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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany AP ed. Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Ann L. Weber Craig W. Gruber Prepared.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany AP ed. Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Ann L. Weber Craig W. Gruber Prepared."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 PowerPoint Presentations to Accompany AP ed. Philip G. Zimbardo Robert L. Johnson Ann L. Weber Craig W. Gruber Prepared by David Lundberg-Kenrick This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN:

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. ISBN: Chapter 1 Introduction and History of Psychology

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Many things that happen to us leave no record in memory True or False? True: Most of the information around us never reaches memory, and what does reach memory often gets distorted

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 You are born with all the brain cells you will ever have True or False? False: Recent research shows that some parts of the brain continue producing new cells throughout life

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 True or False? Both center patches are the same shade of gray

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

7 True: The patch on the right appeared darker due to perceptual contrast with its background

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 True: The patch on the right appeared darker due to perceptual contrast with its background

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Intelligence is a purely genetic trait that does not change throughout a persons life True or False? False: Intelligence is the result of both heredity and environment, and may change throughout your life

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The most common form of mental disorder occurs in 30% of the population True or False? True: Depression, the single most common disorder, may affect up to a third of the population at some point in their lives

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Repeated exposure to the same face leads us to like it less False: Familiar people (and their faces) are generally liked more than less familiar people True or False?

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology – The scientific study of behavior and mental processes Psychology is not Mere speculation about human nature A body of folk wisdom about people that everybody knows to be true

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Pseudopsychology – Erroneous assertions of practices set forth as being scientific psychology What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology disputes unfounded claims from pseudopsychology

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Do Psychologists Do? Psychology is a broad field with many specialties, grouped in three major categories: experimental psychology, teaching of psychology and applied psychology

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Do Psychologists Do? Experimental psychologists Conduct most research across psychological spectrum May work in private industry or for the government Often teach at college or university

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 I/OSports School Counseling Engineering Rehabilitation Use knowledge developed by experimental psychologists to solve human problems Clinical What Do Psychologists Do? Applied psychologists

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What Are Psychologys Historical Roots? Modern psychology developed from several conflicting traditions, including structuralism, functionalism, Gestalt psychology, behaviorism, and psychoanalysis

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Devoted to uncovering basic structures that make up mind and thought Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Gestalt psychology Behaviorism

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Believed mental processes could best be understood in terms of their adaptive purpose and function Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Gestalt psychology Behaviorism

21 Wave One: Introspection Kickin it old school Started with Wilhelm Wundts first psychological laboratory and his concept of introspection (structuralism). Then William James wrote The Principles of Psychology and discussed functionalism. In reality these ideas do not have much impact on how psychologists think today. These guys were considered hot, back in the day!!!!

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Interested in how we construct perceptual wholes Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Gestalt psychology Behaviorism

23 Wave Two: Gestalt Psychology Led by Max Wertheimer, these guys focused not on how we feel, but on how we experience the world. The whole of an experience can be more than the sum of its parts. Think for a moment of all the reasons that you love your mom. If you add all those reasons up, do they equal your love for your mom? Hopefully not!!! This may seem like one picture, but it can be perceived as 3 different faces. Can you find them?

24 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Argued psychology should deal solely with observable events Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Gestalt psychology Behaviorism

25 Wave Three: Behaviorism During this time period (early to mid 1900s), people started to ignore how you feel inside. All that mattered was how you acted. If you they could change your behavior, who cares how you feel. Very popular during the conservative 1950s when social appearance mattered more than self expression.

26 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Asserted mental disorders arise from conflicts in the unconscious mind Tradition Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Gestalt psychology Behaviorism

27 Wave Four: Psychoanalysis This wave of thinking started with Sigmund Freud (in the early 1900s). In a nutshell, during this time period people believed that most of your feelings come from a hidden place in your mind called the unconscious. We protect ourselves from our real feeling by using defense mechanisms.

28 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What are the Perspectives Psychologists Use Today? Seven main perspectives characterize modern psychology: the biological, developmental, cognitive, clinical, behavioral, trait, and socio-cultural views

29 Wave Five is made up of about 7 different perspectives. In other words, psychologists today, pick and choose from about 7 schools of thought to help you with your problems. Thus we have: THE SEVEN SCHOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGY

30 Biopsychology (Neuroscience) Perspective All of your feelings and behaviors have an organic root. In other words, they come from your brain, body chemistry, neurotransmitters, etc… Let us imagine for a second that your dog died (sad but it will happen). You become depressed. You stop eating and sleeping. What would a psychologist from this school say is going on and how might they help you?

31 Evolutionary Perspective Focuses on Darwinism. We behave the way we do because we inherited those behaviors. Thus, those behaviors must have helped ensure our ancestors survival. How could this behavior ensured Homers ancestors survival?

32 Psychoanalytic Perspective Focuses on the unconscious mind. We repress many of our true feelings and are not aware of them. In order to get better, we must bring forward the true feelings we have in our unconscious. If a man has intimacy issues and cannot form relationships with others. What do you think someone from this school may think? Perhaps they may delve into the mans unconscious and discover that he was bullied when he were younger. The bullying may have caused fear in getting close to others.

33 Behavioral Perspective Focuses on observable behaviors while putting feelings to the side. We behave in ways because we have been conditioned to do so. To change behaviors, we have to recondition the client. Pretend that you fail psychology class. You become depressed. In turn, you begin to binge and gain weight. What do you think a behaviorist may do? They would probably ignore the fact that you are depressed and just focus on your overeating. Maybe make you run a mile every time you eat over 2000 calories.

34 Humanist Perspective Peaked in the late 1960s and 70s….so it focused on spirituality and free will. We have to strive to be the best we can be self- actualization. Happiness is defined by the distance between our self-concept and ideal self.

35 Cognitive Perspective Focuses on how we think (or encode information) How do we see the world? How did we learn to act to sad or happy events? Cognitive Therapist attempt to change the way you think. You meet a girl… Hopes are high!!! She rejects you…dont even get digits. How do you react to the rejection? Some learned get back on the horse And try again. Some learned to give up and live a lonely life of solitude.

36 Social-Cultural Perspective Says that much of your behavior and your feelings are dictated by the culture you live in. Some cultures kiss each other when greeting, some just bow. Does your culture place value on individual or the group? This is my culture!!! (this is the point when my wife rolls here eyes).

37 Psychologys Three Big Debates Nature Versus Nurture Stability Versus Change Continuity Versus Discontinuity


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