3The Scientific Method Is: A series of steps used to help solve a problem or question.A set of common steps that biologists and other scientists use to gather information and answer questions.NOT a series of exact steps, but rather a logical strategy for drawing sound conclusions.
4SO HOW CAN WE DETERMINE: If something is fact or opinion?The answer to a scientific problem or any other problem?What conclusion should be drawn from a set of observations or data?
5THE ANSWER, OF COURSE, IS TO USE THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD!!
6So then…what are the steps to the Scientific Method??
7The Steps of the Scientific Method are as follows: Define the Problem and/or Make ObservationsResearch the ProblemDevelop a HypothesisConduct a Controlled ExperimentCollect and Analyze the DataDraw a ConclusionReport Results
8Step 1: Define the Problem/Make Observations Make sure that only ONE problem is being studied.Observe the topic being studied using the five senses.Make sure observations are precise and accurate.
9Step 2: Research the Problem Use all available resources to collect information and data on the subject being studied.Try libraries, Internet, books, magazines, newspapers, interviews, etc.Proper research is VITAL to the rest of the scientific study!!
10Step 3: Develop a Hypothesis A hypothesis is a short definitive statement.It is a reasonable and testable explanation for observations.It might be an “if, then” statement.Remember, the hypothesis can always be altered if the data do not support it!
11Step 4: Develop a Controlled Experiment Make sure the experiment contains a control groupMake sure the experiment has only one condition (or variable) being tested at a time.
12What is a Controlled Experiment? It involves 2 groups: the control group and the experimental group.The control group is the group in which all conditions are kept the same.The experimental group is the single condition being tested.All other conditions MUST be kept the SAME.
13Designing a controlled experiment: In a controlled experiment, only one condition at a time is changed.The condition in an experiment that is changed is the independent variable—it is the only variable that affects the outcome.The dependent variable is the condition that results from the change. It “depends” on the independent variable.
14Step 5: Collect and Analyze the Data Information obtained from experiments is called data.This data may be in numerical (quantitative) or verbal (qualitative) form.Analysis may result from calculations, charts, graphs, etc.
15Step 6: Draw a Conclusion The conclusion may or may not support the hypothesis.Additional experimentation must then take place to make sure the results are repeatable.If the hypothesis is proven wrong, change the hypothesis, NOT the data.
16Step 7: Report the Results Results must be published to make sure that other scientists can reproduce the experiments and verify the results.Repeated verification of a hypothesis over time may turn the hypothesis into a scientific theory.
17Example: Scientific Method in Action Problem: Is Raid the best insecticide on the market?Research the problem-Look up information on all insecticides.Develop a hypothesis-Raid is the best insecticide on the market. If used, it will kill insects 30% faster than other products.Develop a controlled experiment-Spray 5 separate plates with equal amounts of different insecticides. Cover each one with the same type and size glass. Add equal amounts of the same insects to each glass. Place them side by side and time the results.Collect and analyze data, form a conclusion, report results.
18Now, you try it!!Problem: Will using Growmore fertilizer increase the yield of a bean crop?Hypothesis:Controlled experiment:What are the experimental group and control group?What might be the independent and dependent variables?List materials needed to carry out the experiment.Write out the steps of the experiment.