# Scientific Notation Expresses numbers as a multiple of two factors.

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Chemistry Math – Scientific Notation, Significant Digits and Measurment

Scientific Notation Expresses numbers as a multiple of two factors.
A number between 1 and 10 Ten raised to a power or exponent. Example - 1,750,000,000 = 1.75 x 109 Why it’s good! – It makes extremely large numbers and/or small numbers easier to work with.

Rules for writing numbers in scientific notation
523,000,000. 1. Move the decimal point so the number is between 1 and 10. 2. Count the number of places the decimal was moved. 3. decimal = +,  decimal = - 5.23 x 108

Practice Convert the following into scientific notation: .000 078 m
1 600 kg cm

Rules for converting scientific notation into numbers
2.8 x 10-6 1. Move the decimal point as many times as the exponent. 2. + = decimal , - = decimal 

Practice Convert the following into numbers. 2.8565 x 104

Significant Figures Which clock provides the most information?

All known digits plus one estimated.
5.22 cm

Rules for Recognizing Significant Figures
Non-zero numbers are always significant. 98.2 g has 3 2. Zeros between non-zero numbers are always significant. 90.2 has 3 3. All final zeros to the right of the decimal place are significant if they follow a number greater than 0. 9.20 g has 3 4. Zeros that act as placeholders are not significant. .0092 g and 920 g have 2 5. Counting #s and defined quantities have an infinite number of significant figures. 1 mile = 5,280 feet

Practice Problems Determine the number of significant digits in each measurement. L 907.0 km x 10-4 kg g

Rounding Significant Digits
An object has a mass of 2.0 g and a volume of 3.00 cm3. What is the density of the object. The answer should have no more significant digits than the measurement with the fewest significant digits.

Rounding Rules If the digit to the immediate right of the last significant figure is less than five, do not change the last significant figure. 2.532  2.53 All Significant

If the digit to the immediate right of the last significant figure is greater than five, round up the last significant figure. 2.536  2.54 All Significant

If the digit to the immediate right of the last significant figure is equal to five and is followed by a nonzero digit, round up the last significant figure.   2.53 All Significant All Significant

Practice Problems Round each number to 5 significant figures. Write your answers in scientific notation.