2The Constitution creates a bicameral legislature for three reasons: Two Houses of CongressThe Constitution creates a bicameral legislature for three reasons:Historical: The British Parliament consisted of two houses since the 1300s, and many colonial assemblies were similar in form.Practical: A bicameral legislature was necessary to compromise the Virginia and New Jersey plans of representation.Theoretical: The Framers favored a bicameral Congress in order that one house might act as a check on the other.
3TermsA term is the length of time that officials serve after an election, as in a two- or six-year term.The date for the start of each new term has been set by the Twentieth Amendment (1933) as “noon of the 3rd day of January.”
4Sessions of CongressA session is the regular period of time during which Congress conducts business.Congress adjourns, or suspends until the next session, each regular session as it sees fit.If necessary, the President has the power to prorogue, or adjourn, a session, but only when the two houses cannot agree on a date for adjournment.Only the President may call Congress into a special session—a meeting to deal with some emergency situation.
6Size and TermsThe exact size of the House of Representatives, currently at 435 members, is determined by Congress.The Constitution provides that the total number of seats in the House shall be apportioned (distributed) among the States on the basis of their respective populations.Members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms.Although there have been recent movements to limit terms, there are no limits set on the number of terms a representative may serve.
7ReapportionmentArticle I of the Constitution directs Congress to reapportion—redistribute—the seats in the House after each decennial census.(10 years)The Reapportionment Act of 1929 set the “permanent” size of the House at 435 members, and provided for “automatic reapportionment.”
9Apportionment Continued… Based on the Census 2000 apportionment, each member of the U.S. House of Representatives represents an average population of 646,952.
10Congressional Elections Congressional elections are held on the Tuesday following the first Monday in November of each even-numbered year.Off-year elections are those congressional elections held between presidential elections.
11Districts and Gerrymandering Districts that have unusual shapes or even defy description have sometimes been gerrymandered.Gerrymandering refers to the act of drawing congressional districts to the advantage of the political party that controls the State legislature.
12Duties of the Job 1. Legislators who make the laws 2. Committee MembersScreen bills and make recommendationsOversight function of governmental agencies3. Representatives of their Constituents-Those who elect them4. Servants of their Constituents5. PoliticiansMuch time spent fundraising for future elections
13Qualifications for House Members The Constitution says that a member of the House(1) must be at least 25 years of age,(2) must have been a citizen of the United States for at least seven years, and(3) must have been an inhabitant of the State from which he or she is elected.Party identification, name familiarity, gender, ethnic characteristics, and political experience.
14Size, Election, and Terms The Constitution says that the Senate “shall be composed of two Senators from each State.” Today’s Senate consists of 100 Senators.Originally, the Constitution provided that senators were chosen by the State legislatures.
15SenatorsIn 1912 the Seventeenth Amendment was passed and called for the popular election of senators.Senators serve for six-year terms.The Senate is a continuous body, meaning that all of its seats are never up for election at the same time.
16Qualifications for Senators The requirements for the U.S. Senate are higher than for the House of Representatives.The Constitution says that a Senator(1) must be at least 30 years of age,(2) must have been a citizen of the United States for at least nine years, and(3) must be an inhabitant of the State from which he or she is elected.
17Types of Bills and Resolutions Joint resolutionsUnusual or temporary measuresConstitutional amendmentsConcurrent ResolutionsJointly between the House and SenateNot sent to the PresidentResolutionsRule of procedure or amendment to ruleRiderAddition to a bill
18And now for a 3 minute pause… Compare and Contrast the House and the Senate using a Venn Diagram…
19All of the below are being discussed in the 110th Congress: A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to provide a credit for fuel-efficient motor vehiclesA bill to amend the foreign Assistance Act of 1961 to provide assistance for developing countries to promote quality basic education and to establish the achievement of universal basic education in all developing countries as an objective of United States foreign assistance policyA bill that protects the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, prohibit exporting oil and gas producedA bill that discusses prohibits human cloningDrug testing standards for professional athletesA bill that protects Detainees, bans cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishmentA bill regarding foreign policy in Iraq, require quarterly progress reports to Congress from the President
20Congressional Leaders Majority Leader—the legislative leader of the party holding the majority of seats in the House or SenateMinority Leader—the legislative leader and spokesperson of the party holding the minority of seats in the House or SenateWhip—a senator or representative who works with the party leaders to communicate views, solicit support before votes are taken, and keep track of how voting is likely to go
21Presiding Officers Speaker of the House- doesn’t vote Elected from the majority partyPresident of the Senate-Vice PresidentPresident Pro TemporeElected by the senate from majority partyHonorary position based on seniorityFloor Leaders- legislative strategistsWhips-Assist floor leaders – aware of how others will voteParty Caucus- party meetingCommittee ChairmanSeniority Rule-no longer the rule
22And now another Pause…Go back to your Venn Diagram and add anything new….
23110th CongressMembership 435 Members House Party Divisions 230 Democrats196 Republicans Membership 100 Senators (Vice President votes in case of a tie) Senate Party Divisions 51 Democrats 49 Republicans
24Education Levels of Congress 139 members of Congress have experience in the military396 Members of the House and 97 Senators hold bachelor’s degrees120 Members of the House and 19 Senators have master’s degrees170 Members of the House and 58 Senators hold law degrees20 Members of the House have doctoral degrees14 Members of the House and four Senators hold medical degrees
25Prior Occupations of Congress 13 medical doctors (including a psychiatrist), three dentists, three nursestwo veterinarians, two psychologists, an optometrist, and one pharmacistsix ministers35 mayors, 10 state governors, nine lieutenant governors (including twoDelegates), two state first ladies (one of whom was also the first lady ofthe United States), and one territorial first ladythree former cabinet secretaries, a former Secretary of the Navy, a formerdeputy administrator in the Department of Veterans’ Affairs,a former deputy assistant Secretary of State, a former ambassadorthree state supreme court justices, and a federal judge275 (236 in the House and 39 in the Senate) former state legislators109 congressional staffers (including 11 congressional pages),15 White House staffers or fellows, several former executive branch employeesfour sheriffs, four police officers (including a Capitol policeman)two state troopers, two volunteer firemen, two probation officers, and aborder patrol chieftwo FBI agents, one CIA agenttwo physicists, two chemists, a biomedical researchera biomedical engineer, a geologist, and a microbiologistsix Peace Corps volunteers
26VIPS SENATE: Harry Reid (D-NV), Majority Leader, Mitch McConnell (R-KY), Minority LeaderPro Temp:Robert Byrd (D-WV)President of Senate: Vice President-Dick CheneyHOUSE OF REPS:Nancy Pelosi (D-CA), Speaker of the House Steny Hoyer (D-MD), Majority Leader,John Boehner (R-OH), Minority LeaderMajority Whip- James Clyburn (D-SC)Minority Whip- Roy Blunt (R-MO)
27Representatives of the People Senators and representatives are elected to represent people. As legislators, they have four voting options:
28Committee Membership and Public Servants As committee members, senators and representatives screen proposed laws before they are voted on.Members of the House and the Senate also act as servants of their constituents.
29Oversight FunctionAnother vital part of their committee work involves the oversight function.Oversight is the process by which Congress, through its committees, checks to see that the agencies of the executive branch are working effectively.
30Compensation Today, senators and representatives are paid a salary of… $165, 200 a year, Certain members, such as the Speaker of the House and the Senate’s president pro tem, are paid more.Senate Leadership Majority Leader - $183,500 Minority Leader - $183,500 House Leadership Speaker of the House - $212,100 Majority Leader - $183,500 Minority Leader - $183,500The franking privilege allows members of Congress to mail letters and other materials postage-free by substituting their facsimile signature (frank) for the postage.
31The Constitution says that Congress fixes its own “compensation The Constitution says that Congress fixes its own “compensation.” Therefore, the only real limits to congressional pay are the President’s veto and fear of voter backlash against a pay increase.
32Membership Privileges Members of Congress are immune from arrest for noncriminal offenses while engaged in congressional business.More importantly, the Speech and Debate Clause (Article I, Section 6, Clause 1) protects representatives and senators from suits for libel or slander arising from their official conduct.
33To summarize the info we learned today… Create a one sentence summary using the following prompt….A___________is a kind of______________that__________________.___________happens because________________.