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The Struggle for Equality

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Presentation on theme: "The Struggle for Equality"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Struggle for Equality
Civil Rights in the 50’s and 60’s Since passage of 13th amendment, … Reconstruction federal troops until 1877 South on its own … abuses and injustices Industrial Revolution Wars 20’s 30’s NRA regulations allowed for lower pay for blacks Postwar America …why not fix OUR nation?

2 Background Info Post Civil War Plessy v Ferguson case Amendments
Reconstruction Ku Klux Klan Jim Crow laws Plessy v Ferguson case “Separate but equal” Civil War amendments: 13, 14, 15 FREE . . CITIZENS . . VOTE KKK: Late 1860’s Tenn Intimidation Jim Crow laws: segregation Plessy v. Ferguson 1896: separate but equal is OK Decision stands until 1954 (Brown)

3 Plessy v Ferguson Is Separate Equal ?
Facts: 1896 Homer Plessy took a seat in the “Whites Only” car of a train and refused to move. He was arrested, tried, and convicted in the District Court of New Orleans for breaking Louisiana’s segregation law. Question: Was the Louisiana law separating blacks and whites on railroad cars legal? Decision: Split decision that “separate but equal” law did not violate the 14th amendment

4 Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka KS Is Separate Equal ?
Facts: Linda Brown’s parents wanted her to attend the school close to her home. Kansas law stated she had to attend a segregated school. NAACP and attorney Thurgood Marshall tested the law. Question: Can Linda Brown attend an “all white” school? Decision: “separate educational facilities inherently unequal” desegregation required across the nation

5 Theory of Interposition
Definition: Constitutional Issue brought up 150 years before (remember nullification?) –the right of the state (like Arkansas) to “interpose” itself between the federal government and the citizen whenever the state judges a Federal law or Judicial decision unconstitutional or harmful within its jurisdiction.

6 NAACP and leaders Thurgood Marshall, lawyer, cases involving school segregation Rosa Parks—refuses to give up her seat on the bus to a white man and as a result the Montgomery Bus Boycott occurs. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.—he gains national prominence as a leader during the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Arrested in Birmingham Letter from a Birmingham Jail.

7 Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Influences on MLK Jesus—love one’s enemies Henry Thoreau—civil disobedience A. Randolph Phillip—organizational skill Gandhi—non -violent resistance

8 Southern Christian Leadership Conference
MLK’s organization advocating “Civil Disobedience” when facing an injustice. Methods of resistance Boycott Sit-in Demonstrations Marches Community organizing Conscientious raising

9 1957 Little Rock, Arkansas Central High School
Orval Faubus 101st Airborne sent in by President Eisenhower to enforce the court order

10 1962 “Ole Miss” James Meredith-1st black student

11 University of Mississippi

12 Southern Manifesto Southern Manifesto was signed by ALL but three southern leaders Al Gore, Sr., Tennessee Lyndon Johnson, Texas Estes Kefauver, Tennessee Called for resistance –appealed to emotions of prejudices and paranoia that a united support of peaceful compliance might have diluted in the South

13 Greensboro, No Carolina Lunch Counter Sit Ins


15 March to Selma

16 March on Washington August 28, 1963

17 Excerpt…”I Have a Dream”

18 Civil Rights Act of 1964

19 LBJ-”We Shall Overcome”

20 Voting Rights Act 1965

21 Lyndon Johnson signing Voting Rights Act

22 Civil Rights of 1968

23 Inner City Riots

24 Section 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade
Chapter 29 Section 2 The Triumphs of a Crusade

25 The Civil Rights Movement
For Against USS John F. Kennedy Middle

26 Section 1 (Summary) Terms Civil Rights (human, natural, and equal)
History (Amendments, S.C. cases, and Legislation) Leaders Organizations (NAACP, SCLC, and SNCC)

27 Leaders

28 3

29 4

30 5

31 7

32 Freedom Riders 8

33 9

34 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

35 Strategy and Tactics Action and Reaction

36 Tactics Media Civil Disobedience Sit-ins Bus rides Marches Boycotts
Provoking aggression

37 “Momentum” Timeline May 1961, Freedom Riders
Sep 1962, integrating the University of MS Apr 1963, Birmingham June 1963, integrating the University of AL Aug 1963, March on Washington Summer of ’64 Freedom Summer Early 1965, Selma Campaign

38 Freedom Riders Apr-Dec 1961 Who: CORE and SNCC
Plan of Action: to test the SC decision banning segregation on interstate bus routes Obstacles: violence Reaction: (pg. 705, 3rd paragraph)

39 Riding for Freedom

40 University of Mississippi
September 1962 Who: James Meredith and JFK Plan of Action: integrate UM Obstacles: Governor Ross Barnett, riots, and death Reaction: JFK ordered federal marshals to escort Meredith. James Meredith

41 Heading to Birmingham April 1963
Who: Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth, MLK, and the SCLC Plan of Action: demonstrate and march Obstacles: violence (pg. 706) Reaction: an end to segregation in Birmingham

42 University of Alabama June 1963 Who: Gov. George Wallace
Plan of Action: integrate the University of Alabama Obstacles: Governor George Wallace Reaction: JFK used federal troops to enforce the desegregation

43 March on Washington August 1963 Who: CR leaders, to include MLK
Plan of Action: converge on the nation’s capital Obstacles: ? Reaction: ST=continued violence (murder and assassination), LT=Civil Rights Act of 1964

44 Freedom Summer Summer of ’64 Who: SNCC and volunteers
Where: Mississippi Plan of Action: register voters Obstacles: Obstacles: Local officers killed volunteers Reaction: Congress did not pass a VR act.

45 The Selma Campaign Early 1965 Who: SCLC and SNCC
Plan of Action: Voter registration drive and march to Montgomery Obstacles: violent, local law officers (pg. 710) Reaction: LBJ responded by asking Congress for the swift passage of a new voting rights act. It passed in 1965.

46 George W. Bush reauthorizes the Voting Rights Act for 25 years

47 Summary

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