Causes of the French Revolution: 1.New Enlightenment Ideas 2.Financial Crisis 3.Inequality in Society
Cause #1: New Enlightenment Ideas Freedom & Equal Rights Public office jobs based on talent Rights to liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
Cause #2: Financial Crisis Bad harvests – bad market Food shortages – rising prices for food Rising unemployment Government spends on costly wars and luxuries Raised taxes to fix crisis – Made it WORSE!!
Cause #3: Inequality in Society Three Estates (social orders) 1 st Estate: Clergy 2 nd Estate: Nobility 3 rd Estate: Commoners
Estates–General (French Parliament) Third Estate wanted to abolish tax exemptions Each Estate gets one vote. (easily out voted) 3 rd Estate – wanted to change the voting rule King Louis XVI said no changes and locked the Third Estate out of meeting.
National Assembly Third Estate formed National Assembly, 1789 National Assembly moves to nearby tennis court for meeting. Tennis Court Oath – swear to produce a new French constitution. Louis XVI prepared to use force against Third Estate until… July 14 th – Storming of Bastille
National Assembly Abolished tax exemptions. Declaration of the Rights of Man & the Citizen – Proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, but none for women. Inspired by U.S. Declaration of Independence
What about women? Ignored by National Assembly Louis XVI flees Paris – refuses to accept National Assembly Parisian WOMEN bring the royal family back to Paris – prisoners in Paris.
Down with the Old, In with the New Monarchy given “limited” power. Legislative Assembly – created to make laws. Paris Commune (Radicals) – seize the king and demand voting rights to all males. Sans-culottes – Paris Commune members (patriots without fine clothing)
National Convention 1792 First step – abolish monarchy, establish France as the French Republic Split into factions (dissenting groups) over the fate of King Louis Girondins vs. Mountains (both members of the Jacobin club)
Girondins Feared radical mobs Wanted to keep the king alive
The Mountain Represented the Radicals (Sans- culottes) Convinced the National Convention to condemn King Louis XVI to death Beheaded on the guillotine.
Guillotine was intended to be a humane and equal form of execution.
Foreign Crisis Monarchies of Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Britain, & Holland are outraged at King Louis’ death. National Convention creates the Committee of Public Safety to handle the foreign threat. Maximilien Robespierre in control of Committee.
Reign of Terror Committee of Public Safety in control 40,000 enemies of Revolution killed (including Marie Antoinette) Once crisis was over the “Republic of Virtue” would follow
Dechristianization Churches were pillaged Priests encouraged to marry, if not then killed by guillotine Notre Dame designated a “Temple of Reason” Christian Calendar changed: No Sundays BUT…majority of France was still Catholic
End of Terror France defeated foreign enemies National Convention afraid of Robespierre and condemn him to death Robespierre beheaded Jacobins lose control and Middle Class takes over Churches reopened New constitution created
The Directory Under the new Constitution of 1795: Directory is the new executive committee Era of corruption and greed. (much like the Committee of Public Safety) 1799 – coup d’etat (sudden overthrow) led by General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the Directory. Napoleon seizes power.
Uniform laws inspired by the Revolution Civil Code was most important – preserved individual rights But… Uniform laws inspired by the Revolution Civil Code was most important – preserved individual rights But… The Napoleonic Code
Many laws restrict rights (especially women) & restores slavery in Caribbean
NB creates a new, efficient government Promotion based on ability - not rank or birth NB creates a new, efficient government Promotion based on ability - not rank or birth A New Bureaucracy
Needs money for war in Europe & too far away to control
Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia and Sweden unite against NB The Coalition
Napoleonic Warfare 1. Rapid Movement 2. Divide and Conquer 3. Object not to outmaneuver, but to destroy enemy army 1. Rapid Movement 2. Divide and Conquer 3. Object not to outmaneuver, but to destroy enemy army
The 100 Days Louis XVIII returned to throne by Allies March 1, 1815 - NB escapes to Europe, welcomed by French Louis XVIII returned to throne by Allies March 1, 1815 - NB escapes to Europe, welcomed by French