What do you know about Americas first NATIONS? Collected by Alina Morelli
What is colonization? The act of settling into an area that may already be inhabited. The action of subjugating a people. The act of ruling over and/ or controlling a people in a given area. To form or establish a colony.
When colonization of the Americas began, the relationship with the settlers was good. Native people taught them: to farm to live off the land to survive the winters & how to heal themselves with Native Medicines
The settlers were invited to participate in sacred Ceremonies.
Native Americans taught the settlers to bathe for hygienic purposes. At the time bathing was outlawed in many places in Europe!
When Columbus first arrived in the Caribbean, he described the Native people in the area as warm, bright, intelligent, and of the most faithful people to God that I have ever seen.
Columbus and his men were welcomed by the Native people until they began to enslave them, making men, women, and children find gold with NO PAY. When the Native people resisted, they were killed. Columbus defended his actions by saying that the Native people were simple-minded, barbaric, and godless.
Invented a New Attitude toward Native American People Land The people were seen as Slaves No longer human Not worthy of compassion In the way of Manifest Destiny The land was seen as Free for the taking Rich with resources Property of Europes governments and religious leaders
Native Americans religious ceremonies were OUTLAWED.
WHAT IS GENOCIDE? (1)The practice of extermination of nations and ethnic groups as carried out by invaders. (2) The destruction of the national pattern of the oppressed group; the other, the imposition of the national pattern of the oppressor. ~LEMKIN (3) Currently, "genocide" is commonly defined as "acts committed with intent to destroy in whole or in part a national, ethnical, racial or religious group."
Population Before… At the time of first European contact, North and South America was peopled by more than 90 million American Indians:
10 million in America; 30 million in Mexico; 11 million in Central America; 445,000 in the Caribbean islands; 30 million in the South American Andean region; and 9 million in the remainder of South America.
Population After Contact… In the year 2000 census the Native American and Alaskan Native population was 2,475,956 (3 times the number in 1970). In 1990 the census stated 1,959,234 In 1970 833,333 Native people in the US. In the mid and early 1800s the population in the US was around half a million people.
There were over 700 tribes with their own cultures, religious beliefs, governments, and traditions. Each tribe may have had similarities, but they were in essence 700 different countries.
today there are over 500 federally recognized Native American tribes in the United States.
WHAT HAPPENED TO NATIVE PEOPLE???? Famine Disease Forced Assimilation Warfare FORCED REMOVAL FROM THEIR HOMELANDS
Trail of tears- 15,000 Cherokee and other neighboring tribes were forced to move to Oklahoma. Many people died along the way of starvation and cold. 4,000 PEOPLE DIED ON THE NEW LAND BECAUSE THEY DID NOT KNOW HOW TO SURVIVE. In 1838 Congress passed the Indian removal act, which forced Native Americans off their HOMElands.
In 1975 alone, Indian Health Services permanently sterilized some 25,000 Native American women--many after being coerced, misinformed, or threatened. The population was drastically affected. On September 8, 2000, the head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) formally apologized for the agency's participation in the "ethnic cleansing" of Western tribes and the forced sterilization of Native women.
GERM WARFARE Native American people were given blankets contaminated with the deadly smallpox virus. It has been estimated that at least 300,000 were killed in this manner. Lord Jeffrey Amherst ordered that blankets infected with smallpox be distributed among enemy tribes, and the order was acted on. SMALLPOX
The American Holocaust The newcomers did not understand the different way that Native people lived. Out of their ignorance many violent acts were committed, permanently destroying many parts of Native American culture.
Missionaries and government officials used boarding schools as methods to destroy the cultural identity of thousands of Native American people. Boarding Schools Apache children from Arizona shipped to Pennsylvania
Boarding Schools-After Native people could not practice their own religion. They were forced to convert. Their hair was cut and traditional tribal clothing was taken away. They were not allowed to speak their own language, and were physically punished if they did not listen. They were taken far from their homes and families. The Apache students four months later.
Native children were forced to go to boarding school, and if they escaped, which many tried, bounties were often offered to return them.
Rationale Behind Boarding Schools Kill the Indian, save the man. Indian culture was inferior. Indian religion was inferior. It is cheaper to Americanize the Indian than kill the Indian using the army.
The separation between the children and their communities contributed the breakdown of the Native families and Native culture The children couldnt speak their language, and therefore, often could not communicate with their parents, grandparents, and other community members when they finally returned home.
Tom Torlino (Navajo) as he appeared upon arrival to the Carlisle Indian School, October 21, 1882, & Tom later.
ADOPTION Native American children were at times taken from their homes and adopted into white families They often never even knew the were Native American IMAGINE THAT!
Native people waited over 400 years for basic RIGHTS Suffrage 1924 1970s and 80s- Repatriation Act was enforced to some extent 1977 the Indian Child Welfare Act was passed 1978 Freedom of Religion Act was passed
Eagle feather is to Native Americans (different feathers as well to many tribes ) As crucifix is to Christians As Mecca is to Muslims As the Star of David is to Jewish people IN OTHER WORDS SACRED, HOLY, BLESSED
The Basic Indian Stereotypes By Joseph Riverwind (Creek/Seminole) Few of us lived in tipis, wore feather bonnets, or fought like "braves. We had no inherited royalty. We did not smoke a peace pipe. We did not whoop. We do not pound a drum or "chant" primitively. We do not have shamans. We do not worship nature. We do not all have spirit animals or funny "Indian names."
The Essential Facts About Indians Today "Indian" is a legal and political status, not a race. Indians have essentially a dual-citizenship status. Tribes all have separate governments. Tribes all have their own tribal constitutions. Tribes are different from each other, but have some things in common because of their relationship to the federal government. Indians are contemporary people. Indians are very diverse, and more than half live in urban settings. Indians are not all rich because of casinos. By Terry Straus http://www.bluecorncomics.com/essntial.htm
What is an Indian Reservation? Land managed by a Native American tribe under the United States Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs –The US government owns the land –Land cannot be sold Established when White Americans and American Indians signed treaties –transfer of land; –forcibly taken from the American Indians Native Americans have limited national sovereignty –Laws on tribal lands may vary from the surrounding area –Laws can permit legal casinos on reservations, which attract tourists. There are about 300 Indian reservations in the United States –Not all of the country's 550-plus recognized tribes have a reservation some tribes have more than one reservation, others have none.
Native American Issues Today Loss of cultural objects Loss of traditions through forced assimilation Poverty on reservations –Connected to drug use and abuse Unemployment on and near reservations Choice between reservation and off-reservation life Racism: mascots, unequal treatment, etc..
Playing Indian, wearing regalia as costume Outlawing religious practices Using sacred symbols as mascots or putting them on products to sell. Destruction of sacred sites and graveyards Mocking Misinformation about Native American culture has been spread worldwide, which has lead to:
I really dont like the fake cartoon and illustration in Indian books that are here in the school library. My name is Monica Spencer and my tribe is Navajo, Laguna, Kiaoni and Pueblo, all full blooded. It makes me mad when children make fun of my culture. It makes the kids think we do that when we dont. When the children grow up I dont want them to think that Indians put feathers in their hair and dance around the fire. We dont do that. And I dont think that it is right for the kids to look at the silly things they put in those silly books. One day I saw a kid running around with a feather in their hair and putting their hand to their mouths and making weird noises and I cried when that happened. So what I want you to do is put those books away and learn about our real history.
Notable Author: Joseph Bruchac Joseph Bruchac writes novels, poetry, childrens books, and short stories. He is a professional storyteller. He is dedicated to honoring nature, relating the history and conserving the legends and myths of North American Native people. His work has appeared in more than 500 publications, including the Smithsonian and National Geographic.
Awards given to Joseph Bruchac Knickerbocker Award for Juvenile Literature- Rockefeller Humanities fellowship -Hope S. Dean Award for Notable Achievement in Children's Literature -Virginia Hamilton Literary Award -1998 Writer of the Year Award -1998 Storyteller of the Year Award from the Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers -1999 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Native Writers Circle of the Americas.
Bruchac, J. (2005). Code talker. New York: The Penguin Group. Reading Level: 6.4 Summary: Ned Begay and other Navajo men had been taught in a boarding school run by whites that the Navajo language was useless. They were recruited by the Marines to become Code Talkers. They sent messages in their native tongue during WWII. The Navajo Code Talkers were a crucial part of the US effort, sending messages back and forth in an unbreakable code that used their native language.
Activities -Do a comparison study of different Native American tribes so students understand that not all Native Americans wore the same clothing, ate the same food, lived in teepees, etc. -After researching Native Americans, have the students complete a Venn Diagram comparing and contrasting their lives to the Native Americans long ago. - Let the students pick which tribe they would like to research with a small group. They can present how their tribe contributed to the white mans survival in a strange land.
Themes Nature Adversity Survival Traditions Family Change over time
NATIVE AMERICAN YOUTH SERVICES LITERATURE AWARD The children's book award was created as a way to identify and honor the very best writing and illustrations by and about American Indians. Books present Native Americans in the fullness of their humanity in the present and past contexts. The First American Indian Library Association Native American Youth Services Literature Awards were selected and presented in 2006. Winners were chosen in three categories: Picture Book Middle School Young Adult
Notable Author: Paul Goble Is an award winning author and illustrator of children's books. Grew up in England, where he developed a deep interest in the culture of the Plains Indians. He was greatly influenced by his adoptive father, Chief Edgar Red Cloud, and other Native American people. In 1977, he came to live and study in the Black Hills of South Dakota. He became intrigued with their spirituality and culture, and his illustrations accurately depict Native American clothing, customs and surroundings. He has published more than twenty-eight books.
Awards given to Paul Goble Caldecott Medal winner. His books have won praise from: -American Library Association -National Council of Social Studies -International Reading Association -Children's Book Council -Library of Congress' Children's Book of the Year award -Reading Rainbow selection by Public Broadcasting.
Her Seven Brothers By Paul Goble A Cheyenne star legend of the creation of the Big Dipper. A young Indian girl has a dream about her seven brothers who lived far away. She creates seven sets of moccasins and shirts, somehow knowing that she must go in search of the seven brothers. When she arrives, the smallest brother is waiting for her, he too, has power from the spirits to see and know special things. The Chief of the Buffalo Nation wants the young Indian girl to join him, but she will not go. The buffalo keeps insisting for her to come with him, but the girl refuses. As a result, the buffaloes charge them. The youngest brother shoots an arrow into the sky and a pine tree appears, growing higher and higher. They all climb into the sky and become the stars of the Big Dipper.
Activities This book would be a good read-aloud during a unit on Native Americans, but would also work well on a unit discussing stars and the explanations different cultures give for their existence. Students can randomly stick several metallic stars on a piece of black construction paper. Students can connect the stars with a white crayon, and then create their own legend about the constellation. Make a buckskin vest out of a brown paper bag. Compare and contrast a variety of Native American legends by drawing pictures of the legends on the vest.
Sherman Alexi Spokane/Coeur d'Alene Indian Grew up on Spokane Indian Reservation nominated for a 2008 Los Angeles Times Book Prize in Young Adult Fiction2008 Los Angeles Times Book Prize Won the 2007 National Book Award for Young People's Literature2007 National Book Award for Young People's Literature Just 2 of 5 nationally recognized awards
Flight – by Sherman Alexi Flight looks at life through a young boy who is on the brink of committing a serious crime. When at the bank, Zits, the main character, begins time traveling and jumping in to the bodies of other people. Through his experiences, he is able to see life and identity through a different window, thus altering the way he lives.
Activities Character map the characters that Zits becomes in order of their appearance in the book. Fiction writing assignment: Choose a person that needs to make a change, identify the problem and how to correct it, think of characters this person would need to understand in order to change the problem, and explain in the conclusion how one decision could change your life if you had the understanding before. Write to someone living in a Native American reservation with questions
Websites Author: Joseph Bruchac http://www.josephbruchac.com http://www.josephbruchac.com This website provides information on Joseph Bruchac, who is a notable author dedicated to honoring the Native American culture. Bruchac is also available to go to schools to tell stories to students. A book list and purchasing information is also included. WWW Virtual Library - American Indians: Index of Native American Resources on the Internet http://www.hanksville.org/NAresources http://www.hanksville.org/NAresources This website serves as an index of Native American Resources that can be found on the Internet. There are links to various activist sites, nations, culture, language, museums, etc. Teaching Young Children about Native Americans. ERIC Digest. http://www.ericdigests.org/1996-4/native.htm http://www.ericdigests.org/1996-4/native.htm This website provides information on how to teach children about the Native American culture and their way of life. There is a discussion about how stereotypes have developed over time. There are also many teaching suggestions, such as reading current information about a familys tribe, tribal history, and traditional recreational and spiritual activities.