Presentation on theme: "The Struggle for Equality"— Presentation transcript:
1The Struggle for Equality Civil Rightsin the 50’s and 60’sSince passage of 13th amendment, …Reconstructionfederal troops until 1877South on its own … abuses and injusticesIndustrial RevolutionWars20’s30’s NRA regulations allowed for lower pay for blacksPostwar America …why not fix OUR nation?
2Background Info Post Civil War Plessy v Ferguson case Amendments ReconstructionKu Klux KlanJim Crow lawsPlessy v Ferguson case“Separate but equal”Civil War amendments: 13, 14, 15 FREE . . CITIZENS . . VOTEKKK: Late 1860’s Tenn IntimidationJim Crow laws: segregationPlessy v. Ferguson 1896: separate but equal is OKDecision stands until 1954 (Brown)
3Plessy v Ferguson Is Separate Equal ? Facts:1896 Homer Plessy took a seat in the “Whites Only” car of a train and refused to move. He was arrested, tried, and convicted in the District Court of New Orleans for breaking Louisiana’s segregation law.Question:Was the Louisiana law separating blacks and whites on railroad cars legal?Decision:Split decision that “separate but equal” law did not violate the 14th amendment
4Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka KS Is Separate Equal ? Facts:Linda Brown’s parents wanted her to attend the school close to her home. Kansas law stated she had to attend a segregated school. NAACP and attorney Thurgood Marshall tested the law.Question:Can Linda Brown attend an “all white” school?Decision:“separate educational facilities inherently unequal”desegregation required across the nation
5Theory of Interposition Definition:Constitutional Issue brought up 150 years before (remember nullification?)–the right of the state (like Arkansas) to “interpose” itself between the federal government and the citizen whenever the state judges a Federal law or Judicial decision unconstitutional or harmful within its jurisdiction.
6NAACP and leadersThurgood Marshall, lawyer, cases involving school segregationRosa Parks—refuses to give up her seat on the bus to a white man and as a result the Montgomery Bus Boycott occurs.Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.—he gains national prominence as a leader during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Arrested in BirminghamLetter from a Birmingham Jail.
7Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Influences on MLKJesus—love one’s enemiesHenry Thoreau—civil disobedienceA. Randolph Phillip—organizational skillGandhi—non -violent resistance
8Southern Christian Leadership Conference MLK’s organization advocating “Civil Disobedience” when facing an injustice.Methods of resistanceBoycottSit-inDemonstrationsMarchesCommunity organizingConscientious raising
91957 Little Rock, Arkansas Central High School Orval Faubus101st Airbornesent in by President Eisenhower to enforce the court order
101962 “Ole Miss” James Meredith-1st black student
12Southern ManifestoSouthern Manifesto was signed by ALL but three southern leadersAl Gore, Sr., TennesseeLyndon Johnson, TexasEstes Kefauver, TennesseeCalled for resistance –appealed to emotions of prejudices and paranoia that a united support of peaceful compliance might have diluted in the South
36Tactics Media Civil Disobedience Sit-ins Bus rides Marches Boycotts Provoking aggression
37“Momentum” Timeline May 1961, Freedom Riders Sep 1962, integrating the University of MSApr 1963, BirminghamJune 1963, integrating the University of ALAug 1963, March on WashingtonSummer of ’64 Freedom SummerEarly 1965, Selma Campaign
38Freedom Riders Apr-Dec 1961 Who: CORE and SNCC Plan of Action: to test the SC decision banning segregation on interstate bus routesObstacles: violenceReaction: (pg. 705, 3rd paragraph)
40University of Mississippi September 1962Who: James Meredith and JFKPlan of Action: integrate UMObstacles: Governor Ross Barnett, riots, and deathReaction: JFK ordered federal marshals to escort Meredith.James Meredith
41Heading to Birmingham April 1963 Who: Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, MLK, and the SCLCPlan of Action: demonstrate and marchObstacles: violence (pg. 706)Reaction: an end to segregation in Birmingham
42University of Alabama June 1963 Who: Gov. George Wallace Plan of Action: integrate the University of AlabamaObstacles: Governor George WallaceReaction: JFK used federal troops to enforce the desegregation
43March on Washington August 1963 Who: CR leaders, to include MLK Plan of Action: converge on the nation’s capitalObstacles: ?Reaction: ST=continued violence (murder and assassination), LT=Civil Rights Act of 1964
44Freedom Summer Summer of ’64 Who: SNCC and volunteers Where: MississippiPlan of Action: register votersObstacles: Obstacles: Local officers killed volunteersReaction: Congress did not pass a VR act.
45The Selma Campaign Early 1965 Who: SCLC and SNCC Plan of Action: Voter registration drive and march to MontgomeryObstacles: violent, local law officers (pg. 710)Reaction: LBJ responded by asking Congress for the swift passage of a new voting rights act. It passed in 1965.
46George W. Bush reauthorizes the Voting Rights Act for 25 years