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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 10 Personality This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 10 Personality This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN:

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Personality Personality – Psychological qualities that bring continuity to an individuals behavior in different situations and at different times

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Forces Shape Our Personalities? According to the psychodynamic, humanistic and cognitive theories, personality is a continuously changing process, shaped by our internal needs and cognitions and by external pressures from the social environment

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Psychodynamic Theories Psychoanalysis– Freuds system of treatment for mental disorders Psychoanalytic theory – Freuds theory of personality

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Unconscious – Psychic domain of which the individual is not aware, but which is the storehouse of repressed impulses, drives, and conflicts that are unavailable to consciousness

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Freuds Model of the Mind

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Id Superego Ego Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Personality structure

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Id Superego Ego Primitive, unconscious portion of personality, houses most basic drives and stores repressed memories Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Personality structure

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Id Superego Ego Minds storehouse of values, moral attitudes learned from parents and society, same as common notion of conscience Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Personality structure

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Id Superego Ego Conscious, rational part of personality, charged with keeping peace between superego and id Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Personality structure

11 Anxiety When the Superego and the Id clash, the Ego must play the role of referee. Freud called this clash – ANXIETY. Giving in the Id (not following your Superego) leads to GUILT. Giving in to your Superego (not following your Id) leads to FRUSTRATION. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

12 Defense Mechanisms The ego has a pretty important job…and that is to protect you from threatening thoughts in our unconscious. One way it protects us is through defense mechanisms. You are usually unaware that they are even occurring.

13 Scenario Quarterback of the high school football team, Brandon, is dating Jasmine. Jasmine dumps Brandon and starts dating Drew, president of the chess club. Drew Brandon Jasmine

14 Repression Pushing thoughts into our unconscious. When asked about Jasmine, Brandon may say Who?, I have not thought about her for awhile.

15 Denial Not accepting the ego-threatening truth. Brandon may act like he is still together with Jasmine. He may hang out by her locker and plan dates with her.

16 Displacement Redirecting ones feelings toward another person or object. Often displaced on less threatening things. Brandon may take his anger on another kid by bullying. THIS IS THE MOST DANGEROUS DEFENSE MECHANISM!!!

17 Projection Believing that the feelings one has toward someone else are actually held by the other person and directed at oneself. Brandon insists that Jasmine still cares for him.

18 Reaction Formation Expressing the opposite of how one truly feels. Cootie stage in Freuds Latent Development. Brandon claims he hates Jasmine. THIS DOES NOT ALLOW FOR PERSONALITY CHANGE

19 Regression Returning to an earlier, comforting form of behavior. Brandon begins to sleep with his favorite childhood stuffed animal. Eating a pint of ice cream as comfort food

20 Rationalization Coming up with a beneficial result of an undesirable outcome. Brandon thinks he will find a better girlfriend. Jasmine was not all that anyway! I really did want to go to ……..anyway, it was too ……

21 Intellectualization Undertaking an academic, unemotional study of a topic. Brandon starts doing a research paper on failed teenage romances.

22 Sublimation Channeling ones frustration toward a different goal. Sometimes a healthy defense mechanism. Brandon starts to learn how to play the guitar and writing songs (or maybe starts to body build).

23 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Oral Stage Anal Stage Phallic Stage Latency Genital Stage Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Psychosexual stages – Successive, instinctive patterns of associating pleasure with stimulations of specific bodily areas at different times of life

24 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Fixation– Occurs when psychosexual development is arrested at an immature stage

25 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Oedipus complex – According to Freud, a largely unconscious process whereby boys displace an erotic attraction toward their mother to females of their own age and, at the same time, identify with their fathers

26 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Identification – The mental process by which an individual tries to become like another person, especially the same-sex parent

27 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Penis envy– According to Freud, the female desire to have a penis– a condition that usually results in their attraction to males

28 Getting into the Unconscious Hypnosis Dream Interpretation Free Association (having them just randomly talk to themselves…and then interpreting the conversation). Projective Tests (and test that delves into the unconscious). Examples are TAT and Inkblot Tests.

29 TAT Test Thematic Apperception Test Giving the subject a picture that is ambiguous (can have several meanings) and ask them what is occurring. Their answers reveal the manifest content. They can then discover the Latent Content.

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33 Rorschach Inkblot Test The most widely used projective test A set of ten inkblots designed to identify peoples feelings when they are asked to interpret what they see in the inkblots.

34 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Projective tests – Personality assessment instruments based on Freuds concept of projection Rorschach inkblot technique Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

35 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Freuds Psychoanalytic Theory Psychic determinism – Freuds assumption that all mental and behavioral reactions are caused by unconscious traumas desires or conflicts

36 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious Personal unconscious – Portion of the unconscious corresponding roughly to Freuds id Collective unconscious – Jungs addition to the unconscious, involving a reservoir for instinctive memories including the archetypes, which exist in all people

37 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Archetypes Animus Anima Shadow Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious

38 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Archetypes Animus Anima Shadow Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious The male archetype The female archetype

39 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Archetypes Animus Anima Shadow Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious Archetype representing the destructive and aggressive tendencies we dont want to recognize in ourselves

40 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious Introversion – The Jungian dimension that focuses on inner experience–ones own thoughts and feelings, making the introvert less outgoing and sociable than the extrovert Extraversion – The Jungian personality dimension involving turning ones attention outward, toward others

41 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious Jungs principle of opposites portrays each personality as a balance between opposing pairs of unconscious tendencies, such as introversion and extroversion

42 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Karen Horney: A Feminist Voice in Psychodynamic Psychology Basic anxiety – An emotion that gives a sense of uncertainty and loneliness on a hostile world and can lead to maladjustment Neurotic needs – Signs of neurosis in Horneys theory, these ten needs are normal desires carried to a neurotic extreme

43 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Alfred Adler: An early split from Psychoanalysis Inferiority complex – A feeling of inferiority that is largely unconscious, with it roots in childhood Compensation – Making up for ones real or imagined deficiencies

44 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Humanistic Theories Humanistic Theories include Gordon Allports trait theory Abraham Maslows self-actualizing personality Carl Rogers fully functioning person

45 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gordon Allport and the Beginnings of Humanistic Traits – Stable personality characteristics that are presumed to exist within the individual and guide his or her thoughts and actions under various conditions Central traits form the basis of personality Secondary traits include preferences and attitudes Cardinal traits define peoples lives

46 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Abraham Maslow and the Healthy Personality Self-actualizing personalities – Healthy individuals who have met their basic needs and are free to be creative and fulfill their potentials

47 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Carl Rogerss Fully Functioning Person Fully functioning person – Term for a healthy, self-actualizing individual, who has a self-concept that is both positive and congruent with reality

48 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Carl Rogerss Fully Functioning Person Phenomenal field – Our psychological reality, composed of ones perceptions and feelings Unconditional positive regard – Love or caring without conditions attached

49 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Evaluating Humanistic Theories Positive psychology – Movement within psychology focusing on the desirable aspects of human functioning, as opposed to an emphasis on psychopathology

50 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cognitive Theories: Social Learning and Personality Observational learning – Process of learning new responses by watching the behavior of others Reciprocal determinism – Process in which the person, situation and environment mutually influence each other

51 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Reciprocal Determinism Cognition Environment Behavior

52 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Locus of Control Locus of control – An individuals sense of where his or her life influences originate

53 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Current Trends in Personality Theory Family systems theory Cultural differences Gender influences

54 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Persistent Patterns are Found in Personality? Another approach describes personality in terms of stable patterns known as temperaments, traits, and types

55 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 BloodPhlegm Yellow Bile Black Bile What Patterns are Found in Personality? Humors – Four bodily fluids that, according to ancient theory, control personality by their relative abundance

56 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Personality and Temperament Temperament – Basic, pervasive personality dispositions that are apparent in early childhood and establish the tempo and mood of an individuals behaviors

57 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Patterns in Personality The Big Five traits 1.Openness to experience 2.Conscientiousness 3.Extraversion 4.Agreeableness 5.Neuroticism Cattell identifies 16 personality factors

58 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Patterns in Personality Type – Especially important dimensions or clusters of traits that are not only central to a persons personality but are found with essentially the same pattern in many people

59 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Assessing Traits NEO-PI (Big Five Inventory) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Reliability and validity are important attributes of good psychological tests

60 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Traits and the Person-Situation Debate Person-situation controversy – Theoretical dispute concerning the relative contribution of personality factors and situational factors in controlling behavior

61 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Theories Do People Use to Understand Each Other? People everywhere develop implicit assumptions (folk theories) about personality, but these assumptions vary in important ways across cultures

62 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Implicit Personality Theories Implicit personality theories – Assumptions about personality that are held by people to simplify the task of understanding others Fundamental attribution error – Assumption that another persons behavior (especially undesirable behavior) is the result of a flaw in their personality, rather than in the situation

63 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Personality Across Cultures Assumptions people make vary widely across cultures–depending especially on whether the culture emphasizes individualism or collectivism Other cultural differences involve Status of different age groups and sexes Romantic love Stoicism Locus of control Thinking vs. feeling Attribution

64 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 10


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