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Kingdom Protista “the very first”

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1 Kingdom Protista “the very first”
any organism that is not a plant, animal, fungus, or prokaryote (bacteria) Eukaryotes 1.5 billion years ago Classified by nutrition mode Animal like, Plant like, or Fungus like

2 A) Animal-like Protists: Protozoans
Protozoa-”First animals” Heterotrophs Four phyla based on how they move

3 1) Phylum Zoomastiginia: Zooflagellates
Absorb food through their cell membranes Most reproduce asexually- binary fission Live in lakes and streams or bodies of other organisms

4 Diseases African sleeping sickness Trichomonas vaginalis – vaginitis
Trypanosoma – Tsetse Fly Chills, rashes, nerve cell damage, coma Trichomonas vaginalis – vaginitis

5 Termites and Trichonympha
Symbiotic (lives off food from termite) Lives in termite gut Contains cellulase that digests wood

6 2) Phylum Sarcondina: Sarcodines
Pseudopods “false foot” – cytoplasmic projections for eating and movement Best known sarcodine - Amoeba Amoeboid movement Contractile and Food Vacuoles Binary Fission Foraminiferans – secrete calcium carbonate shells (chalk), accumulates on bottom of ocean.

7 ex. AMOEBA Contractile Vacuole (pump water) Pseudopods Nucleus
Food Vacuole (store food)

8 Amebic Dysentery Entamoeba-parasite spread by contaminated drinking water from poor sanitation Severe diarrhea, attacks intestines, bleeding Boiling water or iodine kills parasite

9 3) Phylum Ciliophora: Ciliates
Cilia – used for feeding and movement Short, hair-like projections Binary Fission and Conjugation (stress) Best known ciliate – paramecium Freshwater and saltwater Trichocysts-stiff projections for defense of paramecium

10 Internal Anatomy Two nuclei Macronucleus Micronucleus
respiration, protein synthesis, and digestion. Micronucleus conjugation and contains a reserve copy of genes.

11 Paramecium Macronucleus Trichocysts Oral groove Lysosomes Gullet
Anal pore Gullet Oral groove Trichocysts Lysosomes Food vacuoles Contractile vacuole Micronucleus (conjugation) Macronucleus Cilia

12 Nutrition The cilia move food into the oral groove which leads to the gullet. The food is forced into food vacuoles Lysosomes break down the food Undigested food is removed through the anus Contractile Vacuole pumps water in and out to maintain homeostasis

13 Conjugation New macronuclei form Macronucleus Micronucleus MEIOSIS Exchange of micronuclei Macronuclei disintegrate Genetically identical paramecium form *note: conjugation is a sexual process but NOT a form of sexual reproduction b/c no new individuals are formed. However, new combinations of genetic information are produced.

14 4) Phylum Sporozoa: Sporozoans
Parasitic protists Parasites of many different organisms, including worms, fish, birds, and humans. Many protists cause serious disease Cannot move independently Reproduce using sporozoites A sporozoite can attach itself to a host and lives as a parasite.

15 Diseases Malaria- sporozoan Plasmodium
Saliva of the female Anopheles mosquito Sporozoites enter the bloodstream and the plasmodium infects the liver cells and red blood cells. Red cells burst and release toxins into the bloodstream 2 million people die each year from malaria.


17 B) Plant-like Protists: Unicellular Algae
Base of the food chain “phytoplankton” photosynthetic pigments 4 phyla based on the type of pigments they contain

18 1) Phylum Euglenophyta: Euglenophytes
two flagella Lack a cell wall Cell membrane called a pellicle Chloroplasts – photosynthetic Heterotrophic if no sunlight available Eyespot – finds sunlight Pellicle – tough and flexible

19 Euglena Chloroplast Carbohydrate storage bodies Gullet Pellicle
Contractile vacuole Flagella Eyespot Nucleus

20 2) Phylum Pyrrophyta “fire plants”: Dinoflagellates
50% photosynthetic 50% heterotrophs 2 flagella Plates made of cellulose for protection Many are bioluminescent



23 Zooxanthellae (ex. of dinoflagellates)
Photosynthetic dinos that provide food for their host organism. The host provides carbon dioxide and shelter. Examples of host organisms: jellyfish, coral, clams


25 Red Tide Water appears red due to “Algal Bloom”
Some dino species will release a toxin that effects the nervous systems of fish Ban on shellfish


27 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
PSP is caused by a dino species that produces a toxin that is taken up by mollusks. Eating these infected shellfish can cause serious illness, paralysis, or death

28 Pfiesteria-dinoflagellates (blooms triggered by pollution)-parasiteslesions

29 3) Phylum Chrysophyta: Chrysophytes
Yellow-green and golden-brown algae Gold-colored chloroplasts Pectin cell wall Store food in the form of oil

30 4) Phylum Bacillariophyta: Diatoms
Cell walls – silicon (glass) Cannot decompose

31 C) Plantlike Protists: Multicellular Algae
Red, Brown, and Green

32 1) Phylum Rhodophyta: Red Algae
Contain Chlorophyll a and Phycobilins Absorb blue light – 260 meters, very deep Important role in forming coral reefs Chondrus crispus- Irish moss

33 Chondrus crispus – Irish Moss

34 2) Phylum Phaeophyta: Brown Algae
Chlorophyll a and c, Fucoxanthin Holdfast, Stipe, Blades, Bladders Fucus- Rockweed Sargassum Kelp

35 Kelp

36 Kelp

37 Rockweed

38 Fucus : Rockweed

39 Sargassum

40 Blade Stipe Hold Fast

41 3) Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae
Cellulose in their cell walls Chlorophyll a & b Stores food as starch Very similar to plants

42 Unicellular Green Algae
Chlamydomonas Lives in ponds, wet soil, etc.

43 Colonial Green Algae Spirogyra
Volvox – connected strands of cytoplasm, coordinated flagella movement

44 Multicellular Green Algae
Sea lettuce- Ulva

45 Importance of Algae Base of the food chain Kelp forests – habitats
50% of oxygen production Medical Use Ulcers, High Blood Pressure, arthritis


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