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Karl Marx The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.

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Presentation on theme: "Karl Marx The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Karl Marx The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.


3 Czar Alexander II

4 Czar (Tsar) Alexander II


6 The Crimean War was fought between Russia and the allied forces of the United Kingdom, France, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. It began on the Crimean peninsula in 1853. The allies objected to expanding Russian power in the Black Sea area and to the seizing of land from the Ottoman Empire. Russia was defeated in 1856. Florence Nightingale

7 Russian Serfdom % at the time of its abolishment

8 Count Sergei Witte Minister of Finance

9 The shell-shop of the Putilov works, St Petersburg 1903

10 Trans-Siberian line in red

11 It is Too Soon to Thank God.' - The Assassination of Czar Alexander II"

12 Lenin's older brother Alexander Ulyanov--Part of the Populist Terrorists

13 Karl Marx--Co-Author of Communist Manifesto G. Plekhanov-- Father of Russian Marxism A young Lenin, around 1890

14 Czar Alexander III

15 Alexander III

16 Czar Nicholas II and Czarina Alexandra with children

17 Winter Palace from across the Neva River One of St. Petersburg's many canals


19 The Winter Palace built between 1754 and 1762 as the winter residence of the Russian tsars.


21 Father Gapon, Iron Workers and the Mayor of St. Petersburg, 1905

22 The Tsar's soldiers shooting at demonstrators at the Winter Palace Bloody Sunday, 01-22-1905 (new calendar )

23 Painting of the Bloody Sunday massacre (Source: Brooklyn College History Department) Father Gapon (Source: Hulton Getty)

24 Treaty of Portsmouth 1905 –ended Russo-Japanese War

25 Demonstrations of 1905

26 1905 (June)--Potemkin Mutiny

27 Duma

28 Session of the Duma 1906

29 Socialist Revolutionary Party. Goal. Their main goal, just like the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks, was to stop one part of society from exploiting the other. They differed, however, by targeting the bottom of the working class, not the educated "proletariats." They wanted the tsar overthrown.

30 "Bolsheviks" because it meant "majority." Bolsheviks

31 Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party "dictatorship of the proletariat." Constitutional Assembly, elected by the people, to rule.

32 Why was the Revolution of 1905 NOT THE Revolution? Political – Too many groups, no unity, no clear objectives. » Tsar offers concessions offered by Witte and Duma extended limited rights – speech & religion » Most strikes eventually abandoned » Tsar could revoke, and did, the Constitution » Use of spies and secret police to infiltrate subversive groups. » Arrest of many revolutionary leaders, including Soviets.

33 why not the Revolution of 1905 contd. Military »Mutinies, including the Potemkin, were crushed »Lack of full military support for the revolution »Tsar used force to put down demonstrations



36 Table 1 Percentage Distribution of the World's Manufacturing Production, 1870 and 1913 (percentage of world total) 18701913 USA23.335.8 Germany13.215.7 U.K.31.814.0 France10.36.4 Russia3.75.5 Italy2.42.7 Canada1.02.3 Belgium2.92.1 Sweden0.41.0 Japan |1.2 India |-11.01.1 Other Countries | 12.2

37 Table 2 The Rate of Industrial Growth in Five Selected Countries Indices of Industrial Production (Base Figures - 1905-13 = 100) UKFranceGermanyRussiaItaly 1781-903.810.9--- 1801-147.112.3--- 1825-3418.821.5--- 1845-5427.533.711.7-- 1865-7449.249.824.213.542.9 1885-9470.568.245.338.754.6 1905-13100.0 % of world industrial production in 1913 14.06.417.75.52.7

38 Table 3 Output of Coal and Lignite - Selected Countries, Annual Averages (in million metric tonnes) UKFranceGermanyAustriaBelgiumRussia 1820-417. 1840-434. 1860-486.310. 1880-4158.920.265.717.017.53.7 1900-4230.433.0157.338.823.317.3

39 Table 4 Output of Pig Iron - Selected Countries, Annual Averages (in thousand metric tons) UKFranceGermanyAustriaBelgiumRussia 1781-9069141---- 1825-296692129085-164 1855-593,583900422306312254 1875-796,4841,4621,770418484424 1900-148,7782,6657,9251,4251,0702,773

40 Table 5 Growth of the Cotton Industry in Selected Countries (Cotton Spindles - Selected Countries, Annual Total Figures [in 1000's]) UKFranceGermanyAustria Belgiu m Russia 183410,0002,500626(`36)800200700 (1840) 187739,5005,0004,7001,5588002,500 191355,7007,40011,1864,9091,4929,212

41 Table 6 [See this data presented in a variety of ways - Table 6 Extra]Table 6 Extra Spread of Railways in Ten Selected Countries (Length of line open [in kilometers [1km = 5/8 mile]) 1840186018801900 Austria-Hungary1444,54318,50736,330 Belgium3341,7304,1124,591 France4969,16723,08938,109 Germany46911,08933,83851,678 Great Britain2,39014,60325,06030,079 Italy202,4049,29016,429 Netherlands173351,8462,776 Russia271,62622,86553,234 Spain-1,9177,49013,214 Sweden-5275,87611,303

42 Table 7 Illiteracy in Europe, c. 1850 (Approximate Percentage of Adult Illiterates is Indicated Where Known) Countries with less than 30% illiterate Countries with 30 to 50% illiterate Countries with over 50% illiterate DenmarkAustria 40-45%Bulgaria GermanyBelgium 45-50%Greece (Prussia 20%)England 30-33%Hungary NetherlandsFrance 40-45%Italy 75-80% Scotland 20%Portugal Sweden 10%Rumania SwitzerlandRussia 90-95% Serbia Spain 75%

43 Table 8 Population (tentative estimates in millions - much of it guesswork) * 1750/11800/11850/11990 Great Britain7.410.520.857.1 France2127.335.856.1 Germany |34.079.0 |-[Germ+Aust]1823 Austria |17.57.6 Hungary3. Belgium2. Italy16.019.024.457.6 Netherlands1. Portugal2.32.93.510.5 Russia2840.068.5146.4 Spain8.210.515.039.6 Sweden1. EUROPE (approx) 132.0190.0260.0775.0



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