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A Brief History of Rome and Julius Caesar

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1 A Brief History of Rome and Julius Caesar

2 Rome Founded: Rough estimates 753 B.C.-501 A.D. (some consider the timeline to go on another 150 more years) Government: Republic: a government in which supreme power resides in a body of citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and representatives responsible to them and governing according to law

3 Rome (con) -The republic shifted in its actual usage. At times it was a smattering of a monarchy, democracy, and a dictatorship depending on outside circumstances. - Today, Rome is still considered the longest dominating civilization. Created major militaristic, artistic, scientific, architectural, political, and religious progress.

4 Rise of Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar: 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC Family: Gens Julia (or the Julii) Political Affiliation: Populares (vs.optimates) Came to power through various political positions in Roman government and also was a strong general that accumulated many victories.

5 Julius Caesar’s Reign of Power
Caesar became contender for the position of Consul. He had stiff competition. He formed the first Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus. This meant a three way split in power. Crassus was murdered in his battle with the Parthians and Caesar and Pompey resumed control. Caesar went on to conquer Gaul (France) and Pompey grew jealous. Civil war was the result.

6 Julius Caesar’s Reign of Power
Caesar outnumbered 3:1 defeated Pompey at Pharsalus (48 B.C.). This battle was seen as militaristic genius on the part of Caesar. Pompey went into exile and was murdered upon his arrival to Egypt. Caesar alone became Consul and eventual dictator of Rome.

7 Julius Caesar’s Reign of Power
During his reign of power Caesar had the backing of the people, but his antics angered the senate. The last straw came when he started to allow non-romans (Celts, Gauls, etc.) to be members of the senate. Revenge came when 60 members of the senate stabbed Caesar to death. This group included Cassius, Brutus, and others.

8 Impact of Caesar’s Death and the Control for Power that Followed
Because of Mark Antony’s cunning ways he was able to gain support of the people and banish the conspirators of Caesar’s murder. Mark Antony teamed up with rival Gaius Octavius Thurinus, (Caesar’s nephew and adopted son), and Lepidus to destroy the opposing force generated by Brutus, Cato, and Cassius.

9 Impact of Caesar’s Death and the Control for Power that Followed
After a time Mark Antony and Octavius fueled another Civil War between each other. Octavius was the victor and became known as the greatest Roman Emperor of all time. He lived to be 77 and carried Rome through its Golden Age. All other emperors would have to be compared to him.

10 Characters in Play (Historical Info)
Mark Antony (January 14, 83 BC–August 1, 30 BC) Julius Caesar’s second cousin and second in command. He was a strong military commander and popular with the people, however, like Caesar, he also did not mesh with the Senate. He had some major character flaws and was considered a brash, cocky, and difficult person. He later fueded with Octavian and fell

11 Characters in Play (Historical Info)
in love with Cleopatra. Octavian changed peoples opinions of Mark Antony when he read what was supposedly his will to the public. It made him look like he sided with Egypt more than Rome. He eventually committed suicide with Cleopatra. This became another subject of a Shakespeare poem.

12 Characters in Play (Historical Info)
Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 BC) or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus His father was a legate to Pompey and Cato was a relative. His mother was Julius Caesar’s mistress. At one point Caesar regarded Brutus as a son. Brutus was part of an opposing political force, but Caesar was exceptionally forgiving and forgave him. Big mistake. Brutus was later slaughtered by Mark Antony and Octavian’s forces.

13 Characters in Play (Historical Info)
Caesar Octavius Mark Antony

14 Characters in Play (Historical Info)
Brutus Cassius

15 Characters in Play (Historical Info)
Lepidus Cicero (Senator)

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