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Emotion and Motivation

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1 Emotion and Motivation
Chapter 8 Emotion and Motivation This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN: Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
What Is Emotion? Emotion – A four-part process consisting of physiological arousal, cognitive interpretation, subjective feelings, and behavioral expression Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

3 What Do Our Emotions Do For Us?
Emotions have evolved to help us respond to important situations and to convey our intentions to others Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

4 The Evolution of Emotions
Emotions have survival value and have been shaped by natural selection Individuals vary tremendously in emotional responsiveness Emotions are not entirely programmed by genetics Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

5 Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression
People everywhere can recognize at least seven basic emotions: sadness, fear, anger, disgust, contempt, happiness and surprise There are, however, huge cultural differences in the context and intensity of emotional displays Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

6 Cultural Universals in Emotional Expression
Display rules – Permissible ways of displaying emotions in a particular society Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
The Emotion Wheel Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

8 Where Do Our Emotions Come From?
The discovery of two distinct brain pathways for emotional arousal has clarified the connections among the many biological structures involved in emotion and has offered solutions to many of the long-standing issues in the psychology of emotion Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

9 The Neuroscience of Emotion
The biological mechanisms at work behind our emotions include: The limbic system The reticular formation The cerebral cortex The autonomic nervous system Hormones Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

10 Psychological Theories of Emotion
James-Lange theory– An emotion-provoking stimulus produces a physical response that, in turn, produces an emotion Cannon-Bard theory – An emotional feeling and an internal physiological response occur at the same time One is not the cause of the other Both the result of a cognitive appraisal of the situation Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

11 Psychological Theories of Emotion
Two-factor theory of emotion – Emotion results from the cognitive appraisal of both (1) physical arousal and (2) emotion provoking stimulus Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
James-Lange theory Physiological arousal trembling increased heart rate Stimulus snake Emotion fear Physiological arousal trembling increased heart rate Emotion fear Cannon-Bard theory Stimulus snake Cognitive interpretation “I feel afraid!” Physiological arousal trembling increased heart rate Two-factor theory Emotion fear Stimulus Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

13 Psychological Theories of Emotion
Cognitive appraisal theory – Theory that individuals decide on an appropriate emotion following the event Opponent-process theory – Theory that emotions have pairs; when one is triggered the other is suppressed Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

14 Arousal, Performance, and the Inverted “U”
Inverted “U” function – Describes the relationship between arousal and performance; both low and high levels of arousal produce lower performance than does a moderate level of arousal Performance Low High Arousal Level Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

15 Arousal, Performance, and the Inverted “U”
Sensation seekers – Individuals who have a biological need for higher levels of stimulation than do other people Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

16 How Much Control Do We Have Over Our Emotions?
Although emotional responses are not always consciously regulated, we can learn to control them Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

17 Developing Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence – Ability to understand and control emotional responses Emotional control can be achieved by learning Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Detecting Deception People can also control their emotions to deceive Do “lie detectors” really work? Polygraph – Device that records the graphs of many measures of physical arousal; often called a “lie detector” really an arousal detector Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

19 Motivation: What Makes Us Act as We Do?
Motivation takes many forms, but all involve inferred mental processes that select and direct our behavior Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

20 Motivation: What Makes Us Act as We Do?
Motivation – All processes involved in starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

21 How Psychologists Use the Concept of Motivation
Connects observable behavior to internal states Accounts for variability in behavior Explains perseverance despite adversity Relates biology to behavior Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Types of Motivation Drive – Biologically instigated motivation Motive – Internal mechanism that directs behavior (often used to describe motivations that are learned, rather than biologically based) Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

23 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Types of Motivation Intrinsic motivation – Desire to engage in an activity for its own sake Extrinsic motivation – Desire to engage in an activity to achieve an external consequence (e.g. a reward) Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

24 Achievement Motivation What motivates us to work
Achievement Motivation What motivates us to work? (School, job, sports, video games, relationships etc..) Intrinsic Motivators Extrinsic Motivators Rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction. Reward that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades or money or etc..) Work great in the short run.

25 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Types of Motivation Conscious motivation – Having the desire to engage in an activity and being aware of the desire Unconscious motivation – Having a desire to engage in an activity but being consciously unaware of the desire Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

26 Theories of Motivation
Instinct theory – View that certain behaviors are determined by innate factors Fixed-action patterns – Genetically based behaviors, seen across a species, that can be set off by a specific stimulus Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

27 Theories of Motivation
Drive theory – View that a biological need (an imbalance that threatens survival) produces drive Homeostasis – The body’s tendency to maintain a biologically balanced condition Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

28 Theories of Motivation
Locus of control – An individual’s sense of where his or her life influences originate–internally or externally Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

29 Maslow’s Humanistic Theory
Hierarchy of needs – The notion that needs occur in priority order, with the biological needs as the most basic Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

30 Management Theory Management/Teaching styles relate closely to Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivators.
Theory X Theory Y Managers believes that employees will work only if rewarded with benefits or threatened with punishment. Think employees are Extrinsically Motivated. Only interested in Maslow’s lower needs. Managers believe that employees are internally motivated to do good work and policies should encourage this internal motive. Interested in Maslow’s higher needs.

31 Rewards Can Sometimes Squelch Motivation
Overjustification – The process by which extrinsic rewards can sometimes displace internal motivation, as when a child receives money for playing video games Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

32 How Are Achievement, Hunger, and Sex Alike? Different?
No single theory accounts for all forms of motivation, because each motive involves its own mix of biological, mental, behavioral, and social/cultural influences Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

33 Measuring the Need for Achievement
Projection – Process by which people attribute their own unconscious motives to other people or objects Need for achievement (n Ach) – Mental state that produces a psychological motive to excel or reach some goal Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

34 A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Achievement
Individualism – View that places a high value on individual achievement and distinction Collectivism – View that values group loyalty and pride over individual distinction Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

35 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Hunger Motivation The multiple-systems approach to hunger Set point – Refers to the tendency of the body to maintain a certain level of body fat and body weight Weight control is a complex issue with no simple answers Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

36 Biological Basis of Hunger
Hunger does NOT come from our stomach. It comes from our… Brain What part of the brain? The Hypothalamus

37 Ventromedial Hypothalamus
Lateral Hypothalamus Ventromedial Hypothalamus When stimulated it makes you hungry. When lesioned (destroyed) you will never be hungry again. When stimulated you feel full. When lesioned you will never feel full again.

38 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Thirst and Pain Volumetric thirst – A drop in extracellular fluid levels Osmotic thirst – A drop in intracellular fluid levels Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

39 Sexual Motivation Sex is natural. Without sex, none of us would be here. How do scientists (or you) find out about sex? YOU ASK!!!!!!

40 The Scientific Study of Sexuality
Kinsey interviewed 18,000 Americans concerning their sexual behavior Masters and Johnson Sexual response cycle – Four-stage sequence of arousal, plateau, orgasm, and resolution occurring in both men and women Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

41 Kinsey’s Studies Confidential interviews with 18,000 people (in early 1950’s). Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female Scale of sexuality….0 to 6 where 0 is exclusively heterosexual and 6 homosexual and 7 is asexual. Click on Kinsey to see the movie trailer.

42 Masters and Johnson Study
Click on Masters and Johnson to see a more detailed explanation of their research. In the 1960’s William Masters and Virginia Johnson set out to explore the physiology of sex. 382 females and 312 males. After their research was done they ran an institute that claimed to turn homosexual people straight.

43 Phases of Human Sexual Response
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

44 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Sexual Motivation Virtually any stimulus that becomes associated with genital touch and orgasm can become a conditioned stimulus that motivates sexual activity Sexual scripts – Socially learned ways of responding in sexual situations Both learning and genetics affect our sexual behaviors Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

45 We have discussed the energizing of sexual motivation but have yet to discuss its direction:
Sexual Orientation An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender.

46 How is Sexual Orientation Determined
There has been NO evidence that sexuality is socially determined. Kids raised by homosexual parents are no more likely to be homosexual that if they were raised by heterosexual parents. Thus it is likely biologically determined.

47 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Motives in Conflict Approach-approach conflict – A conflict in which one must choose between two equally attractive options Approach-avoidance conflict – A conflict in which there are both appealing and negative aspects to the decision to be made Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

48 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Motives in Conflict Avoidance-avoidance conflict – A conflict in which one must choose between two equally unattractive options Multiple approach-avoidance conflict – A conflict in which one must choose between options that have both many attractive and many negative aspects Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

49 How and Why Do We Experience Stress?
The human stress response to perceived threat activates thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and physiological arousal that normally promote adaptation and survival Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

50 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Stress and Stressors Stress – A physical and mental response to a challenging or threatening situation Stressor – a stressful stimulus, a condition demanding adaptation Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

51 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
A Model of Stress Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

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Traumatic Stressors Traumatic stressor – a situation that threatens one’s physical safety, arousing feelings of fear, horror, or helplessness Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

53 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Catastrophe Cohen and Ahearn identified five stages that occur in the wake of natural disasters Psychic numbness Automatic action Communal effort Letdown Recovery Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

54 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Posttraumatic Stress Posttraumatic stress disorder – delayed stress reaction in which an individual involuntarily re-experiences emotional, cognitive, and behavioral aspects of past trauma Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

55 The Physical Stress Response
Acute stress – A temporary pattern of arousal caused by a stressor with a clear onset and offset Chronic stress – A continuous state of stressful arousal persisting over time Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

56 The Physical Stress Response
Fight-or-flight response – A sequence of internal processes that prepares the organism for struggle or escape Tend-and-befriend model – stress response model proposing that females are biologically predisposed to respond to stress by nurturing and protecting offspring and seeking social support Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

57 The Physical Stress Response
General adaptation syndrome (GAS) – A pattern of general physical responses that takes essentially the same form in responding to any serious chronic stressor Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

58 The General Adaptation Syndrome
Alarm Reaction Alarm reaction – the body mobilizes it’s resources to cope with a stressor Exhaustion Illness/death Exhaustion – the body depletes it’s resources Resistance Resistance – the body seems to adapt to the presence of the stressor Successful Resistance Level of normal resistance Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

59 Stress and the Immune System
Immune system – bodily organs and responses that protect the body from foreign substances and threats Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

60 Stress and the Immune System
Psychoneuroimmunology – Multidisciplinary field that studies the influence of mental states on the immune system Cytokines – Hormone-like chemicals facilitating communication between brain and immune system Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

61 Personality and Stress
Type A – behavior pattern characterized by intense, angry, competitive, or perfectionistic responses to challenging situations Type B – behavior pattern characterized by a relaxed, unstressed approach to life Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

62 Psychological Responses to Stress
Learned helplessness – Pattern of not responding to noxious stimuli after an organism learns that its behavior has no effect Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

63 Psychological Responses to Stress
Resilience – Capacity to adapt, achieve well-being, and cope with stress, in spite of serious threats to development Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

64 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Motivating Yourself Flow – An intense focus on an activity, accompanied by increased creativity and near-ecstatic feelings Involves intrinsic motivation Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

65 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
End of Chapter 8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007

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