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Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley CHAPTER.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley CHAPTER."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley CHAPTER Medical Language Second Edition Gastroenterology 3

2 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Learning Objectives 1.Identify the structures of the gastrointestinal system. 2.Describe the process of digestion. 3.Describe common gastrointestinal diseases and conditions, laboratory and diagnostic procedures, medical and surgical procedures, and drug categories.

3 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Learning Objectives 4.Give the medical meaning of word parts related to the gastrointestinal system. 5.Build gastrointestinal words from word parts and divide and define gastrointestinal words. 6.Spell and pronounce gastrointestinal words.

4 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Learning Objectives 7.Analyze the medical content and meaning of a gastroenterology report. 8.Dive deeper into gastroenterology by reviewing the activities at the end of this chapter and online at Medical Terminology Interactive.

5 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Multimedia Directory Slide 10Digestive System Animation Slide 45Digestive System Animation Slide 51GERD Video Slide 57Appendicitis Animation Slide 91Ultrasound Video Slide 93MRI Video Slide 103Sigmoidscopy Video Slide 110Medical Assisting Video

6 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Gastroenterology The medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the gastrointestinal system and uses diagnostic tests, medical and surgical procedures, and drugs to treat gastrointestinal diseases.

7 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy and Physiology Gastrointestinal System –Begins at the mouth, continues through the thoracic cavity, and fills most of the abdominal cavity –Upper gastrointestinal system includes the structures from the mouth through the stomach

8 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy and Physiology (cont) Gastrointestinal System (cont) –Lower gastrointestinal system includes the small and large intestines –Purpose is to digest food, absorb nutrients, and remove undigested material (waste) from the body

9 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-1 Gastrointestinal system

10 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Digestive System Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation showing a tour of the digestive system. The animation may take a few seconds to start playing. Back to Directory

11 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System Oral Cavity and Pharynx –Begins in the mouth, or oral cavity –Oral cavity contains the teeth; tongue; hard palate; and soft palate with its fleshy, hanging uvula. –Receptors on the tongue perceive taste and send this information to the gustatory cortex in the brain.

12 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Oral Cavity and Pharynx (cont) –Lined with mucosa, a mucous membrane that produces thin mucus. –The sight, smell, and taste of food cause the salivary glands to release saliva into the mouth; this moistens foods as they are chewed and swallowed. –Saliva also contains an enzyme that begins the process of digestion.

13 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Oral Cavity and Pharynx (cont) –There are three pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands, the sublingual glands, and the submandibular glands. –The teeth tear, chew, and grind the food during the process of mastication. –The tongue moves food toward the teeth and mixes food with saliva.

14 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Oral Cavity and Pharynx (cont) –Swallowing or deglutition moves food into the throat or pharynx. –When food is swallowed, the epiglottis closes the entrance to the larynx, so that food in the back of the throat, pressing on the uvula, does not initiate the gag reflex.

15 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-2 Oral cavity and pharynx

16 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-3 Salivary glands

17 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Esophagus –A flexible, muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach. –Lined with mucosa that produces mucus. –By coordinated contractions of its wallthe process of peristalsisfood moves toward the stomach.

18 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Stomach –A large, elongated sac in the upper abdominal cavity that receives food from the esophagus. –Divided into four areas: the cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. –The gastric mucosa is arranged in thick, deep folds known as rugae which expand as the stomach fills with food.

19 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Stomach (cont) –The mucosa produces mucus that protects the lining of the stomach from the acid the stomach produces. –Two sphincters (muscular rings) keep food in the stomach. –The lower esophageal sphincter is located in the distal esophagus.

20 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Stomach (cont) –The pyloric sphincter is located in the distal end of the stomach. –Chyme is a semisolid mixture of partially digested food, saliva, and digestive juices in the stomach.

21 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-4 Stomach

22 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Small Intestine –The small intestine is a long, hollow tube that receives chyme from the stomach. –It is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

23 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-5 Small and large intestines

24 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Large Intestine –A larger, hollow tube that receives undigested material and water from the small intestine. –Consists of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus. –The walls contain haustra (puckered pouches) that can greatly expand, as needed.

25 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Large Intestine (cont) –Waves of peristalsis slowly move undigested material through the large intestine as water is absorbed through the intestinal wall and into the blood. –The colon is the longest part. –It travels through all four quadrants of the abdomen as the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon.

26 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Large Intestine (cont) –The sigmoid colon bends toward the midline in an S-shaped curve that joins the rectum. –The rectum is a short, straight segment that connects to the outside of the body. –The anus, the external opening of the rectum, is located between the buttocks. –The anal sphincter is a muscular ring whose opening and closing is under conscious, voluntary control.

27 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Abdomen and Abdominopelvic Cavity –Contains the largest organs of the gastrointestinal system. –The walls of the abdominopelvic cavity are lined by peritoneum, a membrane that secretes peritoneal fluid. –This watery fluid fills the spaces between the organs and allows them to slide past each other during the movements of digestion.

28 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Abdomen and Abdominopelvic Cavity (cont) –The peritoneum extends into the center of the abdominopelvic cavity as the omentum. –The omentum supports the stomach and hangs down as a fatty apron to cover and protect the small intestine. –The peritoneum also extends as the mesentery, a thick, fan-shaped sheet that supports the jejunum and ileum.

29 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) The blood supply to the stomach, small intestine, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas comes from the celiac trunk of the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

30 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Liver –The liver is the largest solid organ in the body, located in the upper right abdominal cavity. –An accessory organ of digestion that contributes to, but is not physically involved in, the process of digestion. –Liver cells (hepatocytes) continuously produce bile, a yellow-green, bitter-tasting, thick fluid.

31 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Liver (cont) –Bile produced by the liver flows through the hepatic ducts, through the common hepatic duct, and then into either the cystic duct to the gallbladder or the common bile duct. –All of the ducts that carry bile are collectively known as the biliary tree.

32 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-6 Biliary tree

33 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Gallbladder –An accessory organ of digestion posterior to the liver. –Concentrates and stores bile from the liver. –The presence of fatty chyme in the duodenum causes the gallbladder to contract, sending bile into the common bile duct and duodenum to digest fats.

34 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System (con't) Pancreas –An accessory organ of digestion posterior to the stomach. –Presence of food in the duodenum causes the pancreas to secrete digestive enzymes into the pancreatic duct to the duodenum. –Also functions as an organ of the endocrine system.

35 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Physiology of Digestion There are two parts to digestion: –Mechanical –Chemical Mechanical digestion uses mastication, deglutition, and peristalsis to break down foods. Mechanical digestion also involves breaking apart fats in the duodenum.

36 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Physiology of Digestion (con't) Fatty chyme stimulates the duodenum to secrete the hormone cholecystokinin, which stimulates the gallbladder to contract and release bile. Bile breaks apart large globules of fat during the process of emulsification. Chemical digestion uses enzymes and acid to break down foods.

37 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Physiology of Digestion (con't) The enzyme amylase in saliva begins to break down carbohydrate foods in the mouth. The stomach secretes the following substances that continue the process of chemical digestion: –Hydrochloric acid –Pepsinogen –Gastrin

38 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Physiology of Digestion (con't) The stomach secretes a substance known as intrinsic factor, which helps vitamin B 12 be absorbed from the intestine into the blood. When the stomach does not produce enough intrinsic factor, vitamin B 12 is not absorbed.

39 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine. Cholecystokinin stimulates the pancreas to secrete four digestive enzymes into the duodenum: –Amylase –Lipase –Other enzymes that break down proteins Physiology of Digestion (con't)

40 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley The villi of the small intestine produce the digestive enzymes such as lactase to break down sugars. Physiology of Digestion (con't)

41 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Absorption of nutrients and water through the intestinal wall into the blood takes place mainly in the duodenum and jejunum. Absorption of water continues in the large intestine. Absorbed nutrients are carried by blood in the portal vein to the liver. Physiology of Digestion (con't)

42 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley The liver plays an important role in regulating nutrients such as glucose and amino acids. Excess glucose in the blood is stored in the liver as glycogen and released when the blood glucose level is low. The liver uses amino acids to build plasma proteins and clotting factors for the blood. Physiology of Digestion (con't)

43 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Elimination occurs when undigested materials and water are eliminated from the body in a solid waste form of feces or stool. The process of elimination is a bowel movement or defecation. Physiology of Digestion (con't)

44 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-7 Gastrointestinal system. (Robert W. Ginn/PhotoEdit Inc.)

45 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Digestive System Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation showing the digestive system. Back to Directory

46 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions Eating –Anorexia –Dysphagia –Polyphagia

47 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Mouth and Lips –Cheilitis –Sialolithiasis –Stomatitis –Glossitis

48 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-8 Glossitis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC])

49 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Esophagus and Stomach –Dyspepsia –Esophageal varices –Gastritis –Gastroenteritis –Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

50 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-9 Esophageal varix (David M. Martin, M.D./Photo Researchers, Inc.)

51 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley GERD Video Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of GERD. Back to Directory

52 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Esophagus and Stomach (con't) –Heartburn –Hematemesis –Nausea and vomiting (N&V) –Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) –Stomach cancer

53 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-10 Gastric ulcer (David M. Martin, M.D./Photo Researchers, Inc.)

54 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum –Ileus –Intussusception –Volvulus

55 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-11 Intussusception of the intestine

56 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Cecum and Colon –Appendicitis –Colic –Colon cancer –Diverticulum –Dysentery

57 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Appendicitis Animation Click on the screenshot to view an animation showing appendicitis. Back to Directory

58 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-12 Diverticula (David M. Martin, M.D./Photo Researchers, Inc.)

59 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-13 Diverticulitis and polyposis

60 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Cecum and Colon (cont) –Gluten enteropathy –Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) –Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) –Polyp

61 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-14 Crohns disease

62 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-15 Colonic polyps (Staats/Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)

63 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Rectum and Anus –Hemorrhoids –Proctitis –Rectocele

64 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Defecation and Feces –Constipation –Diarrhea –Flatulence –Hematochezia –Incontinence –Steatorrhea

65 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Abdominal Wall and Abdominal Cavity –Adhesions –Hernia –Peritonitis

66 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-16 Hernia (From Rudolph, A.M., Hoffman, J.I.E., & Rudolph, C.D. (Eds.) Rudolphs Pediatrics. (19 th ed., p. 1040))

67 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-17 Peritonitis (Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)

68 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Liver –Ascites –Cirrhosis –Hepatitis

69 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-18 Fatty liver disease and cirrhosis of the liver (Arthur Glauberman/Photo Researchers, Inc.)

70 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Hepatitis is the most common chronic liver disease. –Hepatitis A –Hepatitis B –Hepatitis C –Hepatitis D –Hepatitis E

71 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Hepatitis A is an acute but short-lived infection caused by exposure to water or food that is contaminated with feces from a person who is infected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV).

72 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Hepatitis B is an acute infection caused by exposure to the blood of a person who is already infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV); it is also known as serum hepatitis. It is also spread during sexual activity by contact with saliva and vaginal secretions. An infected mother can pass hepatitis B to her fetus before birth or when breastfeeding. Diseases and Conditions (con't)

73 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-19 Blood transfusion (PhotoDisc/Getty Images)

74 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Hepatitis C is an acute infection caused by exposure to the blood of a person who is already infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Hepatitis C is not readily transmitted by sexual activity or from a mother to her fetus. Diseases and Conditions (con't)

75 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Chronic hepatitis C is the main cause of chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. Hepatitis D is a secondary infection caused by a mutated (changed) hepatitis virus. Diseases and Conditions (con't)

76 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Hepatitis D only develops in patients who already have hepatitis B; it is also known as delta hepatitis. Hepatitis E is similar to hepatitis A but rarely occurs in the United States. Diseases and Conditions (con't)

77 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Hepatomegaly Jaundice Liver Cancer Diseases and Conditions (con't)

78 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-20 Jaundice (Dr. M.A. Ansary/Photo Researchers, Inc.)

79 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-21 Liver cancer (Gca/Photo Researchers, Inc.)

80 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Gallbladder and Bile Ducts –Cholangitis –Cholecystitis –Cholelithiasis

81 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-22 Cholelithiasis (Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)

82 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-23 Gallstones in the biliary and pancreatic ducts

83 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Diseases and Conditions (con't) Pancreas –Pancreatic cancer –Pancreatitis

84 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures Blood Tests –Albumin –Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) –ALT and AST –Bilirubin

85 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (con't) Blood Tests (cont) –GGT –Liver function tests (LFTs)

86 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (con't) Gastric and Feces Specimen Tests –CLO test –Culture and sensitivity (C&S) –Fecal occult blood test –Gastric analysis –Ova and parasites (O&P)

87 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Radiologic Procedures –Barium enema –Cholangiography Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (con't)

88 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-24 Barium enema (Custom Medical Stock Photo, Inc.)

89 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-25 Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

90 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Radiologic Procedures (cont) –Computerized axial tomography (CAT, CT scan) –Flat plate of the abdomen –Gallbladder ultrasound Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (con't)

91 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Ultrasound Video Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of ultrasounds. Back to Directory

92 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Radiologic Procedures (cont) –Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan –Oral cholecystography (OCG) Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (con't)

93 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley MRI Video Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of MRI. The video may take a moment before playing. Back to Directory

94 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Radiologic Procedures (cont) –Upper gastrointestinal series (UGI) Laboratory and Diagnostic Procedures (con't)

95 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Medical and Surgical Procedures Medical Procedures –Insertion of nasogastric tube

96 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-26 Nasogastric tube (Pearson Education/PH College)

97 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Medical and Surgical Procedures (con't) Surgical Procedures –Abdominocentesis –Appendectomy –Biopsy –Bowel resection and anastomosis –Cholecystectomy –Choledocholithotomy

98 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-27 Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Geoff Tompkinson/Photo Researchers, Inc.)

99 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Medical and Surgical Procedures (con't) Surgical Procedures (cont) –Colostomy –Endoscopy –Exploratory laparotomy

100 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-28 Colostomy and stoma (Pearson Education/PH College)

101 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Medical and Surgical Procedures (con't) Endoscopic Procedures –Esophagoscopy –Gastroscopy –Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) –Sigmoidoscopy –Colonoscopy

102 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-29 Colonoscopy (BSIP/Phototake NYC)

103 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Sigmoidoscopy Video Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of sigmoidoscopy. Back to Directory

104 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Medical and Surgical Procedures (con't) Surgical Procedures (cont) –Gastrectomy –Gastroplasty –Gastrostomy –Hemorrhoidectomy

105 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Figure 3-30 PEG tube

106 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Medical and Surgical Procedures (con't) Surgical Procedures (cont) –Herniorrhaphy –Jejunostomy –Liver transplantation –Polypectomy

107 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Drug Categories These categories of drugs are used to treat gastrointestinal diseases and conditions: –Antacid drugs –Antibiotic drugs –Antidiarrheal drugs –Antiemetic drugs

108 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Drug Categories (cont) These categories of drugs are used to treat gastrointestinal diseases and conditions: –H2 blocker drugs –Laxative drugs –Proton pump inhibitor drugs

109 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Abbreviations

110 Copyright ©2011 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved. Medical Language, Second Edition Susan Turley Medical Assisting Video Click on the screenshot to view a video on the topic of careers in medical assisting. Back to Directory


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