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Kingdom Protista the very first any organism that is not a plant, animal, fungus, or prokaryote (bacteria) any organism that is not a plant, animal, fungus,

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Protista the very first any organism that is not a plant, animal, fungus, or prokaryote (bacteria) any organism that is not a plant, animal, fungus,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Protista the very first any organism that is not a plant, animal, fungus, or prokaryote (bacteria) any organism that is not a plant, animal, fungus, or prokaryote (bacteria) Eukaryotes Eukaryotes 1.5 billion years ago 1.5 billion years ago Classified by nutrition mode Classified by nutrition mode Animal like, Plant like, or Fungus like Animal like, Plant like, or Fungus like

2 A) Animal-like Protists: Protozoans Protozoa-First animals Protozoa-First animals Heterotrophs Heterotrophs Four phyla based on how they move Four phyla based on how they move

3 1) Phylum Zoomastiginia: Zooflagellates flagella flagella Absorb food through their cell membranes Absorb food through their cell membranes Most reproduce asexually- binary fission Most reproduce asexually- binary fission Live in lakes and streams or bodies of other organisms Live in lakes and streams or bodies of other organisms

4 Diseases African sleeping sickness African sleeping sickness Trypanosoma – Tsetse Fly Trypanosoma – Tsetse Fly Chills, rashes, nerve cell damage, coma Chills, rashes, nerve cell damage, coma Trichomonas vaginalis – vaginitis Trichomonas vaginalis – vaginitis

5 Termites and Trichonympha Symbiotic (lives off food from termite) Symbiotic (lives off food from termite) Lives in termite gut Lives in termite gut Contains cellulase that digests wood Contains cellulase that digests wood

6 2) Phylum Sarcondina: Sarcodines Pseudopods false foot – cytoplasmic projections for eating and movement Pseudopods false foot – cytoplasmic projections for eating and movement Best known sarcodine - Amoeba Best known sarcodine - Amoeba Amoeboid movement Amoeboid movement Contractile and Food Vacuoles Contractile and Food Vacuoles Binary Fission Binary Fission Foraminiferans – secrete calcium carbonate shells (chalk), accumulates on bottom of ocean. Foraminiferans – secrete calcium carbonate shells (chalk), accumulates on bottom of ocean.

7 Contractile Vacuole (pump water) Nucleus Food Vacuole (store food) Pseudopods ex. AMOEBA

8 Amebic Dysentery Entamoeba-parasite spread by contaminated drinking water from poor sanitation Severe diarrhea, attacks intestines, bleeding Boiling water or iodine kills parasite

9 3) Phylum Ciliophora: Ciliates Cilia – used for feeding and movement Cilia – used for feeding and movement Short, hair-like projections Short, hair-like projections Binary Fission and Conjugation (stress) Binary Fission and Conjugation (stress) Best known ciliate – paramecium Best known ciliate – paramecium Freshwater and saltwater Freshwater and saltwater Trichocysts-stiff projections for defense of paramecium Trichocysts-stiff projections for defense of paramecium

10 Internal Anatomy Two nuclei Two nuclei Macronucleus Macronucleus respiration, protein synthesis, and digestion. respiration, protein synthesis, and digestion. Micronucleus Micronucleus conjugation and contains a reserve copy of genes. conjugation and contains a reserve copy of genes.

11 Anal pore Gullet Oral groove Trichocysts Lysosomes Food vacuoles Contractile vacuole Micronucleus (conjugation) Macronucleus Cilia Paramecium

12 Nutrition The cilia move food into the oral groove which leads to the gullet. The cilia move food into the oral groove which leads to the gullet. The food is forced into food vacuoles The food is forced into food vacuoles Lysosomes break down the food Lysosomes break down the food Undigested food is removed through the anus Undigested food is removed through the anus Contractile Vacuole pumps water in and out to maintain homeostasis Contractile Vacuole pumps water in and out to maintain homeostasis

13 Macronucleus Micronucleus Conjugation MEIOSIS Exchange of micronuclei Macronuclei disintegrate New macronuclei form Genetically identical paramecium form *note: conjugation is a sexual process but NOT a form of sexual reproduction b/c no new individuals are formed. However, new combinations of genetic information are produced.

14 4) Phylum Sporozoa: Sporozoans Parasitic protists Parasitic protists Parasites of many different organisms, including worms, fish, birds, and humans. Parasites of many different organisms, including worms, fish, birds, and humans. Many protists cause serious disease Many protists cause serious disease Cannot move independently Cannot move independently Reproduce using sporozoites Reproduce using sporozoites A sporozoite can attach itself to a host and lives as a parasite. A sporozoite can attach itself to a host and lives as a parasite.

15 Diseases Malaria- sporozoan Plasmodium Malaria- sporozoan Plasmodium Saliva of the female Anopheles mosquito Saliva of the female Anopheles mosquito Sporozoites enter the bloodstream and the plasmodium infects the liver cells and red blood cells. Sporozoites enter the bloodstream and the plasmodium infects the liver cells and red blood cells. Red cells burst and release toxins into the bloodstream Red cells burst and release toxins into the bloodstream 2 million people die each year from malaria. 2 million people die each year from malaria.

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17 B) Plant-like Protists: Unicellular Algae Base of the food chain Base of the food chain phytoplankton phytoplankton photosynthetic pigments photosynthetic pigments 4 phyla based on the type of pigments they contain 4 phyla based on the type of pigments they contain

18 1) Phylum Euglenophyta: Euglenophytes two flagella two flagella Lack a cell wall Lack a cell wall Cell membrane called a pellicle Cell membrane called a pellicle Chloroplasts – photosynthetic Chloroplasts – photosynthetic Heterotrophic if no sunlight available Heterotrophic if no sunlight available Eyespot – finds sunlight Eyespot – finds sunlight Pellicle – tough and flexible Pellicle – tough and flexible

19 Gullet Chloroplast Nucleus EyespotFlagella Euglena Carbohydrate storage bodies Pellicle Contractile vacuole

20 2) Phylum Pyrrophyta fire plants: Dinoflagellates 50% photosynthetic 50% photosynthetic 50% heterotrophs 50% heterotrophs 2 flagella 2 flagella Plates made of cellulose for protection Plates made of cellulose for protection Many are bioluminescent Many are bioluminescent

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23 Zooxanthellae (ex. of dinoflagellates) Photosynthetic dinos that provide food for their host organism. Photosynthetic dinos that provide food for their host organism. The host provides carbon dioxide and shelter. The host provides carbon dioxide and shelter. Examples of host organisms: jellyfish, coral, clams Examples of host organisms: jellyfish, coral, clams

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25 Red Tide Water appears red due to Algal Bloom Water appears red due to Algal Bloom Some dino species will release a toxin that effects the nervous systems of fish Some dino species will release a toxin that effects the nervous systems of fish Ban on shellfish Ban on shellfish

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27 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning PSP is caused by a dino species that produces a toxin that is taken up by mollusks. PSP is caused by a dino species that produces a toxin that is taken up by mollusks. Eating these infected shellfish can cause serious illness, paralysis, or death Eating these infected shellfish can cause serious illness, paralysis, or death

28 Pfiesteria -dinoflagellates (blooms triggered by pollution)-parasites lesions

29 3) Phylum Chrysophyta: Chrysophytes Yellow-green and golden-brown algae Yellow-green and golden-brown algae Gold-colored chloroplasts Gold-colored chloroplasts Pectin cell wall Pectin cell wall Store food in the form of oil Store food in the form of oil

30 4) Phylum Bacillariophyta: Diatoms Cell walls – silicon (glass) Cell walls – silicon (glass) Cannot decompose Cannot decompose

31 C) Plantlike Protists: Multicellular Algae Red, Brown, and Green

32 1) Phylum Rhodophyta: Red Algae Contain Chlorophyll a and Phycobilins Contain Chlorophyll a and Phycobilins Absorb blue light – 260 meters, very deep Absorb blue light – 260 meters, very deep Important role in forming coral reefs Important role in forming coral reefs Chondrus crispus- Irish moss Chondrus crispus- Irish moss

33 Chondrus crispus – Irish Moss

34 2) Phylum Phaeophyta: Brown Algae Chlorophyll a and c, Fucoxanthin Chlorophyll a and c, Fucoxanthin Holdfast, Stipe, Blades, Bladders Holdfast, Stipe, Blades, Bladders Fucus- Rockweed Fucus- Rockweed Sargassum Sargassum Kelp Kelp

35 Kelp

36 Kelp

37 Rockweed

38 Fucus : Rockweed

39 Sargassum

40 Blade Stipe Hold Fast

41 3) Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae Cellulose in their cell walls Cellulose in their cell walls Chlorophyll a & b Chlorophyll a & b Stores food as starch Stores food as starch Very similar to plants Very similar to plants

42 Unicellular Green Algae Chlamydomonas Chlamydomonas Lives in ponds, wet soil, etc. Lives in ponds, wet soil, etc.

43 Colonial Green Algae Spirogyra Spirogyra Volvox – connected strands of cytoplasm, coordinated flagella movement Volvox – connected strands of cytoplasm, coordinated flagella movement

44 Multicellular Green Algae Sea lettuce- Ulva Sea lettuce- Ulva

45 Importance of Algae Base of the food chain Kelp forests – habitats 50% of oxygen production Medical Use Ulcers, High Blood Pressure, arthritis

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