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Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 9 Psychological Development This multimedia product and its contents are protected.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 9 Psychological Development This multimedia product and its contents are protected."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 9 Psychological Development This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN:

2 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Developmental Psychology Developmental psychology – The study of how organisms change over time as the result of biological and environmental influences

3 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Do Psychologists Explain Development? Development is a process of growth and change brought about by an interaction of heredity and the environment

4 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Nature-Nurture Interaction Nature-nurture issue – Long-standing discussion over relative importance of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) in their influence on behavior and mental processes

5 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Nature-Nurture Interaction Twin studies – Developmental investigations in which twins, especially identical twins, are compared in the search for genetic and environmental effects

6 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Nature-Nurture Interaction Identical twins– A pair who started life as a single fertilized egg which later split into two distinct individuals Fraternal twins– A pair who started life as two separate fertilized eggs that happened to share the same womb

7 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Nature-Nurture Interaction Adoption studies – Studies in which the adopted childs characteristics are compared to those of the biological family and the adoptive family

8 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gradual versus Abrupt Change Continuity view vs. Discontinuity view Age Performance Continuity view Discontinuity view

9 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Gradual versus Abrupt Change Developmental stages – Periods of life initiated by significant transitions or changes in physical or psychological functioning

10 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Psychological Traits in Your Genes While psychological traits are formed by interaction of heredity and the environment, many traits have a strong genetic influence

11 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Capabilities Does the Child Possess? Newborns have innate abilities for finding nourishment, interacting with others, and avoiding harmful situations; the developing abilities of infants and children rely on learning

12 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Prenatal Development Prenatal period – The developmental period before birth Zygote Embryo Fetus Placenta – An organ that develops between the embryo/fetus and the mother Teratogens – Toxic substances that can damage the developing organism

13 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Neonatal Period (from birth to one month) Sensory abilities Motor abilities Postural reflex Grasping reflex

14 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006Attachment The most important social construct an infant must develop is attachment (a bond with a caregiver). Lorenz discovered that some animals form attachment through imprinting.

15 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Attachment Harry Harlow and his monkeys. Harry showed that monkeys needed touch to form attachment. Click the monkey to see a video of Harlows experiment.

16 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Attachment Critical Periods: the optimal period shortly after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produce proper development. Those who are deprived of touch have trouble forming attachment when they are older. Click on the monkey to see what a baby monkey does when he HAS attachment and imagine what it is like when he does not (like above).

17 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Types of Attachment Mary Ainsworths Strange Situation. Three types of attachment: 1.Secure 2.Avoidant 3.Anxious/ambivalent Click picture to see clip of Ainsworths experiment.

18 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Infancy (from one month to about 18 months) Babies learn through classical conditioning Humans apparently have an inborn need for attachment Secure attachment Anxious-ambivalent attachment Avoidant attachment

19 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Infancy (from one month to about 18 months) Maturation – The unfolding of genetically programmed processes of growth and development over time

20 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Birth

21 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Responds to sound Becomes quiet when picked up Vocalizes occasionally Birth 1 mo.

22 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Smiles socially Recognizes mother Rolls from side to back Lifts head and holds it erect and steady Birth1 mo. 2 mo.

23 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Vocalizes to the smiles and talk of an adult Searches for source of sound Sits with support, head steady Birth1 mo.2 mo. 3 mo.

24 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Gaze follows dangling ring, vanishing spoon, and ball moved across table Sits with slight support Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo. 4 mo.

25 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Discriminates strangers from familiar persons Turns from back to side Makes distinctive vocalizations Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo. 5 mo.

26 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Lifts cup and bangs it Smiles at mirror image Reaches for small object Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo. 6 mo.

27 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Makes playful responses to mirror Sits alone steadily Crawls Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo.

28 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Vocalizes up to four different syllables Listens selectively to familiar words Pulls to standing position Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo. 8 mo.

29 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo.8 mo. 9 mo.

30 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Plays pat-a-cake Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo.8 mo.9 mo. 10 mo.

31 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Stands alone Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo.8 mo.9 mo.10 mo. 11 mo.

32 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Maturation Timetable for Locomotion Walks alone Birth1 mo.2 mo.3 mo.4 mo.5 mo.6 mo. 7 mo.8 mo.9 mo.10 mo.11 mo. 1 year

33 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Are the Developmental Tasks of Infancy and Childhood? Infants and children face especially important developmental tasks in the areas of cognition and social relationships – tasks that lay a foundation for further growth in adolescence and adulthood

34 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cognitive Development Cognitive development – The process by which thinking changes over time Schemas – Mental structures or programs that guide a developing childs thoughts

35 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Accommodation – Mental process that restructures existing schemes so that new information is better understood Cognitive Development Assimilation – Mental process that modifies new information to fit it into existing schemes

36 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Cognitive Development It was thought that kids were just stupid versions of adults. Then came along Jean Piaget Kids learn differently than adults

37 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006Schemas Children view the world through schemas (as do adults for the most part). Schemas are ways we interpret the world around us. It is basically what you picture in your head when you think of anything. Right now in your head, picture a model. These 3 probably fit into your concept (schema) of a model. But does this one?

38 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Assimilation Incorporating new experiences into existing schemas. If I teach my 3 year that an animal with 4 legs and a tail is a dog…. What would he call this? Or this? What schema would you assimilate this into?

39 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Assimilation in High School When you first meet somebody, you will assimilate them into a schema that you already have. If you see two guys dressed like this, what schema would you assimilate them into? Would you always be right?

40 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Accommodation Changing an existing schema to adopt to new information. If I tell someone from the mid-west to picture their schema of the Bronx they may talk about the ghetto areas. But if I showed them other areas of the Bronx, they would be forced to accommodate (change) their schema to incorporate their new information.

41 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational

42 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational Birth to about age 2 Child relies heavily on innate motor responses to stimuli Sensorimotor intelligence Mental representations Object permanence

43 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Stage Experience the world through our senses. Do NOT have object permanence. 0-2 Click Mom to see a baby with no object permanence.

44 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational About age 2 to age 6 or 7 Marked by well- developed mental representation and the use of language Egocentrism Animalistic thinking Centration

45 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Preoperational Stage 2-7 Have object permanence Begin to use language to represent objects and ideas Egocentric: cannot look at the world through anyones eyes but their own. Do NOT understand concepts of conservation. Click the boy to see kids with egocentri sm.

46 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational About age 7 to about age 11 Child understands conservation but is incapable of abstract thought Conservation Mental operations

47 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Conservation Conservation refers to the idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in appearance and is part of logical thinking. Click the boy to see kids trying to grasp conservation.

48 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Concrete Operational Stage Can demonstrate concept of conservation. Learn to think logically Click the penguin to see kids try to grasp concrete logic.

49 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational From about age 12 on Abstract thought appears

50 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Formal Operational Stage What would the world look like with no light? Picture god What way do you best learn? Abstract reasoning Manipulate objects in our minds without seeing them Hypothesis testing Trial and Error Metacognition Not every adult gets to this stage

51 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Social and Emotional Development Theory of Mind – An awareness that other peoples behavior may be influenced by beliefs, desires, and emotions that differ from ones own Temperament – An individuals characteristic manner of behavior or reaction

52 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Social and Emotional Development Zone of proximal development – The difference between what a child can do with help and what the child can do without any help or guidance Socialization – The lifelong process of shaping an individuals behavior patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes and motives to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society

53 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Parenting Styles Authoritarian Parents Authoritative Parents Permissive Parents

54 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon Authoritarian parents 2.Authoritative parents 3.Permissive parents 4.Uninvolved parents Social and Emotional Development Most approaches to child rearing fall into one of the following four styles:

55 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Social and Emotional Development Other factors influencing a childs development may include: Effects of day care School influences Leisure influences

56 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Eriksons Psychosocial Stages Age/Period Principal Challenge 0 to 1 1/2 years Trust vs. Mistrust 1 1/2 to 3 years Autonomy vs. Self doubt 3 to 6 years Initiative vs. Guilt 6 years to puberty Confidence vs. Inferiority Adolescence Identity vs. Role confusion Early adulthood Intimacy vs. Isolation Middle adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation Late adulthood Ego-integrity vs. Despair

57 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Changes Mark the Transition of Adolescence? Adolescence offers new developmental challenges growing out of physical changes, cognitive changes, and socioemotional changes

58 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Transitions of Adolescence Adolescence – Developmental period beginning at puberty and ending at adulthood Rites of passage – Social rituals that mark the transition between developmental stages, especially between childhood and adulthood

59 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Physical Maturation in Adolescence Puberty – Onset of sexual maturity Around puberty, boys and girls become more aware of their physical attractiveness

60 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cognitive Development in Adolescence Formal operational stage – Piagets final stage of cognitive growth (abstract and complex thought) Hormones rise to high levels The frontal lobes undergo a remodel This leads to sensation seeking and risk taking, and preoccupation with body image and sex

61 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The increasing influence of peers Common social problems in adolescence Delinquency Social Identity in Adolescence Identity crisis

62 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Masturbation Same-sex orientation Heterosexual behavior Sexual Issues in Adolescence Sexual issues in adolescence often include the following:

63 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Reasoning I. Preconventional morality Stage 1: Pleasure/pain orientation Stage 2: Cost/benefit orientation; reciprocity

64 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 II. Conventional morality Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Reasoning Stage 3: Good child orientation Stage 4: Law-and-order orientation

65 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 III. Postconventional (principled) morality Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Reasoning Stage 5: Social contract orientation Stage 6: Ethical principle orientation

66 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Kohlbergs Stages of Moral Reasoning Culture and morality Gender and morality

67 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Developmental Challenges Do Adults Face? Nature and nurture continue to produce changes throughout life, but in adulthood these changes include both growth and decline

68 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Developmental Challenges of Adulthood Love and work Intimacy versus isolation Generativity versus stagnation Generativity – A process of making a commitment beyond oneself to family, work, society, or future generations

69 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Last Developmental Problems You Will Face Ego-identity – The ability to look back on life without regrets and to enjoy a sense of wholeness According to Erikson, the final crisis involves ego-identity vs. despair

70 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Last Developmental Problems You Will Face Some of the most obvious changes that occur with age affect physical abilities such as Vision Hearing Thinking, learning, and problem solving Memory Sexual functioning Social interaction Emotions

71 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2006 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 9


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