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1 Starting System Principles Uses battery power. 2 AUTOMOTIVE STARTING SYSTEMS Starter Circuit Electric DC Motor (starter motor) Solenoid or Relay Gear.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Starting System Principles Uses battery power. 2 AUTOMOTIVE STARTING SYSTEMS Starter Circuit Electric DC Motor (starter motor) Solenoid or Relay Gear."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Starting System Principles Uses battery power

2 2 AUTOMOTIVE STARTING SYSTEMS Starter Circuit Electric DC Motor (starter motor) Solenoid or Relay Gear Drive Switches & Controls Wiring Testing Removing Starter

3 3 STARTING SYSTEM PARTS Battery Ignition switch Solenoid Starting motor

4 4 STARTER CIRCUIT Battery / Cables Magnetic Switches Solenoids Pull in Windings Hold in Windings Pinion Gear Starter Relay

5 5 Starter Circuit Simplified

6 6 Starter Solenoid Functions * Close battery to starter connection * Push pinion gear into fly wheel * Bypass the resistance wire of ignition circuit Move the starter drive into mesh w. flywheel Complete the starter circuit

7 7 Starting System Action Energizes solenoid Current flows to Solenoid Turn key Connects current to starter motor Motor turns flywheel Turns crankshaft Moves pistons up and down 1 Turns starter Moves pinion forward

8 8 Starter System Action cont.

9 9 Starter Motor Fundamentals Converts Electrical Energy From Battery Into Mechanical Energy TORQUE

10 10 DC MOTOR Basic Components Housings and End Frames Pole Shoes (magnets) Field Coils (windings) x 3 or 4 Armature (spins) Commutator Brushes x4

11 11 MOTOR OPERATION Magnetic Field Action made of invisible lines of force (flux) flow through wire flow around wire alike charges repel Dissimilar Charges attract(spinning action) Used to produce motion

12 12 DRIVE MECHANISM Positive engagement Movable pole shoe Solenoid-actuated Gear reduction drive

13 13 Simple Electric Motors Wire loop field Set up between poles POLE SHOES

14 14 Changing Electricity Into Motion Place windings inside pole shoes Current through loop Fields act upon each other

15 15 Commutators and Brushes Used to keep motor spinning by controlling current passing through windings commutator Sliding electrical connection Between motor windings and brushes Many segments Insulated from each other Motor brushes Ride on comutator (slide on commutator) Carry current to spinning windings

16 16 Commutators and Brushes Increasing Motor Power several windings wires Commutator several segments constant smooth motion

17 17 Armatures Must produce HIGH torque turning power relatively high speed

18 18 Starter Armature parts shaft supports windings/armature inside housing Core (holds windings in place) made of iron (Fe) increases magnetic field strength Commutator for brush contact Windings wires

19 19 Field Windings stationary insulated wires wrapped in circular shape creates strong magnetic field around motor armature 5-10 x stronger than perminate magnets field in pole shoes acts against field in armature = motor spins

20 20 Pinion gear mechanism Pinion gear Clutch Housing

21 21 Starter Pinion Gears Small gear on armature shaft Engages to flywheel Meshes Fly Wheel Turns Engine

22 22 Overrunning Clutch Locks pinion gear in one direction Releases it in other direction Spiral grooves in shaft Allows starter motor to crank the engine Protects the starter from damage if the starter is cranked while the engine is running

23 23 Starter Solenoid High current relay Makes electrical connection between Battery & starter Electromagnetic switch Handle VERY HIGH currents

24 24 Starter Solenoid Operation Key turned (start position) Current flows through solenoids windings Produces magnetic field Pulls plunger and disc into coil windings Causes disc to touch both high current terminals Completes circuit battery to starter Current of A

25 25 Solenoid

26 26 Key Released Current disconnected Magnetic field collapses Plunger slides back Starter shuts off

27 27 Increasing Motor Power Several windings Wires Comutator Several segments Constant smooth motion

28 28 RELATED MOTOR TERMINOLOGY Left hand or right hand rule Torque Current Draw

29 29 STARTER DRIVE END Connects the armature shaft to the flywheel. Usually shifted out by the solenoid. Contains an over- running clutch for protection. Pinion gear meshes with the flywheel ring gear. Returned to the rest position by a spring.

30 30 SOLENOID A linear motor Contains two windings a pull-in and a hold-in winding. Pushes the starter drive(pinion) into mesh with the flywheel ring gear. Completes the circuit to the motor.

31 31 CONTROL CIRCUIT Starting Safety Switch Neutral Safety Switch On transmission On Clutch

32 32 Starting Motor Types classified by: kind of pinion gear engagement moveable pole shoe solenoid Movable pole shoe uses a yoke Y moves pinion gear hinged shoe on starter frame yoke links pole shoe & pinion gear

33 33 Internal Motor Circuits 3 common internal connections Series maximum torque torque decreases throughout cranking Shunt Less torque More constant torque Compound series/shunt good toque constant speed

34 34 Neutral Safety Switch prevents cranking unless in P or N Ford - brake on LOCATION Connected in series with the ignition switch and solenoid shifter or transmission

35 35 Starter Relay Uses small current to control a LARGER current Computer controls circuit (mV)

36 36 Starter Types Starter Mounted Solenoids plunger moves shift lever GM/Chrysler Permanent Magnet Starter Use high strength permanent magnets NOT CONVENTIONAL WINDINGS = MORE torque

37 37 Starter Motor Torque Must turn engine all components Can Not Stall Reduction starter extra set of gears increase rotating force higher speeds higher torque more constant cranking speeds

38 38 STARTER TESTING Preliminary Tests Safety Precautions Troubleshooting Procedures Battery Load Test Cranking Voltage Test Cranking Current Test Insulated Resistance Test Starter Relay By- pass Test Ground Circuit Resistance Test Voltage Drop to Control Unit Test Components

39 39 Problems Starter relay or solenoid clicks low battery charge Whining Plunger stuck Grinding Poor engagement Slow turn Low battery Internal short

40 40 Battery Load Test VAT 40 All Accessories on ½ CCA

41 41 Test Cranking Voltage DVOM across battery Cranking Current Test Inductive Pick Up Current draw AMPS Voltage Drop Test

42 42 Tests Test Relay Ground Circuit Resistance Test Starter Relay Bypass Test Ground test Bench test

43 43 Starter Motor Disassembly

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