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© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The fact that the orbits of the planets are elliptical was discovered by: 1.Copernicus 2.Brahe 3.Kepler 4.Galileo 14.01.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The fact that the orbits of the planets are elliptical was discovered by: 1.Copernicus 2.Brahe 3.Kepler 4.Galileo 14.01."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The fact that the orbits of the planets are elliptical was discovered by: 1.Copernicus 2.Brahe 3.Kepler 4.Galileo Q

2 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The fact that the orbits of the planets are elliptical was discovered by: 1.Copernicus 2.Brahe 3.Kepler 4.Galileo A

3 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: The fact that the orbits of the planets are elliptical was discovered by: 3.Kepler Based on the mathematical relationships that emerged from his study of Brahes observations, Kepler set forth the first astronomical model that actually portrayed motionthat is, the path of the planetsand those orbits were elliptical, not circular E

4 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Galileo believed that all aspects of nature could be described in terms of: 1.virtues and vices 2.divine harmonies 3.mathematical relationships 4.logical hierarchies Q

5 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Galileo believed that all aspects of nature could be described in terms of: 1.virtues and vices 2.divine harmonies 3.mathematical relationships 4.logical hierarchies A

6 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: Galileo believed that all aspects of nature could be described in terms of: 3.mathematical relationships The universe was rational; however, its rationality was not that of medieval scholastic logic, but of mathematics. Copernicus had thought that the heavens conformed to mathematical regularity; Galileo saw this regularity throughout physical nature E

7 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Isaac Newtons most important work was the: 1.Principia Mathematica 2.Letters on Sunspots 3.The New Astronomy 4.Universal Laws Q

8 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Isaac Newtons most important work was the: 1.Principia Mathematica 2.Letters on Sunspots 3.The New Astronomy 4.Universal Laws A

9 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: Isaac Newtons most important work was the: 1.Principia Mathematica In 1687, Newton published The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, better known by its Latin title of Principia Mathematica. Much of the research and thinking for this great work had taken place more than fifteen years earlier E

10 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Francis Bacon believed that: 1.the study of nature began with the articulation of general principles 2.knowledge of nature should be used to improve the human condition 3.knowledge of nature was primarily useful for what it told us about the divine 4.that the best era of human history lay in antiquity Q

11 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Francis Bacon believed that: 1.the study of nature began with the articulation of general principles 2.knowledge of nature should be used to improve the human condition 3.knowledge of nature was primarily useful for what it told us about the divine 4.that the best era of human history lay in antiquity A

12 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: Francis Bacon believed that: 2.knowledge of nature should be used to improve the human condition Bacon believed that human knowledge should produce useful resultsdeeds rather than words. In particular, knowledge of nature should be enlisted to improve the human condition E

13 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. John Locke was a defender of: 1.equal rights for women 2.absolute monarchy 3.religious toleration 4.the idea that governments were based on the model of fathers ruling families Q

14 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. John Locke was a defender of: 1.equal rights for women 2.absolute monarchy 3.religious toleration 4.the idea that governments were based on the model of fathers ruling families A

15 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: John Locke was a defender of: 3.religious toleration In his Letter Concerning Toleration (1689), Locke used the premises of the as yet unpublished Second Treatise to defend extensive religious toleration among Christians, which he saw as an answer to the destructive religious conflict of the past two centuries E

16 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Catholic Church admitted that errors had occurred in the 1633 trial of Galileo in: Q

17 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The Catholic Church admitted that errors had occurred in the 1633 trial of Galileo in: A

18 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: The Catholic Church admitted that errors had occurred in the 1633 trial of Galileo in: Although much more complicated than a simple case of a conflict between science and religion, the condemnation of Galileo cast a long and troubled shadow over the relationship of the emerging new science and the authority of the Roman Catholic Church. The controversy continued into the late twentieth century, when Pope John Paul II formally ordered the reassessment of the Galileo case. In 1992, the Roman Catholic Church admitted that errors had occurred, particularly in the biblical interpretation of Pope Urban VIIIs advisers E

19 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pascal allied himself with the: 1.Jesuits 2.Puritans 3.Ultra-Catholics 4.Jansenists Q

20 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Pascal allied himself with the: 1.Jesuits 2.Puritans 3.Ultra-Catholics 4.Jansenists A

21 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: Pascal allied himself with the: 4. Jansenists Pascal considered the Jesuits casuistry a distortion of Christian teaching. He rejected the skeptics of his age because they either denied religion altogether (atheists) or accepted it only as it conformed to reason (deists). He never produced a definitive refutation of the two sides. Rather, he formulated his views on these matters in piecemeal fashion in a provocative collection of reflections on humankind and religion published posthumously under the title Pensées (Thoughts). Pascal allied himself with the Jansenists, seventeenth-century Catholic opponents of the Jesuits E

22 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Between 1400 and 1700, European courts sentenced between: 1.5,000 and 8,000 people to death for harmful magic and witchcraft 2.100,000 and 150,000 people to death for harmful magic and witchcraft 3.70,000 and 100,000 people to death for harmful magic and witchcraft 4.600,000 and 1 million people to death for harmful magic and witchcraft Q

23 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Between 1400 and 1700, European courts sentenced between: 1.5,000 and 8,000 people to death for harmful magic and witchcraft 2.100,000 and 150,000 people to death for harmful magic and witchcraft 3.70,000 and 100,000 people to death for harmful magic and witchcraft 4.600,000 and 1 million people to death for harmful magic and witchcraft A

24 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: Between 1400 and 1700, European courts sentenced between: 3. 70,000 and 100,000 people to death for harmful magic and witchcraft Nowhere is the dark side of early modern thought and culture more strikingly visible than in the witch-hunts and panics that erupted in almost every Western land. Between 1400 and 1700, courts sentenced an estimated 70,000 to 100,000 people to death for harmful magic (maleficium) and diabolical witchcraft E

25 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The leading religious painter of the Catholic Reformation was: 1.Peter Paul Rubens 2.Louis LeNain 3.Michelangelo Caravaggio 4.St. Teresa of Avila Q

26 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. The leading religious painter of the Catholic Reformation was: 1.Peter Paul Rubens 2.Louis LeNain 3.Michelangelo Caravaggio 4.St. Teresa of Avila A

27 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: The leading religious painter of the Catholic Reformation was: 1.Peter Paul Rubens The association of baroque art with Roman Catholicism had its counterpart in the secular world. Charles I (r. 1625–1649) of England during the 1630s when he ruled as an all-but absolute monarch without calling Parliament employed the Roman Catholic Flemish artist Peter Paul Rubens (1577– 1640) to decorate the ceiling of the Banqueting Hall at his palace in London with paintings commemorating his father James I (r. 1603–1625). Rubens was the leading religious painter of the Catholic Reformation E

28 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. In the fifteenth century, the standard explanation of arrangement of the heavens combined the work of Ptolemy and: 1.Plato 2.Aristotle 3.Gregory the Great 4.Roger Bacon Q

29 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. In the fifteenth century, the standard explanation of arrangement of the heavens combined the work of Ptolemy and: 1.Plato 2.Aristotle 3.Gregory the Great 4.Roger Bacon A

30 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: In the fifteenth century, the standard explanation of arrangement of the heavens combined the work of Ptolemy and: 2.Aristotle In Copernicuss time, the standard explanation of the place of the earth in the heavens combined the mathematical astronomy of Ptolemy, contained in his work entitled the Almagest (150 C.E.), with the physical cosmology of Aristotle E

31 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Tycho Brahes major contribution to science was his: 1.discovery of the planet Mercury 2.proof of the Copernican system 3.compilation of a large amount of astronomical data 4.discovery of the moons of Jupiter Q

32 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. Tycho Brahes major contribution to science was his: 1.discovery of the planet Mercury 2.proof of the Copernican system 3.compilation of a large amount of astronomical data 4.discovery of the moons of Jupiter A

33 © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc. EXPLANATION: Tycho Brahes major contribution to science was his: 3.compilation of a large amount of astronomical data In pursuit of his own theory, Brahe constructed scientific instruments with which he made more extensive naked-eye observations of the planets than anyone else had ever done. His labors produced a vast body of astronomical data from which his successors could work E


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