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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

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1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Chapter 10 Personality This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Personality Personality – Psychological qualities that bring continuity to an individual’s behavior in different situations and at different times Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

3 What Forces Shape Our Personalities?
According to the psychodynamic, humanistic and cognitive theories, personality is a continuously changing process, shaped by our internal needs and cognitions and by external pressures from the social environment Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

4 Psychodynamic Theories
Psychoanalysis– Freud’s system of treatment for mental disorders Psychoanalytic theory – Freud’s theory of personality Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

5 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Unconscious – Psychic domain of which the individual is not aware, but which is the storehouse of repressed impulses, drives, and conflicts that are unavailable to consciousness Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

6 Freud’s Model of the Mind
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

7 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Personality structure Id Superego Ego Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

8 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Personality structure Id Primitive, unconscious portion of personality, houses most basic drives and stores repressed memories Superego Ego Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

9 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Personality structure Id Mind’s storehouse of values, moral attitudes learned from parents and society, same as common notion of conscience Superego Ego Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

10 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Personality structure Id Conscious, rational part of personality, charged with keeping peace between superego and id Superego Ego Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Anxiety When the Superego and the Id clash, the Ego must play the role of referee. Freud called this clash – ANXIETY. Giving in the Id (not following your Superego) leads to GUILT. Giving in to your Superego (not following your Id) leads to FRUSTRATION. Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

12 Defense Mechanisms The ego has a pretty important job…and that is to protect you from threatening thoughts in our unconscious. One way it protects us is through defense mechanisms. You are usually unaware that they are even occurring.

13 Scenario Quarterback of the high school football team, Brandon, is dating Jasmine. Jasmine dumps Brandon and starts dating Drew, president of the chess club. Jasmine Brandon Drew

14 Repression Pushing thoughts into our unconscious.
When asked about Jasmine, Brandon may say “Who?, I have not thought about her for awhile.”

15 Denial Not accepting the ego-threatening truth. Brandon may act like he is still together with Jasmine. He may hang out by her locker and plan dates with her.

16 Displacement Redirecting one’s feelings toward another person or object. Often displaced on less threatening things. Brandon may take his anger on another kid by bullying. THIS IS THE MOST DANGEROUS DEFENSE MECHANISM!!!

17 Projection Believing that the feelings one has toward someone else are actually held by the other person and directed at oneself. Brandon insists that Jasmine still cares for him.

18 Reaction Formation Expressing the opposite of how one truly feels. Cootie stage in Freud’s Latent Development. Brandon claims he hates Jasmine. THIS DOES NOT ALLOW FOR PERSONALITY CHANGE

19 Regression Returning to an earlier, comforting form of behavior. Brandon begins to sleep with his favorite childhood stuffed animal. Eating a pint of ice cream as comfort food

20 Rationalization Coming up with a beneficial result of an undesirable outcome. Brandon thinks he will find a better girlfriend. “Jasmine was not all that anyway!” I really did want to go to ……..anyway, it was too ……

21 Intellectualization Undertaking an academic, unemotional study of a topic. Brandon starts doing a research paper on failed teenage romances.

22 Sublimation Channeling one’s frustration toward a different goal.
Sometimes a healthy defense mechanism. Brandon starts to learn how to play the guitar and writing songs (or maybe starts to body build).

23 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychosexual stages – Successive, instinctive patterns of associating pleasure with stimulations of specific bodily areas at different times of life Oral Stage Anal Stage Phallic Stage Latency Genital Stage Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

24 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Fixation– Occurs when psychosexual development is arrested at an immature stage Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

25 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Oedipus complex – According to Freud, a largely unconscious process whereby boys displace an erotic attraction toward their mother to females of their own age and, at the same time, identify with their fathers Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

26 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Identification – The mental process by which an individual tries to become like another person, especially the same-sex parent Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

27 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Penis envy– According to Freud, the female desire to have a penis– a condition that usually results in their attraction to males Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

28 Getting into the Unconscious
Hypnosis Dream Interpretation Free Association (having them just randomly talk to themselves…and then interpreting the conversation). Projective Tests (and test that delves into the unconscious). Examples are TAT and Inkblot Tests.

29 TAT Test Thematic Apperception Test
Giving the subject a picture that is ambiguous (can have several meanings) and ask them what is occurring. Their answers reveal the manifest content. They can then discover the Latent Content.




33 Rorschach Inkblot Test
The most widely used projective test A set of ten inkblots designed to identify people’s feelings when they are asked to interpret what they see in the inkblots.

34 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Projective tests – Personality assessment instruments based on Freud’s concept of projection Rorschach inkblot technique Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

35 Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Psychic determinism – Freud’s assumption that all mental and behavioral reactions are caused by unconscious traumas desires or conflicts Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

36 Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious
Personal unconscious – Portion of the unconscious corresponding roughly to Freud’s id Collective unconscious – Jung’s addition to the unconscious, involving a reservoir for instinctive “memories” including the archetypes, which exist in all people Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

37 Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious
Archetypes Animus Anima Shadow Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

38 Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious
Archetypes Animus The male archetype Anima The female archetype Shadow Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

39 Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious
Archetypes Animus Archetype representing the destructive and aggressive tendencies we don’t want to recognize in ourselves Anima Shadow Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

40 Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious
Introversion – The Jungian dimension that focuses on inner experience–one’s own thoughts and feelings, making the introvert less outgoing and sociable than the extrovert Extraversion – The Jungian personality dimension involving turning one’s attention outward, toward others Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

41 Carl Jung: Extending the Unconscious
Jung’s principle of opposites portrays each personality as a balance between opposing pairs of unconscious tendencies, such as introversion and extroversion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

42 Karen Horney: A Feminist Voice in Psychodynamic Psychology
Basic anxiety – An emotion that gives a sense of uncertainty and loneliness on a hostile world and can lead to maladjustment Neurotic needs – Signs of neurosis in Horney’s theory, these ten needs are normal desires carried to a neurotic extreme Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

43 Alfred Adler: An early split from Psychoanalysis
Inferiority complex – A feeling of inferiority that is largely unconscious, with it roots in childhood Compensation – Making up for one’s real or imagined deficiencies Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

44 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Humanistic Theories Humanistic Theories include Gordon Allport’s trait theory Abraham Maslow’s self-actualizing personality Carl Roger’s fully functioning person Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

45 Gordon Allport and the Beginnings of Humanistic
Traits – Stable personality characteristics that are presumed to exist within the individual and guide his or her thoughts and actions under various conditions Central traits form the basis of personality Secondary traits include preferences and attitudes Cardinal traits define peoples lives Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

46 Abraham Maslow and the Healthy Personality
Self-actualizing personalities – Healthy individuals who have met their basic needs and are free to be creative and fulfill their potentials Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

47 Carl Rogers’s Fully Functioning Person
Fully functioning person – Term for a healthy, self-actualizing individual, who has a self-concept that is both positive and congruent with reality Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

48 Carl Rogers’s Fully Functioning Person
Phenomenal field – Our psychological reality, composed of one’s perceptions and feelings Unconditional positive regard – Love or caring without conditions attached Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

49 Evaluating Humanistic Theories
Positive psychology – Movement within psychology focusing on the desirable aspects of human functioning, as opposed to an emphasis on psychopathology Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

50 Cognitive Theories: Social Learning and Personality
Observational learning – Process of learning new responses by watching the behavior of others Reciprocal determinism – Process in which the person, situation and environment mutually influence each other Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

51 Reciprocal Determinism
Cognition Environment Behavior Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

52 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Locus of Control Locus of control – An individual’s sense of where his or her life influences originate Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

53 Current Trends in Personality Theory
Family systems theory Cultural differences Gender influences Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

54 What Persistent Patterns are Found in Personality?
Another approach describes personality in terms of stable patterns known as temperaments, traits, and types Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

55 What Patterns are Found in Personality?
Humors – Four bodily fluids that, according to ancient theory, control personality by their relative abundance Blood Phlegm Black Bile Yellow Bile Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

56 Personality and Temperament
Temperament – Basic, pervasive personality dispositions that are apparent in early childhood and establish the tempo and mood of an individual’s behaviors Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

57 Patterns in Personality
The “Big Five” traits Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Cattell identifies 16 personality factors Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

58 Patterns in Personality
Type – Especially important dimensions or clusters of traits that are not only central to a person’s personality but are found with essentially the same pattern in many people Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

59 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Assessing Traits NEO-PI (Big Five Inventory) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) Reliability and validity are important attributes of good psychological tests Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

60 Traits and the Person-Situation Debate
Person-situation controversy – Theoretical dispute concerning the relative contribution of personality factors and situational factors in controlling behavior Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

61 What “Theories” Do People Use to Understand Each Other?
People everywhere develop implicit assumptions (“folk theories”) about personality, but these assumptions vary in important ways across cultures Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

62 Implicit Personality Theories
Implicit personality theories – Assumptions about personality that are held by people to simplify the task of understanding others Fundamental attribution error – Assumption that another person’s behavior (especially undesirable behavior) is the result of a flaw in their personality, rather than in the situation Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

63 Personality Across Cultures
Assumptions people make vary widely across cultures–depending especially on whether the culture emphasizes individualism or collectivism Other cultural differences involve Status of different age groups and sexes Romantic love Stoicism Locus of control Thinking vs. feeling Attribution Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

64 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
End of Chapter 10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

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