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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 14 Social Psychology This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 14 Social Psychology This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 14 Social Psychology This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: 0-131-73180-7

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Social Psychology Social psychology – The branch of psychology that studies the effects of social variables and cognitions on individual behavior and social interactions Social context – The combination of (a)People (b)The activities and interactions among people (c)The setting in which behavior occurs, and (d)The expectations and social norms governing behavior in that setting

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Does the Social Situation Affect our Behavior? We usually adapt our behavior to the demands of the social situation, and in ambiguous situations we take our cues from the behavior of others in that setting

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Does the Social Situation Affect our Behavior? Situationism – The view that environmental conditions influence peoples behavior as much or more than their personal dispositions do

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Social Standards of Behavior Social role – One of several socially defined patterns of behavior that are expected of persons in a given setting or group Script – Knowledge about the sequence of events and actions that is expected in a particular setting

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Social Standards of Behavior Social norms – A groups expectations regarding what is appropriate and acceptable for its members attitudes and behavior Social norms influence students political views

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 A123 Standard line Comparison lines Conformity: The Asch studies Which line matches the line on the left?

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Conformity: The Asch studies What would you say if you were in a room full of people who all picked line number three? A123 Standard line Comparison lines

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Conformity No opposition (control) Alone against majority With partner Critical trials 12345678 9 101112 Correct estimated (percent) 100 80 60 40 20 0

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Group Characteristics That Produce Conformity Asch identifies three factors that influence whether a person will yield to pressure: The size of the majority The presence of a partner who dissented from the majority The size of the discrepancy between the correct answer and the majority position

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Groupthink In groupthink, members of the group attempt to conform their opinions to what each believes to be the consensus of the group

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Conditions Likely to Promote Groupthink Conditions likely to promote groupthink include: Isolation of the group High group cohesiveness Directive leadership Lack of norms requiring methodical procedures Homogeneity of members social background and ideology High stress from external threats with low hope of a better solution than that of the group leader

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Obedience to Authority Imagine if an experimenter studying the effects of punishment on memory asked you to deliver painful electric shocks to a a middle-aged man who had been treated for a heart condition Each time the man missed an answer, you would be instructed to deliver an increasingly powerful shock

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Shock Generator Caution Amps On Intensity Resistance Amp Meter Slight Shock ModerateShock Strong Shock Very Strong Shock Intense Shock Extreme Shock Danger XXX Milgrams Shock Generator Would you deliver a Moderate Shock?

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Shock Generator Caution Amps On Intensity Resistance Amp Meter Slight Shock Moderate Shock Strong Shock Very Strong Shock Intense Shock ExtremeShock Danger XXX Milgrams Shock Generator Would you refuse the experimenters instruction to deliver an Extreme Shock?

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Shock Generator Caution Amps On Intensity Resistance Amp Meter Slight Shock Moderate Shock Strong Shock Very Strong Shock Intense Shock ExtremeShock Danger XXX Milgrams Shock Generator What if the victim was screaming in agony?

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Shock Generator Caution Amps On Intensity Resistance Amp Meter Slight Shock Moderate Shock Strong Shock Very Strong Shock Intense Shock Extreme Shock Danger XXX Milgrams Shock Generator Two thirds of participants delivered the maximum 450 volts to the learner

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Obedience to Authority In Milgrams experiment The victim was an actor The victim received no actual shocks Nevertheless, this controversial experiment demonstrated how powerful effects of obedience to authority Situational factors, and not personality variables, appeared to effect peoples levels of obedience

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Obedience in Milgrams Experiments

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Ten Steps Toward Evil- Getting Good People to Harm Others 1.Provide people with an ideology to justify beliefs for actions 2.Make people take a small first step toward a harmful act with a minor, trivial action and then gradually increase those small actions 3.Make those in charge seem like a just authority 4.Slowly transform a once compassionate leader into a dictatorial figure 5.Provide people with vague and ever changing rules

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Ten Steps Toward Evil- Getting Good People to Harm Others 6.Relabel the situations actors and their actions to legitimize the ideology 7.Provide people with social models of compliance 8.Allow verbal dissent but only if people continue to comply behaviorally with orders 9.Encourage dehumanizing the victim 10.Make exiting the situation difficult

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Bystander Problem Diffusion of responsibility – Dilution or weakening of each group members obligation to act when responsibility is perceived to be shared with all group members

23 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Bystander Problem In one experiment, a student was led to believe that the he or she was taking part in an experiment with between one and five other students (over an intercom) The student then heard what sounded like another student having a seizure and gasping for help The researchers timed how long it would take the students to ask for help

24 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Bystander Intervention in an Emergency 2-person groups 3-person groups 6-person groups 2080120 160 200 240280 Seconds from beginning of emergency 80 40 60 100 20 0 Percentage helping

25 Prosocial Behavior Kitty Genovese case in Kew Gardens NY. Bystander Effect: Conditions in which people are more or less likely to help one another. In general…the more people around…the less chance of help….because of… Diffusion of Responsibility Pluralistic Ignorance People decide what to do by looking to others.

26 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Constructing Social Reality: What Influences Our Judgments of Others? The judgments we make about others depend not only on their behavior but also on our interpretation of their actions within a social context

27 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Constructing Social Reality: What Influences Our Judgments of Others? Social reality – An individuals subjective interpretation of other people and of relationships with them

28 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Interpersonal Attraction Reward theory of attraction – A social learning view that says we like best those who give us maximum rewards at minimum cost ProximitySimilarity Self-Disclosure Physical Attractiveness

29 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Expectations and the Influence of Self-Esteem Matching hypothesis – Prediction that most people will find friends and mates that are about their same level of attractiveness Expectancy-value theory – Theory that people decide whether or not to pursue a relationship by weighing the potential value of the relationship against their expectations of success in establishing the relationship

30 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Attraction and Self-Justification Cognitive dissonance – A highly motivating state in which people have conflicting cognitions, especially when their voluntary actions conflict with their attitudes

31 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Making Cognitive Attributions Fundamental attribution error – Tendency to emphasize internal causes and ignore external pressures Self-serving bias – Attributional pattern in which one takes credit for success but denies responsibility for failure

32 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice – A negative attitude toward an individual based solely on his or her membership in a particular group Discrimination – A negative action taken against an individual as a result of his or her group membership

33 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Prejudice and Discrimination In-group – The group with which an individual identifies Out-group – Those outside the group with which an individual identifies Social distance – The perceived difference or similarity between oneself and another person

34 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Causes of Prejudice Dissimilarity and Social Distance

35 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Causes of Prejudice Dissimilarity and Social Distance Economic Competition

36 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Causes of Prejudice Dissimilarity and Social Distance Economic Competition Scapegoating

37 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Causes of Prejudice Dissimilarity and Social Distance Economic Competition Scapegoating Conformity to Social Norms

38 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Causes of Prejudice Dissimilarity and Social Distance Economic Competition Scapegoating Conformity to Social Norms Media Stereotypes

39 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Combating Prejudice Research suggests that the possible tools for combating prejudice include: New role models Equal status contact Legislation

40 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Topics in Social Psychology Social facilitation – An increase in an individuals performance because of being in a group Social loafing – An decrease in performance because of being in a group

41 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Topics in Social Psychology Deindividuation – Occurs when group members lose their sense of personal identity and responsibility and the group assumes responsibility for their behavior

42 Zimbardos Prison Study Showed how we deindividuate AND become the roles we are given. Philip Zimbardo has students at Stanford U play the roles of prisoner and prison guards in the basement of psychology building. They were given uniforms and numbers for each prisoner. What do you think happened?

43 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Other Topics in Social Psychology Group polarization – When individuals in a group have similar, though not identical, views, their opinions become more extreme Groupthink – An excessive tendency to seek recurrence among group members

44 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Loving Relationships Romantic love – A temporary and highly emotional condition based on infatuation and sexual desire

45 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sternbergs Triangular Theory of Love Passion IntimacyCommitment

46 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The power of the situation can help us understand violence and terrorism, but the broader understanding requires multiple perspectives that go beyond the boundaries of traditional psychology What Are the Roots of Violence and Terrorism?

47 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Robbers Cave: An Experiment in Conflict In the Robbers Cave experiment, conflict between groups arose from an intensely competitive situation Cooperation, however, replaced conflict when the experimenters contrived situations that fostered mutual interdependence and common goals for the groups

48 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Robbers Cave: An Experiment in Conflict Violence and aggression – Terms that refer to behavior that is intended to cause harm Cohesiveness – Solidarity, loyalty, and a sense of group membership

49 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Robbers Cave: An Experiment in Conflict Mutual interdependence – Shared sense that individuals or groups need each other in order to achieve common goals

50 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Terrorism Terrorism – The use of violent, unpredictable acts by a small group against a larger group for political, economic, or religious goals Taking multiple perspectives can provide important insights on the problems of aggression, violence, and terrorism

51 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 14


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