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PHYLUM CHORDATA Dorsal Notochord-long rod that supports the body- becomes the vertebrae in most. Dorsal Nerve cord-becomes the central nervous system.

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Presentation on theme: "PHYLUM CHORDATA Dorsal Notochord-long rod that supports the body- becomes the vertebrae in most. Dorsal Nerve cord-becomes the central nervous system."— Presentation transcript:

1 PHYLUM CHORDATA Dorsal Notochord-long rod that supports the body- becomes the vertebrae in most. Dorsal Nerve cord-becomes the central nervous system. Pharyngeal gill slits-openings in the throat for feeding & breathing-becomes the Pharynx in humans. Tail-forms in embryos and extends past the anus.

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4 Evolution of Fishes Primitive fishes lacked jaws and paired fins Primitive fishes lacked jaws and paired fins Ancestral jawless fish ruled the seas during Devonian Period: Age of Fishes Ancestral jawless fish ruled the seas during Devonian Period: Age of Fishes

5 Evolution of Fishes

6 CLASS PISCES: FISHES

7 CLASS PISCES BECAUSE THERE ARE 20,000 SPECIES THERE ARE 3 SUBCLASSES SUBCLASS AGNATHA (JAWLESS FISH) CHONDRICHTHYES (CARTILAGE) OSTEICHTHYES (BONY FISH) SUBCLASS

8 Jawless Fishes = Agnathans No true teeth/jaw No true teeth/jaw Skeleton made of fibers/cartilage Skeleton made of fibers/cartilage Cartilage-strong supporting tissue (softer/more flexible than bone) Cartilage-strong supporting tissue (softer/more flexible than bone) Lack true vertebrae (keep notochord as adults) Lack true vertebrae (keep notochord as adults) ONLY VERTEBRATE PARASITES! ONLY VERTEBRATE PARASITES! 2 groups: Lampreys and Hagfishes 2 groups: Lampreys and Hagfishes

9 Lampreys Parasites Parasites Sucker-like oral disks with teeth to grasp and suck tissues/flesh Sucker-like oral disks with teeth to grasp and suck tissues/flesh

10 Hagfishes Detritivores Detritivores No eyes No eyes Toothed tongue Toothed tongue Secrete slime Secrete slime 6 hearts 6 hearts Tie into knot Tie into knot

11 Hagfish

12 Cartilaginous Fishes = Chondrichthyes Sharks, Rays, Skates Sharks, Rays, Skates Cartilage skeleton (no bone) Cartilage skeleton (no bone) Sharks have thousands of teeth in rows Sharks have thousands of teeth in rows Skates and Rays glide with wing-like pectoral fins (bottom-dwelling) Skates and Rays glide with wing-like pectoral fins (bottom-dwelling)

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14 CARTILAGINOUS FISH 850 Species of Sharks, Rays, & Skates Skeleton is made of cartilage. S-shaped swimming/rigid fins. External Gill slits. Store oils & constant motion to stay afloat. Scales are small bony plates (at one time used as sandpaper).

15 RAYS & SKATES Flattened body for a bottom- dwelling niche Flattened body for a bottom- dwelling niche Spiracles & eyes on the dorsal side. Spiracles & eyes on the dorsal side. Mouth, nostrils & gill slits on ventral side. Mouth, nostrils & gill slits on ventral side. Stingrays have a hollow barb. Stingrays have a hollow barb. Manta ray grows to 18. Manta ray grows to 18.

16 SHARKS Close to 300 species. Largest fish in the world- Whale Shark. Can smell 1drop/blood In 1 million parts/water. Lateral line detect vibrations in the water Ampullae of Lorenzini Sense changes in electrical field.

17 WHALE SHARK

18 Bony Fishes = Osteichthyes Bone skeleton (hard, calcified tissue) Bone skeleton (hard, calcified tissue) Ray-Finned Fishes-fins formed from bony spines covered by thin layers of skin (largest group) Ray-Finned Fishes-fins formed from bony spines covered by thin layers of skin (largest group) Lobe-Finned Fishes-fleshy fins with bones (some jointed like arms/legs)…ex. Lungfish & Coelacanth Lobe-Finned Fishes-fleshy fins with bones (some jointed like arms/legs)…ex. Lungfish & Coelacanth

19 Fish: Anal fin Eye Mouth Dorsal finCaudal fin Operculum (gill cover) Pelvic fin Pectoral fin Lateral line Scales Aquatic Vertebrates Paired Fins Scales Gills

20 Feeding Herbivores, carnivores, parasites, filter feeders, and detritivores Herbivores, carnivores, parasites, filter feeders, and detritivores Digestive tract: mouth esophagus stomach pyloric ceca intestine anus (solid waste) Digestive tract: mouth esophagus stomach pyloric ceca intestine anus (solid waste) Enzymes added by liver and pancreas Enzymes added by liver and pancreas

21 Mouth Esophagus Stomach Pyloric cecum Liver Pancreas Intestine Anus Digestive System

22 Respiration Gills on sides of pharynx to exchange gases Gills on sides of pharynx to exchange gases Gill Filaments-feathery structures with capillaries for gas exchange Gill Filaments-feathery structures with capillaries for gas exchange Gill Rakers-prevents prey from escaping through gills Gill Rakers-prevents prey from escaping through gills Gill Arches-support and protect gills Gill Arches-support and protect gills Operculum-protective bony cover over gill openings Operculum-protective bony cover over gill openings

23 Gills

24 Lungfish Adaptation to oxygen- poor water Adaptation to oxygen- poor water Tube brings oxygen from air into fishs mouth to LUNG Tube brings oxygen from air into fishs mouth to LUNG

25 Circulation Closed system Closed system 2 chambered heart 2 chambered heart Single loop: heart gills body (back to heart) Single loop: heart gills body (back to heart)

26 Fish Heart Sinus Venosus-sac that collects oxygen poor blood from veins; sends blood to Atrium- large muscular chamber; sends it to Ventricle- large muscular chamber that pumps blood; sends it to Bulbus Arteriosus-muscular tube that connects to Aorta-large blood vessel that sends blood to gills Sinus Venosus-sac that collects oxygen poor blood from veins; sends blood to Atrium- large muscular chamber; sends it to Ventricle- large muscular chamber that pumps blood; sends it to Bulbus Arteriosus-muscular tube that connects to Aorta-large blood vessel that sends blood to gills

27 Sinus Venosus Atrium Ventricle Bulbus arteriosus Fish Heart

28 Body muscle circulation Brain and head circulation Heart Digestive system circulation Gills Circulation in a Fish

29 Excretion Eliminate nitrogenous waste as ammonia (urine) Eliminate nitrogenous waste as ammonia (urine) Kidneys filter waste from blood Kidneys filter waste from blood Diffusion through gills Diffusion through gills Kidney

30 Brain Well-developed nervous system with brain Eyes with color vision Taste/Smell Lateral Line System - detect currents/vibrations in water (sense nearby fishes) Response/Nervous System

31 Olfactory Bulbs-smell (olfaction) Cerebrum-smell (and voluntary activities) Optic Lobe-process info from eyes Cerebellum-coordinates body movements Medulla Oblongata-controls internal organs Olfactory bulb Cerebrum Optic lobe Cerebellum Medulla oblongata

32 Movement Swim Bladder-internal gas filled organ to adjust buoyancy in bony fish only

33 Movement continued… Contract paired sets of muscles Contract paired sets of muscles Fins propel Fins propel Dorsal/Ventral fins for stability (Dorsal/Anal) Dorsal/Ventral fins for stability (Dorsal/Anal) Paired fins for fine movements/turning (Pectoral/Pelvic) Paired fins for fine movements/turning (Pectoral/Pelvic) Caudal fin for speed Caudal fin for speed

34 Reproduction External/Internal fertilization External/Internal fertilization Oviparous-eggs (embryo) develop and hatch outside moms body; obtain food from egg yolk Oviparous-eggs (embryo) develop and hatch outside moms body; obtain food from egg yolk Ovoviviparous-eggs stay in moms body; obtain food from egg yolk; young are born alive Ovoviviparous-eggs stay in moms body; obtain food from egg yolk; young are born alive Viviparous-embryos stay in moms body; obtain food from mom; young are born alive Viviparous-embryos stay in moms body; obtain food from mom; young are born alive

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36 Anadromous-live in ocean but migrate to fresh water to breed; Ex. Salmon

37 Migrations Catadromous- Breed in the oceans but live in freshwater Eels migrate to the Sargasso Sea, they spawn at depths of 300 meters and die when done


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