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Starting System Principles

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Presentation on theme: "Starting System Principles"— Presentation transcript:

1 Starting System Principles
Uses battery power

Starter Circuit Electric DC Motor (starter motor) Solenoid or Relay Gear Drive Switches & Controls Wiring Testing Removing Starter

3 STARTING SYSTEM PARTS Battery Ignition switch Solenoid Starting motor

4 STARTER CIRCUIT Battery / Cables Magnetic Switches Solenoids
Pull in Windings Hold in Windings Pinion Gear Starter Relay

5 Starter Circuit Simplified

6 Starter Solenoid Functions
* Close battery to starter connection * Push pinion gear into fly wheel * Bypass the resistance wire of ignition circuit Move the starter drive into mesh w. flywheel Complete the starter circuit

7 Starting System Action
Turn key Current flows to Solenoid 1 Energizes solenoid Connects current to starter motor Moves pinion forward Turns starter Motor turns flywheel Turns crankshaft Moves pistons up and down

8 Starter System Action cont.

9 Starter Motor Fundamentals
Converts Electrical Energy From Battery Into Mechanical Energy TORQUE

10 DC MOTOR Basic Components Housings and End Frames Pole Shoes (magnets)
Field Coils (windings) x 3 or 4 Armature (spins) Commutator Brushes x4

11 MOTOR OPERATION Magnetic Field Action
made of invisible lines of force (flux) flow through wire flow around wire alike charges repel Dissimilar Charges attract(spinning action) Used to produce motion

12 DRIVE MECHANISM Positive engagement Solenoid-actuated
Movable pole shoe Solenoid-actuated Gear reduction drive

13 Simple Electric Motors
Wire loop field Set up between poles POLE SHOES

14 Changing Electricity Into Motion
Place windings inside pole shoes Current through loop Fields act upon each other

15 Commutators and Brushes
Used to keep motor spinning by controlling current passing through windings commutator Sliding electrical connection Between motor windings and brushes Many segments Insulated from each other Motor brushes Ride on comutator (slide on commutator) Carry current to spinning windings

16 Commutators and Brushes
Increasing Motor Power several windings wires Commutator several segments constant smooth motion

17 Armatures Must produce HIGH torque turning power relatively high speed

18 Starter Armature parts
shaft supports windings/armature inside housing Core (holds windings in place) made of iron (Fe) increases magnetic field strength Commutator for brush contact Windings wires

19 Field Windings stationary insulated wires wrapped in circular shape
creates strong magnetic field around motor armature 5-10 x stronger than perminate magnets field in pole shoes acts against field in armature = motor spins

20 Pinion gear mechanism Pinion gear Clutch Housing

21 Starter Pinion Gears Small gear on armature shaft Engages to flywheel
Meshes Fly Wheel Turns Engine

22 Overrunning Clutch Locks pinion gear in one direction
Releases it in other direction Spiral grooves in shaft Allows starter motor to crank the engine Protects the starter from damage if the starter is cranked while the engine is running

23 Starter Solenoid High current relay
Makes electrical connection between Battery & starter Electromagnetic switch Handle VERY HIGH currents

24 Starter Solenoid Operation
Key turned (start position) Current flows through solenoids windings Produces magnetic field Pulls plunger and disc into coil windings Causes disc to touch both high current terminals Completes circuit battery to starter Current of A

25 Solenoid

26 Key Released Current disconnected Magnetic field collapses
Plunger slides back Starter shuts off

27 Increasing Motor Power
Several windings Wires Comutator Several segments Constant smooth motion

Left hand or right hand rule Torque Current Draw

29 STARTER DRIVE END Connects the armature shaft to the flywheel.
Usually shifted out by the solenoid. Contains an over- running clutch for protection. Pinion gear meshes with the flywheel ring gear. Returned to the rest position by a spring.

30 SOLENOID A linear motor
Contains two windings a pull-in and a hold-in winding. Pushes the starter drive(pinion) into mesh with the flywheel ring gear. Completes the circuit to the motor.

31 CONTROL CIRCUIT Starting Safety Switch Neutral Safety Switch
On transmission On Clutch

32 Starting Motor Types classified by: kind of pinion gear engagement
moveable pole shoe solenoid Movable pole shoe uses a yoke “Y” moves pinion gear hinged shoe on starter frame yoke links pole shoe & pinion gear

33 Internal Motor Circuits
3 common internal connections Series maximum torque torque decreases throughout cranking Shunt Less torque More constant torque Compound series/shunt good toque constant speed

34 Neutral Safety Switch prevents cranking unless in P or N
Ford - brake on LOCATION Connected in series with the ignition switch and solenoid shifter or transmission

35 Starter Relay Uses small current to control a LARGER current
Computer controls circuit (mV)

36 Starter Types Starter Mounted Solenoids plunger moves shift lever
GM/Chrysler Permanent Magnet Starter Use high strength permanent magnets NOT CONVENTIONAL WINDINGS = MORE torque

37 Starter Motor Torque Must turn engine all components Can Not Stall
Reduction starter extra set of gears increase rotating force higher speeds higher torque more constant cranking speeds

38 STARTER TESTING Preliminary Tests Safety Precautions
Troubleshooting Procedures Battery Load Test Cranking Voltage Test Cranking Current Test Insulated Resistance Test Starter Relay By-pass Test Ground Circuit Resistance Test Voltage Drop to Control Unit Test Components

39 Problems Starter relay or solenoid clicks Whining Grinding Slow turn
low battery charge Whining Plunger stuck Grinding Poor engagement Slow turn Low battery Internal short

40 Battery Load Test VAT 40 All Accessories on ½ CCA

41 Test Cranking Voltage Cranking Current Test Voltage Drop Test
DVOM across battery Cranking Current Test Inductive Pick Up Current draw AMPS Voltage Drop Test

42 Tests Test Relay Ground Circuit Resistance Test
Starter Relay Bypass Test Ground test Bench test

43 Starter Motor Disassembly

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