2Republic of ChinaThe Qing Dynasty was over thrown by Chinese nationalist in 1912.The Dynasty had ruled China since the 1600s.The new government was be known as the Republic of China led by Sun Yixian.Sun Yixian vowed to end foreign controlover Chinese affairs.
3The government could not bring order to China or help its people. Many people were killed by robbers and thieves.Agriculture was failing and the country faced famine.WWI pulled the attention away from China’s problems.
4After the WarAfter the war the Treaty of Verailles restored the government with Sun Yixian leading the country.Japan was given some of China’s territory.
5Birth of the Chinese Communist Party Many young Chinese were angry about the Treaty.They wanted to end what they felt was a failed government of Sun Yixian.They began looking at Russia and their Communist Revolution as an alternative to western democracy.
6In 1921, a group of young Chinese men including Mao Zedong met to form the Chinese Communist Party.
7Nationalist Republic of China After Sun Yixian’s death the new head of government, Jiang Jieshi, tried to make an alliance with the Chinese Communist Party.The two groups worked together for some years to bring order to China.Jiang Jieshi and his government later turned on the communist and many were killed.1929 – The Chinese government became known as the Nationalist Republic of China.
9Civil War in China Mao Zedong survived the attack on the communist. He relocated his communist party to the countryside and rallied the support of the peasants.Civil war broke out between Mao’s communist and Jiang Jieshi’s Nationalist government.
101933 – Mao and 600,000 followers escaped defeat from the Nationalist government by heading into the mountainside.The 6,000 mile journey was known as the Long March.There was a temporary truce during World War II while both sides fought to keep the Japanese from taking over China.
12People’s Republic of China When WWII was over the Civil War started up again.Mao’s army was now known as the Red Army.In 1949 the Red Army defeated the Nationalist government.Oct – Mao proclaimed the creation of the People’s Republic of China. (a communist government)
13Mao and The Cultural Revolution Facing the prospect of losing his place on the political stage, Mao responded by launching the Cultural Revolution in 1966.One of the main focuses of the Cultural Revolution was the abolishment of the Four Olds: Old Customs, Old Culture, Old Habits, and Old Ideas.
14Red Guards Role in the Cultural Revolution Throughout the Cultural Revolution, the Red Guards traveled throughout China, going to schools, universities, and institutions, spreading the teachings of Mao.
15Mao’s Little Red Bookwas published by the Government of the People's Republic of China from April 1964 until 1976.collection of quotations excerpted from Mao Zedong's past speeches and publicationsrequirement for every Chinese citizen to own, to read, and to carry it at all times during the later half of Mao's rule, especially during the Cultural Revolution.
16Red Guards Role in the Cultural Revolution The role of Red Guard was mainly to attack the "Four Olds" of society, that is what is believed to be old ideas, cultures, habits, and customs of China at the time.Red Guards in Beijing and elsewhere in China had taken to the streets from their schools.They made posters, speeches, criticized Party leaders, and some committed violent acts in the name of the Cultural Revolution.
17The Cultural Revolution Many religious buildings such as temples, churches, mosques, and cemeteries were closed down and sometimes looted and destroyedIn August and September, there were 1,772 people murdered in Beijing alone. In Shanghai in September there were 704 suicides and 534 deaths related to the Cultural Revolution
19Tiananmen Squareis the large plaza near the center of Beijing, China which sits to its north, separating it from the Forbidden City.It has great cultural significance as a symbol because it was the site of several key events in Chinese history
21Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 - Background Since 1978, leader Deng Xiaoping had led a series of economic and political reforms which had led to the gradual implementation of a market economy and some political liberalization that relaxed the system set up by Mao Zedong.
22Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 - Background Some students and intellectuals believed that the reforms had not gone far enough and that China needed to reform its political system.They were also concerned about the social and political controls that the Communist Party of China still had
23Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 - Background The Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 were in large measure sparked by the death of former Secretary General Hu Yaobang"rapid reform" and his almost open contempt of "Maoist excesses“His sudden death, due to heart attack, 1989 provided a perfect opportunity for the students to gather once againHu Yaobang
24Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 - Background The protests were begun by Beijing students to encourage free-market reforms and liberalization.Protesters believed that China had not gone far enough in economic liberalization and privatization.They also believed that the social reforms made by Deng Xiaoping had not gone far enough and China needed to reform its political systems.
25Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 - Protests escalate 100,000 students and workers marched in Beijing making demands for free media reform and a formal dialogue between the authoritiesThe government rejected the proposed dialoguehuge groups of students occupied Tiananmen Square and started a hunger strike
27Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 - Protests escalate The number of dead and wounded remains unclear because of the large discrepancies between the different estimates. According to initial reports from the Chinese Red Cross, there were 2,600 casualties