, having no army, commissions Wallenstein to fight for the Imperial cause - Bavarians and Imperialists defeat the Danes. Wallenstein 1626 Northern Germany under Imperial hegemony. England and France withdraw from the war 1629 Edict of Restitution – Catholics and Lutherans allowed, no other denominations/sects.
Maximilian I of Bavaria ( ) Duke of Bavaria, , Elector, ). Founder and leader of the Catholic League and major supporter of Ferdinand II during the 30 Years' War. Maximillian demanded of Ferdinand II both his lands and electoral title as the price of his support. His jealousy of Wallenstein proved to be very damaging to his own interests-- and resulted in Bavaria being occupied at one point by Swedish troops. He was one of the few participants in the War who successfully survived the struggle
The Dutch were also defeated and in 1625 lost Breda to the Spanish.
SWEDISH PHASE 1630 Swedish Intervention 1631 Tilly routed at BreitenfeldTilly 1632 Wallenstein recalled. Gustavus killed at Lutzen Wallenstein murdered. Swedes defeated at Nordlingen Ferdinand makes peace in Germany, abandons Edict of Restitution
Gustavus Adolphus ( ) "The Lion of the North - Savior of Protestants"
Lützen was at once a victory and a disaster, for Gustavus Adolphus was killed. His heir was his daughter, Christina - six years old at the time.Christina
Cardinal Richelieu –Prime Minister If you give me six lines written by the most honest man, I will find something in them to hang him. Cardinal Richelieu
FRENCH PHASE 1635 France enters the war against Spain, with Holland and Sweden Battle of Rocroi - Spanish army of Flanders destroyed 1648 Treaty of Westphalia confirmed independence of German princes with the settlement of religion to remain as under the terms of the Peace Augsburg Treaty of the Pyrenees
Tie fighters -Croatian horsemen hired by King Louis XIVCroatian horsemen hired by King Louis XIV