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Chapter 2: The Management Movement

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1 Chapter 2: The Management Movement
Section 2.1: The Evolution of Management

2 The Industrial Revolution
Began in the United States in 1860 Just before the Civil War Period during which a country develops an industrial economy Before the Industrial Revolution, economy based on agriculture By the late 1800s, economy depended on industries such as oil, steel, railroads, and manufactured goods

3 Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Many people left their farms to work in factories Professional managers supervised their work Changes in technology, communication, and transportation Telegraph and cable lines extended across the U.S. after the Civil War Railroad lines, canals, roads, steamships

4 Captains of Industry Cornelius Vanderbilt (steamships & railroads) John D. Rockefeller (Oil) Andrew Carnegie (steel) James B. Duke (tobacco) J. P. Morgan (banking) Powerful businesspeople who created enormous business empires dominated and shaped the U.S. economy

5 Creation of Monopolies
The captains of industry often pursued profit and self-interest above all else Drove competitors out of business Created giant companies that maintained monopolies in their industries Monopoly Occurs when one party maintains total control over a type of industry Trust: giant industrial monopoly By 1879, Rockefeller controlled >90% of the country’s refining capacity and pipelines

6 The Break-Up of Trusts People became worried about the concentration of wealth in the hands of a only a few In response, the government began regulating business Cornelius Vanderbilt

7 The Break-Up of Trusts The Interstate Commerce Act, 1887
The railroads gave rebates to some customers but not others This act forced railroads to publish their rates and forbade them to change rates without notifying the public Established the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to supervise the railroads

8 The Break-Up of Trusts The Sherman Act, 1890
Made it illegal for companies to create monopolies Intended to restore competition Example Standard Oil Company was broken into smaller companies so that other oil companies could compete with the former giant John D. Rockefeller

9 New Challenges for Management
When most Americans worked on farms, sophisticated management techniques were not necessary By the end of the nineteenth century, giant companies employed thousands of people and distributed products all over the country Workers performed tasks that needed to be coordinated These changes demanded new ideas about how to manage people working in large corporations

10 Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management
Wanted to find ways to motivate workers to work harder To increase efficiency, he tried to figure “one best way” to perform a particular task Used a stopwatch to determine which work method was most efficient These time and motion studies lead to scientific management principles

11 Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management
Scientific management seeks to increase productivity and make work easier by carefully studying work procedures and determining the best methods for performing particular tasks

12 Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management
Employers should gather, classify, and tabulate data in order to determine the “one best way” of performing a task or series of tasks. Employers should study worker strengths and weaknesses and match workers to jobs. Employers should also train employees in order to improve their performance. The principles of scientific management should be explained to workers. Management and workers should be interdependent so that they cooperate.

13 Frederick W. Taylor and Scientific Management
Companies today continue to use the principles of scientific management Marriott Corporation Customer satisfaction

14 The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity
Researchers began to look at the relationship between working conditions and productivity Series of experiments at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric in Cicero, IL Lowered the lighting expecting productivity to fall What happened?

15 The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity
Baffled by results, a team of psychologists from Harvard University were called upon Over five years, hundreds of experiments were conducted at the plant Different wage payments Rest periods Work hours What were the results?

16 The Hawthorne Studies of Productivity
Researchers concluded that productivity rose because workers worked harder when they received attention Hawthorne effect Change of any kind increases productivity Factors other than the physical environment affected worker productivity Psychological and social conditions, effective supervision

17 Abraham H. Maslow and the Hierarchy of Needs
According to Maslow All people have five basic types of needs People fulfill lower-level needs before seeking to fulfill higher-level needs One set of needs must be met before another is sought “Hierarchy of needs” is his grouping and ordering of physical, security, social, status, and self-actualization needs

18 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

19 Applying Maslow’s Theory to Management
At the lowest level, workers are motivated by basic needs Wages or salary, physical conditions Safety or security needs Providing insurance, retirement benefits, job security Safe from physical, psychological, or financial harm

20 Applying Maslow’s Theory to Management
Social needs Provide a work environment in which colleagues interact Company lunch rooms, company retreats Status needs Provide workers with signs of recognition that are visible to others Job titles, private offices, designated parking spaces, awards, promotions

21 Applying Maslow’s Theory to Management
Self-fulfillment needs Provide employees with opportunities to be creative at work Include employees in decision making Example ITT’s Ring of Quality Control

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