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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 3 Biopsychology and the Foundations of Neuroscience This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images Any rental, lease or lending of the program. ISBN:
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 What is Biopsychology? Biopsychology – The specialty in psychology that studies the interaction of biology, behavior, and the environment Neuroscience – Interdisciplinary field that focuses on the brain and its role in psychological processes
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Evolution has fundamentally shaped psychological processes because it favors genetic variations that produce adaptive behavior How Are Genes and Behavior Linked?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Are Genes and Behavior Linked? Innate – Inborn; present at birth; part of the organisms biological heritage Evolution – The gradual process of biological change that occurs in a species as it adapts to its environment
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Evolution and Natural Selection Natural selection – The driving force behind evolution, by which the environment selects the fittest organisms
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Natural Selection Works Environmental pressure (changes in the environment) Competition (for resources) Selection of fittest phenotype (from among a variety of phenotypes) Reproductive success (genotype corresponding to fittest phenotypes passed to next generation) Frequency of that genotype increases (in next generation)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Genes and Inheritance Genotype – An organisms genetic makeup Phenotype – An organisms observable physical characteristics
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Genes and Inheritance Mutations – Genetic variations, which occur randomly, especially during the recombination of chromosomes in sexual reproduction
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA DNA – A long, complex molecule that encodes genetic characteristics Genes – The functional units of a chromosome Composed of nucleotides
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Sex chromosomes – The X and Y chromosomes that determine our physical sex characteristics Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA Chromosomes – Tightly coiled threadlike structures along which the genes are organized
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Genetic Explanations for Psychological Processes Genes influence our psychological characteristics as well as our physical traits
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The bodys two communication systems, the nervous system and the endocrine system, both use chemical messengers to communicate with targets throughout the body How Does the Body Communicate Internally?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Neuron Types of Neurons Sensory neurons (carry messages from sense receptors towards the CNS) Motor neurons (carry messages from CNS toward muscles and glands) Interneurons (carry messages between nerve cells)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Structure of a Neuron
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Neural Impulse Neural impulse – Brief electric surge that carries the neurons message Ions – Charged particles that are moved across the cell membrane
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Neural Impulse Resting potential Action potential Synapse Synaptic transmission
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters – Chemical messengers that relay neural messages across the synapse
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Seven Important Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007NeurotransmittersDopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Produces sensations of pleasure and reward; used by CNS neurons in voluntary movement Problems with Imbalance: Schizophrenia, Parkinsons disease Substances that Affect: Cocaine, amphetamines, Ritalin, alcohol
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Regulates sleep and dreaming, mood, pain, aggression, appetite and sexual behavior Problems with Imbalance: Depression, certain anxiety disorders, obsessive- compulsive disorder Substances that Affect: Prozac, hallucinogenics (e.g. LSD)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Controls heart rate, sleep, sexual responsiveness, stress, vigilance and appetite Problems with Imbalance: High blood pressure, depression Substances that Affect: Tricyclic antidepressants, beta blockers
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Primary transmitter used by neurons carrying messages from CNS; involved in some kinds of learning and memory Problems with Imbalance: Certain muscular disorders, Alzheimers disease Substances that Affect: Nicotine, botulism toxin, curare, atropine
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Most prevalent inhibitory neurotransmitter in neurons of CNS Problems with Imbalance: Anxiety, epilepsy Substances that Affect: Barbiturates, tranquilizers (e.g. Valium, Librium), alcohol
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Primary excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS; involved in learning and memory Problems with Imbalance: Brain damage after stroke Substances that Affect: PCP (angel dust)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007Neurotransmitters Dopamine Serotonin Acetylcholine Glutamine Norepinephrine GABA Endorphins Normal Function: Pleasurable sensations and control of pain Problems with Imbalance: Lowered levels resulting from opiate addiction Substances that Affect: Opiates: opium, heroin, morphine, methadone
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Plasticity Plasticity – Ability of the nervous system to adapt or change as the result of experience; sometimes helps the nervous system adapt to physical damage
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Glial Cells Glial cells Provide structural support for neurons Help in forming new synapses Form myelin sheath
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Organization of the Nervous System Nervous system Peripheral nervous system Central nervous system (CNS) Autonomic nervous system Somatic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Endocrine System (the bodys chemical messenger system)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Endocrine System Pituitary gland – Master gland that produces hormones influencing the secretions of all other endocrine glands; produces hormone that influences growth; attached to hypothalamus
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Does the Brain Produce Behavior and Mental Processes? The brain is composed of many specialized modules that work together to create mind and behavior
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Windows on the Brain EEG (electroencephalograph) – Device for recording brain waves, typically by electrodes placed on the scalp Brain waves – Patterns of electrical activity generated by the brain
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Windows on the Brain Epilepsy – Brain disorder that is often marked by seizures and loss of consciousness; caused by out-of-control electrical activity in the brain
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Windows on the Brain Lesions – Tissue damage that results from disease or injury
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Windows on the Brain Brain scans – Recordings of the brains electrical or biochemical activity at specific sites CT scanning (computerized tomography) PET scanning (positron emission tomography) MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Three Layers of the Brain Brain stem and cerebellum Drive vital functions, such as heart rate, breathing, digestion Limbic system Adds emotions, complex motives, increased memory abilities Cerebrum Enables reasoning, planning, creating, problem solving
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Brain Stem and Cerebellum Thalamus Pons Cerebellum Medulla Brain stem
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Limbic System Hypothalamus – Serves as the brains blood- testing laboratory, constantly monitors blood to determine the condition of the body
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Limbic System Amygdala – Involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Limbic System Hippocampus – Involved in establishing long-term memories
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Cerebrum Cerebrum – Topmost layer of the brain; the bulbous cap over the limbic system Cerebral cortex – Thin gray-matter covering of the cerebrum; carries on thinking and perceiving Cerebral hemispheres – The two walnut shaped halves of the cerebrum, connected by the corpus callosum
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Frontal lobes (movement and thinking) Parietal lobes (touch sensation and spatial relationships) Occipital lobes (contain visual cortex) Temporal lobes (process sounds, including speech)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Cooperative Brain Association cortex – Cortical regions that combine information from various other parts of the brain
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Cerebral Dominance Cerebral dominance – Tendency of each brain hemisphere to exert control over different functions Aphasia – The loss of speech caused be brain damage Spatial orientation – Process of locating ones body or other objects in space
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Specialization of the Cerebral Hemispheres Left Hemisphere Right Hemisphere Spontaneous speaking and writing Responses to complex commands Word recognition Memory for words and numbers Sequences of movements Feelings of anxiety Positive emotion Repetitive but not spontaneous speaking Responses to simple commands Facial recognition Memory for shapes and music Spatial interpretation Emotional responsiveness Negative emotion
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Split Brain Split-brain patients – Individuals who have had the corpus callosum surgically severed Duality of consciousness – Condition in which a split-brain patient has a separate consciousness in each hemisphere
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 3
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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 5 States of Consciousness This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
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