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Amphibians. Characteristics of Amphibians Vertebrate Vertebrate Lives in water as larva; land as adult (some exceptions) Lives in water as larva; land.

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Presentation on theme: "Amphibians. Characteristics of Amphibians Vertebrate Vertebrate Lives in water as larva; land as adult (some exceptions) Lives in water as larva; land."— Presentation transcript:

1 Amphibians

2 Characteristics of Amphibians Vertebrate Vertebrate Lives in water as larva; land as adult (some exceptions) Lives in water as larva; land as adult (some exceptions) Breathes with lungs as adult Breathes with lungs as adult Moist skin with mucus glands Moist skin with mucus glands No scales and claws No scales and claws

3 Evolution of Amphibians First amphibians during Devonian Period First amphibians during Devonian Period Transitioned from water to land Transitioned from water to land Breathe air Breathe air Protect eggs and themselves from drying out Protect eggs and themselves from drying out Support against the pull of gravity Support against the pull of gravity

4 Evolution Continued… Adaptations evolved to live at least part of life out of water. Adaptations evolved to live at least part of life out of water. Stronger bones in limbs and limb girdles; more efficient movement Stronger bones in limbs and limb girdles; more efficient movement Lungs and breathing tubes Lungs and breathing tubes Sternum or breastbone for shield and support. Sternum or breastbone for shield and support.

5 Pelvic Girdle Lungs Leg Bones: The legs of a land vertebrate must be strong enough to hold its weight. Skin: The skin and the lining of the mouth cavity of many adult amphibians are thin and richly supplied with blood vessels. Watery mucus is secreted by glands in the skin.

6 As Adults lungs are richly supplied with blood vessels and folds that increase surface area As Adults lungs are richly supplied with blood vessels and folds that increase surface area Lungs

7 Class Amphibia Includes frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians. Includes frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians. Small and diverse class Small and diverse class Due to extinction of most amphibians during Permian Period (climate changes) Due to extinction of most amphibians during Permian Period (climate changes) Low, swampy habitats disappeared Low, swampy habitats disappeared

8 Feeding Tadpoles Tadpoles Filter feeders or herbivores (algae) Filter feeders or herbivores (algae) Intestine breaks down hard plant material Intestine breaks down hard plant material Adults Adults Carnivores Carnivores Sticky tongues to capture insects Sticky tongues to capture insects

9 Respiration Gas exchange through skin and gills (larval stage) Gas exchange through skin and gills (larval stage) Lungs, skin, and lining of mouth cavity (adult stage) Lungs, skin, and lining of mouth cavity (adult stage) Lungless amphibians:thin lining of mouth cavity and skin Lungless amphibians:thin lining of mouth cavity and skin

10 Circulation Double loop Double loop First loop First loop Oxygen-poor blood from heart to lungs and skin Oxygen-poor blood from heart to lungs and skin Oxygen-rich blood from lungs and skin to left atrium Oxygen-rich blood from lungs and skin to left atrium Second loop Second loop Oxygen-rich blood from heart to rest of body Oxygen-rich blood from heart to rest of body Oxygen-poor blood from body back to heart Oxygen-poor blood from body back to heart

11 Amphibian Heart Three separate chambers Three separate chambers Left atrium Left atrium Right atrium Right atrium Ventricle Ventricle Right atrium Left atrium Ventricle To body, lungs and skin From Body From Lungs

12 Excretion Kidneys to filter wastes from blood Kidneys to filter wastes from blood Urine excreted; travels from ureters to cloaca to outside or stored in urinary bladder Urine excreted; travels from ureters to cloaca to outside or stored in urinary bladder Heart Lung Kidney Ureter Cloaca Urinary bladder

13 Reproduction Females lay eggs in water; male fertilizes them externally (most amphibians) Females lay eggs in water; male fertilizes them externally (most amphibians) Internal fertilization (salamanders) Internal fertilization (salamanders) After fertilization; frog eggs encased in sticky, transparent jelly After fertilization; frog eggs encased in sticky, transparent jelly Yolk of egg nourishes embryo Yolk of egg nourishes embryo

14 Movement Wiggle tails; flattened tails for propulsion (larva) Wiggle tails; flattened tails for propulsion (larva) Adult salamanders walk or run Adult salamanders walk or run Frogs and toads: well developed hind limbs (jump long distances) Frogs and toads: well developed hind limbs (jump long distances)

15 Response Well developed nervous and sensory systems Well developed nervous and sensory systems Nictitating Membrane Nictitating Membrane Moist and transparent Moist and transparent Located inside regular eyelid Located inside regular eyelid Can be closed over the eye Can be closed over the eye Tympanic Membrane Tympanic Membrane Eardrums located on each side Eardrums located on each side Lateral Line Lateral Line Used to detect movement in water Used to detect movement in water

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17 Frog Digestion Food enters the mouth esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine cloaca Food enters the mouth esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine cloaca Cloaca: muscular cavity where solid waste, urine, eggs and sperm exit body Cloaca: muscular cavity where solid waste, urine, eggs and sperm exit body Liver, pancreas and gall bladder excrete enzymes that aid in digestion Liver, pancreas and gall bladder excrete enzymes that aid in digestion Frog Movie

18 Stomach Esophagus Mouth Small intestine Gallbladder Liver Pancreas Large intestine (colon) Cloaca

19 Frog Reproduction Adults ready to breed in 1 to 2 years Adults ready to breed in 1 to 2 years Eggs laid in water (external fertilization) Eggs laid in water (external fertilization) Fertilized eggs tadpoles (several days to few weeks) Fertilized eggs tadpoles (several days to few weeks) Tadpoles gradually lose tails and gills, grow limbs. Tadpoles gradually lose tails and gills, grow limbs.

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21 Frog Metamorphosis Fertilized eggs Tadpoles Young Frog Adult Frog

22 3 Groups of Amphibians Salamanders Salamanders Frogs and Toads Frogs and Toads Caecilians Caecilians

23 Salamanders Long tails and bodies Long tails and bodies 4 legs 4 legs Carnivorous Carnivorous Live in moist woods (adults) Live in moist woods (adults) Tunnel under rocks and rotting logs Tunnel under rocks and rotting logs

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25 Frogs and Toads Ability to jump Ability to jump Long legs = lengthy jumps (Frogs) Long legs = lengthy jumps (Frogs) Short legs = short hops (Toads) Short legs = short hops (Toads) Frogs closely tied to water Frogs closely tied to water Toads closely tied to moist woods Toads closely tied to moist woods

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27 Caecilians Legless animals that live in water or burrow in moist soil Legless animals that live in water or burrow in moist soil Feed on small invertebrates (termites) Feed on small invertebrates (termites) Fish-like scales embedded in their skin Fish-like scales embedded in their skin

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29 Frog Dissection

30 External Anatomy

31 Tympanum

32 External Nares

33 Internal Nares

34 Vomerine Teeth

35 Tongue

36 Eustachian Tube

37 Maxillary Teeth

38 Dorsal Muscular Anatomy

39 2. Pterygoideus 2. Pterygoideus 3. Temporalis 3. Temporalis 4. Masseter 4. Masseter 5. Depressor mandibularis 5. Depressor mandibularis 6. Trapezius 6. Trapezius 11.Latissimus dorsi 11.Latissimus dorsi 14.External oblique 14.External oblique 17.Gluteus 17.Gluteus 18.Piriformis 18.Piriformis 20.Vastus externus 20.Vastus externus 25.Gracilis minor 25.Gracilis minor 26.Gastrocnemius 26.Gastrocnemius 28.Semimembranosus 28.Semimembranosus 29.Biceps femoris 29.Biceps femoris

40 4.Masseter 4.Masseter 5.Depressor mandibularis 5.Depressor mandibularis 6.Dorsalis scapulae 6.Dorsalis scapulae 10.Trapezius 10.Trapezius

41 55.Depressor mandibularis 55.Depressor mandibularis10.Trapezius

42 Ventral Muscular Anatomy

43 7.Deltoid 7.Deltoid 9.Pectoralis major 9.Pectoralis major 12.Rectus abdominus 12.Rectus abdominus 13.Linea alba 13.Linea alba 14.External oblique 14.External oblique 30.Mylohyoid 30.Mylohyoid

44 7 37.Deltoid 37.Deltoid 9.Pectoralis major 13.Linea alba 20.Rectus femoris 21.Adductor magnus 22.Sartorius 24.Gracilis major 25.Gracilis minor 26.Gastrocnemius 27.Achilles tendon 30.Mylohyoid

45 Internal Anatomy

46 Cerebellum

47 Cerebrum

48 Liver

49 Heart 2 Atria 1 Ventricle

50 Stomach

51 Large Intestine

52 Spleen

53 Gall Bladder

54 Pancreas

55 Lung

56 Kidney

57 Oviduct

58 Ovaries/ Eggs

59 Testes/ Sperm

60 Sperm Duct


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