Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Protista “the very first”"— Presentation transcript:
1 Kingdom Protista “the very first” any organism that is not a plant, animal, fungus, or prokaryote (bacteria)Eukaryotes1.5 billion years agoClassified by nutrition modeAnimal like, Plant like, or Fungus like
2 A) Animal-like Protists: Protozoans Protozoa-”First animals”HeterotrophsFour phyla based on how they move
3 1) Phylum Zoomastiginia: Zooflagellates Absorb food through their cell membranesMost reproduce asexually- binary fissionLive in lakes and streams or bodies of other organisms
8 Amebic DysenteryEntamoeba-parasite spread by contaminated drinking water from poor sanitationSevere diarrhea, attacks intestines, bleedingBoiling water or iodine kills parasite
9 3) Phylum Ciliophora: Ciliates Cilia – used for feeding and movementShort, hair-like projectionsBinary Fission and Conjugation (stress)Best known ciliate – parameciumFreshwater and saltwaterTrichocysts-stiff projections for defense of paramecium
10 Internal Anatomy Two nuclei Macronucleus Micronucleus respiration, protein synthesis, and digestion.Micronucleusconjugation and contains a reserve copy of genes.
12 NutritionThe cilia move food into the oral groove which leads to the gullet.The food is forced into food vacuolesLysosomes break down the foodUndigested food is removed through the anusContractile Vacuole pumps water in and out to maintain homeostasis
13 ConjugationNew macronuclei formMacronucleusMicronucleusMEIOSISExchange of micronucleiMacronuclei disintegrateGenetically identical paramecium form*note: conjugation is a sexual process but NOT a form of sexual reproduction b/c no new individuals are formed. However, new combinations of genetic information are produced.
14 4) Phylum Sporozoa: Sporozoans Parasitic protistsParasites of many different organisms, including worms, fish, birds, and humans.Many protists cause serious diseaseCannot move independentlyReproduce using sporozoitesA sporozoite can attach itself to a host and lives as a parasite.
15 Diseases Malaria- sporozoan Plasmodium Saliva of the female Anopheles mosquitoSporozoites enter the bloodstream and the plasmodium infects the liver cells and red blood cells.Red cells burst and release toxins into the bloodstream2 million people die each year from malaria.
17 B) Plant-like Protists: Unicellular Algae Base of the food chain“phytoplankton”photosynthetic pigments4 phyla based on the type of pigments they contain
18 1) Phylum Euglenophyta: Euglenophytes two flagellaLack a cell wallCell membrane called a pellicleChloroplasts – photosyntheticHeterotrophic if no sunlight availableEyespot – finds sunlightPellicle – tough and flexible
23 Zooxanthellae (ex. of dinoflagellates) Photosynthetic dinos that provide food for their host organism.The host provides carbon dioxide and shelter.Examples of host organisms: jellyfish, coral, clams