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**Chemistry Math – Scientific Notation, Significant Digits and Measurment**

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**Scientific Notation Expresses numbers as a multiple of two factors.**

A number between 1 and 10 Ten raised to a power or exponent. Example - 1,750,000,000 = 1.75 x 109 Why it’s good! – It makes extremely large numbers and/or small numbers easier to work with.

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**Rules for writing numbers in scientific notation**

523,000,000. 1. Move the decimal point so the number is between 1 and 10. 2. Count the number of places the decimal was moved. 3. decimal = +, decimal = - 5.23 x 108

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**Practice Convert the following into scientific notation: .000 078 m**

1 600 kg cm

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**Rules for converting scientific notation into numbers**

2.8 x 10-6 1. Move the decimal point as many times as the exponent. 2. + = decimal , - = decimal

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**Practice Convert the following into numbers. 2.8565 x 104**

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Significant Figures Which clock provides the most information?

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**All known digits plus one estimated.**

5.22 cm

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**Rules for Recognizing Significant Figures**

Non-zero numbers are always significant. 98.2 g has 3 2. Zeros between non-zero numbers are always significant. 90.2 has 3 3. All final zeros to the right of the decimal place are significant if they follow a number greater than 0. 9.20 g has 3 4. Zeros that act as placeholders are not significant. .0092 g and 920 g have 2 5. Counting #s and defined quantities have an infinite number of significant figures. 1 mile = 5,280 feet

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Practice Problems Determine the number of significant digits in each measurement. L 907.0 km x 10-4 kg g

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**Rounding Significant Digits**

An object has a mass of 2.0 g and a volume of 3.00 cm3. What is the density of the object. … The answer should have no more significant digits than the measurement with the fewest significant digits.

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Rounding Rules If the digit to the immediate right of the last significant figure is less than five, do not change the last significant figure. 2.532 2.53 All Significant

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If the digit to the immediate right of the last significant figure is greater than five, round up the last significant figure. 2.536 2.54 All Significant

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If the digit to the immediate right of the last significant figure is equal to five and is followed by a nonzero digit, round up the last significant figure. 2.53 All Significant All Significant

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Practice Problems Round each number to 5 significant figures. Write your answers in scientific notation.

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**Addition and Subtraction Rules**

Identify the measurement with the largest increment. Perform the calculation, then round the answer to the measurement with the largest increment. = Answer = 28.4

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**Multiplication and Division Rules**

Identify the number of significant digits in each number. Perform the calculation, then round the answer to the same number of significant figures as the measurement with the least number of significant figures. Mass = 22.5 grams Volume = 4 ml What is the density? g/ml Answer 6 g/ml

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**Practice Problems a. 52.6 g + 309.1 g + 77.214 g**

b mL – mL c km x 2.1 km d m ÷ s

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