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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 12 Psychological Disorders This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN:

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The medical model takes a disease view, while psychology sees psychological disorder as an interaction of biological, cognitive, social, and behavioral factors What is Psychological Disorder?

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What is Psychological Disorder? Psychopathology – Any pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts inappropriate to the situation and leading to personal distress or the inability to achieve important goals Synonymous terms include: Mental illness Mental disorder Psychological disorder

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What is Psychological Disorder? Three classic signs suggest severe psychological disorder Hallucinations Delusions Severe affective disturbances

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Changing Concepts of Psychological Disorder: The Cognitive-Behavioral Approach Behavioral perspective – Abnormal behaviors can be acquired through behavioral learning – operant and classical conditioning Cognitive perspective – Abnormal behaviors are influenced by mental processes – how people perceive themselves and their relations with others

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Biopsychology of Mental Disorder Although most psychologists have reservations about the medical model, the do not deny the influence of biology on thought and behavior

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 DistressMaladaptiveness IrrationalityUnpredictability Unconventionality and undesirable behavior Indicators of Abnormality Other signs of a disorder are more subtle, and a diagnosis depends heavily on clinical judgment

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How are Psychological Disorders Classified? The most widely used system, found in the DSM- IV, classifies disorders by their mental and behavioral symptoms

9 DSM IV Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: the big book of disorders. DSM will classify disorders and describe the symptoms. DSM will NOT explain the causes or possible cures.

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Overview of DSM-IV Classification System DSM-IV – Fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; the most widely accepted classification system in the United States Neurotic disorder or neurosis Psychotic disorder or psychosis In multiaxial diagnosis, professionals look at the entire person, not just their abnormal behavior

11 Two Major Classifications in the DSM Neurotic Disorders Distressing but one can still function in society and act rationally. Psychotic Disorders Person loses contact with reality, experiences distorted perceptions. John Wayne Gacy

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Mood Disorders Major depression – Form of depression that does not alternate with mania Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – Believed to be caused by deprivation of sunlight Bipolar disorder – Mental abnormality involving swings of mood from mania to depression

13 Major Depression A.K.A. unipolar depression Unhappy for at least two weeks with no apparent cause. Depression is the common cold of psychological disorders.

14 Seasonal Affective Disorder Experience depression during the winter months. Based not on temperature, but on amount of sunlight. Treated with light therapy.

15 Bipolar Disorder Formerly manic depression. Involves periods of depression and manic episodes. Manic episodes involve feelings of high energy (but they tend to differ a lot…some get confident and some get irritable). Engage in risky behavior during the manic episode.

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Anxiety Disorders Generalized anxiety disorder – Characterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of anxiety, without any external cause Panic disorder – Marked by panic attacks that have no connection to events in a persons present experience Agoraphobia – Fear of public places/open spaces

17 Anxiety Disorders a group of conditions where the primary symptoms are anxiety or defenses against anxiety. the patient fears something awful will happen to them. They are in a state of intense apprehension, uneasiness, uncertainty, or fear.

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Anxiety Disorders Phobias– A group of anxiety disorders involving a pathological fear of a specific object or situation Preparedness hypothesis – Notion that we have an innate tendency, acquired through natural selection, to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survival threat to our ancestors

19 Generalized Anxiety Disorder GAD An anxiety disorder in which a person is continuously tense, apprehensive and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal. The patient is constantly tense and worried, feels inadequate, is oversensitive, cant concentrate and suffers from insomnia.

20 Panic Disorder An anxiety disorder marked by a minutes- long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking and other frightening sensations.

21 Obsessive-compulsive disorder Persistent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) cause someone to feel the need (compulsion) to engage in a particular action. Obsession about dirt and germs may lead to compulsive hand washing.

22 Phobias A person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread. Must be an irrational fear. Phobia List

23 Post-traumatic Stress Disorder a.k.a. PTSD Flashbacks or nightmares following a persons involvement in or observation of an extremely stressful event. Memories of the event cause anxiety.

24 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Somatoform Disorders Somatoform disorders – Psychological problems appearing in the form of bodily symptoms or physical complaints Conversion disorder – Somatoform disorder marked by paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation, but with no discernable physical cause

25 Hypochondriasis Has frequent physical complaints for which medical doctors are unable to locate the cause. They usually believe that the minor issues (headache, upset stomach) are indicative are more severe illnesses.

26 Conversion Disorder Report the existence of severe physical problems with no biological reason. Like blindness or paralysis. Pol Pot

27 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Somatoform Disorders Glove Anesthesia

28 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Somatoform Disorders Hypochondriasis – Somatoform disorder involving excessive concern about health and disease

29 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Dissociative amnesia Dissociative fugue Depersonalization disorder Dissociative identity disorder Dissociative Disorders Dissociative disorders – Group of pathologies involving fragmentation of the personality

30 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 A psychologically induced loss of memory for personal information Dissociative amnesia Dissociative fugue Depersonalization disorder Dissociative identity disorder Dissociative Disorders

31 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Dissociative amnesia with the addition of flight from ones home, family, and job Dissociative amnesia Dissociative fugue Depersonalization disorder Dissociative identity disorder Dissociative Disorders

32 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Abnormality involving the sensation of mind and body having separated Dissociative amnesia Dissociative Fugue Depersonalization disorder Dissociative identity disorder Dissociative Disorders

33 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Condition in which the individual displays multiple identities Dissociative amnesia Dissociative Fugue Depersonalization disorder Dissociative identity disorder Dissociative Disorders

34 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Eating Disorders Anorexia nervosa – Eating disorder involving persistent loss of appetite that endangers an individuals health – stemming from psychological reasons rather than organic causes Bulimia – Eating disorder characterized be eating binges followed by purges, induced by vomiting or laxatives; typical initiated as a weight-control measure

35 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Schizophrenic Disorders Schizophrenia – Psychotic disorder involving distortions in thoughts, perceptions, and/or emotions

36 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Major Types of Schizophrenia Disorganized Catatonic Paranoid Undifferentiated Residual Positive Negative

37 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Disorganized Catatonic Paranoid Undifferentiated Major Types of Schizophrenia Features incoherent speech, hallucinations, delusions, and bizarre behavior Residual Type

38 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Disorganized Catatonic Paranoid Undifferentiated Major Types of Schizophrenia Involves stupor or extreme excitement Residual Type

39 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Disorganized Catatonic Paranoid Undifferentiated Major Types of Schizophrenia Prominent feature: combination of delusions and hallucinations Residual Type

40 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Disorganized Catatonic Paranoid Undifferentiated Major Types of Schizophrenia Persons displaying a combination of symptoms that do not clearly fit in one of the other categories Residual Type

41 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Disorganized Catatonic Paranoid Undifferentiated Major Types of Schizophrenia Individuals who have had a past episode of schizophrenia but are free of symptoms Residual Type

42 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Positive Schizophrenia Negative Schizophrenia Major Types of Schizophrenia Any form in which the person displays active symptoms (e.g. delusions, hallucinations)

43 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Positive Schizophrenia Negative Schizophrenia Major Types of Schizophrenia Any form distinguished by deficits, such as withdrawal and poverty of thought processes

44 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Possible Causes of Schizophrenia Evidence for the causes of schizophrenia has been found in a variety of factors including genetics, abnormal brain structure, and biochemistry Diathesis-stress hypothesis – Genetic factors place the individual at risk, but environmental stress factors transform this potential into an actual schizophrenic disorder

45 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Personality Disorders Personality disorders – Conditions involving a chronic, pervasive, inflexible, and maladaptive pattern of thinking, emotion, social relationships, or impulse control

46 Narcissistic Personality Disorder Having an unwarranted sense of self-importance. Thinking that you are the center of the universe.

47 Antisocial Personality Disorder Lack of empathy. Little regard for others feelings. View the world as hostile and look out for themselves.

48 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Personality Disorders Borderline personality disorder – An unstable personality given to impulsive behavior

49 Dependent Personality Disorder Rely too much on the attention and help of others.

50 Histrionic Personality Disorder Needs to be the center of attention. Whether acting silly or dressing provocatively.

51 Obsessive –Compulsive Personality Disorder Overly concerned with certain thoughts and performing certain behaviors. Not as extreme as OCD anxiety.

52 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Adjustment Disorders and Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention Mild depression Physical complaints Marital problems Academic problems Parent-child problems BereavementMalingering Job problems

53 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Developmental Disorders Autism – A developmental disorder marked by disabilities in language, social interaction, and the ability to understand another persons state of mind Dyslexia – A reading disability, thought by some experts to involve a brain disorder

54 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Developmental Disorders Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder – A developmental disability involving short attention span, distractibility, and extreme difficulty in remaining inactive for any period

55 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Shyness Shyness, a distressing pattern of avoiding or withdrawing from social contact is treatable, but it is not a DSM-IV disorder

56 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Ideally, accurate diagnoses lead to proper treatments, but diagnoses may also become labels that depersonalize individuals and ignore the social and cultural contexts in which their problems arise What are the Consequences of Labeling People?

57 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Plea of Insanity Insanity – A legal term, not a psychological or psychiatric one, referring to a person who is unable, because of a mental disorder or defect, to conform his or her behavior to the law

58 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 12


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