Presentation on theme: "PHYLUM CHORDATA Dorsal Notochord-long rod that supports the body-becomes the vertebrae in most. Dorsal Nerve cord-becomes the central nervous system. Pharyngeal."— Presentation transcript:
1 PHYLUM CHORDATADorsal Notochord-long rod that supports the body-becomes the vertebrae in most.Dorsal Nerve cord-becomes the central nervous system.Pharyngeal gill slits-openings in the throat for feeding & breathing-becomes the Pharynx in humans.Tail-forms in embryos and extends past the anus.
8 Jawless Fishes = Agnathans No true teeth/jawSkeleton made of fibers/cartilageCartilage-strong supporting tissue (softer/more flexible than bone)Lack true vertebrae (keep notochord as adults)ONLY VERTEBRATE PARASITES!2 groups: Lampreys and Hagfishes
9 LampreysParasitesSucker-like oral disks with teeth to grasp and suck tissues/flesh
10 Hagfishes Detritivores No eyes Toothed tongue Secrete slime 6 hearts Tie into knot
14 CARTILAGINOUS FISH 850 Species of Sharks, Rays, & Skates Skeleton is made of cartilage. S-shaped swimming/rigid fins.External Gill slits.Store oils & constant motion to stay afloat.Scales are small bony plates (at one time used as sandpaper).
15 RAYS & SKATES Flattened body for a bottom-dwelling niche Spiracles & eyes on the dorsal side.Mouth, nostrils & gill slits on ventral side.Stingrays have a hollow barb.Manta ray grows to 18’.
16 SHARKS Close to 300 species. Largest fish in the world-Whale Shark. Can smell 1drop/bloodIn 1 million parts/water.Lateral line detect vibrations in the waterAmpullae of LorenziniSense changes in electrical field.
18 Bony Fishes = Osteichthyes Bone skeleton (hard, calcified tissue)Ray-Finned Fishes-fins formed from bony spines covered by thin layers of skin (largest group)Lobe-Finned Fishes-fleshy fins with bones (some jointed like arms/legs)…ex. Lungfish & Coelacanth
19 Fish: Aquatic Vertebrates Scales Paired Fins Gills Scales Eye Caudal finDorsal finLateral lineMouthOperculum (gill cover)Anal finPelvic finPectoral fin
20 FeedingHerbivores, carnivores, parasites, filter feeders, and detritivoresDigestive tract: mouthesophagusstomachpyloric cecaintestineanus (solid waste)Enzymes added by liver and pancreas
22 Respiration Gills on sides of pharynx to exchange gases Gill Filaments-feathery structures with capillaries for gas exchangeGill Rakers-prevents prey from escaping through gillsGill Arches-support and protect gillsOperculum-protective bony cover over gill openings
24 Lungfish Adaptation to oxygen-poor water Tube brings oxygen from air into fish’s mouth to “LUNG”
25 Circulation Closed system 2 chambered heart Single loop: heartgillsbody (back to heart)
26 Fish HeartSinus Venosus-sac that collects oxygen poor blood from veins; sends blood toAtrium-large muscular chamber; sends it toVentricle-large muscular chamber that pumps blood; sends it toBulbus Arteriosus-muscular tube that connects toAorta-large blood vessel that sends blood to gills
27 Fish HeartAtriumSinus VenosusBulbus arteriosusVentricle
28 Circulation in a Fish Gills Brain and head circulation Body muscle circulationDigestive system circulationHeart
29 Excretion Eliminate nitrogenous waste as ammonia (urine) Kidneys filter waste from bloodDiffusion through gillsKidney
30 Response/Nervous System Well-developed nervous system with brainEyes with color visionTaste/SmellLateral Line System- detect currents/vibrations in water (sense nearby fishes)Brain
31 Olfactory Bulbs-smell (olfaction) Cerebrum-smell (and voluntary activities)Optic Lobe-process info from eyesCerebellum-coordinates body movementsMedulla Oblongata-controls internal organsOlfactory bulbCerebrumOptic lobeCerebellumMedulla oblongata
32 MovementSwim Bladder-internal gas filled organ to adjust buoyancy in bony fish only
33 Movement continued… Contract paired sets of muscles Fins propel Dorsal/Ventral fins for stability (Dorsal/Anal)Paired fins for fine movements/turning (Pectoral/Pelvic)Caudal fin for speed
34 Reproduction External/Internal fertilization Oviparous-eggs (embryo) develop and hatch outside mom’s body; obtain food from egg yolkOvoviviparous-eggs stay in mom’s body; obtain food from egg yolk; young are “born alive”Viviparous-embryos stay in mom’s body; obtain food from mom; young are born alive