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1 © ARC Advisory Group Wireless in Process Automation Trends and Outlook ETSI Board #67 13 June 2008 Harry Forbes Senior Analyst, North America ARC Advisory Group David Humphrey Senior Analyst, Europe ARC Advisory Group
2 © ARC Advisory Group Who Is ARC Advisory Group? Strategic Advisory and Management Consulting Firm: The leader in manufacturing and logistics Supply Chain: Sourcing to Fulfillment Plant Systems: Production Management to Controls Product Lifecycle Management: Design to Service First-hand industry and application experience Technology trends and business forecasts Formed in 1986 – 22 years of growing knowledge Enterprise to Plant Floor
3 © ARC Advisory Group Industrial Wireless Segmentation Which are the critical parameters? Process Industries Wireless Market Forecast Wireless Applications in Manufacturing Wireless Standards organizations and efforts Agenda
4 © ARC Advisory Group Device Power Model Replaceable battery (low-power) Rechargeable battery Mains power Manufacturing Process Type Continuous Process Manufacturing Discrete Manufacturing Wireless Network level Sensor level network WLAN level network Industrial Wireless Segmentation
5 © ARC Advisory Group Manufacturing Process Type Process Attribute Continuous Process Manufacturing Unit Discrete Manufacturing Unit Sensor typesPredominately AnalogPredominantly Discrete Sensor count per unit Unit Physical Size1000 Meter10 Meter Units per Plant10s100s Production Cycle Length100 Days1 Day Unit Startup TimeHoursMinutes Control Loop Time Sec Sec Field Device Cost$1000$100 Installation Cost/device cost10 X4 X Automation TechnologyDCSPAC/PLC Commonly Used Device Networks HART, Foundation Fieldbus, Profibus-PA, Ethernet Profibus-DP, DeviceNet, Interbus, AS-i, Ethernet
6 © ARC Advisory Group Wireless Network Level ENG Operation Level 2 Server Management Level 3 ENG Server Domain Controller Control Level 1 APCHistory Field Devices Level 0 HMI
7 © ARC Advisory Group Process Manufacturing Wireless Market Forecast Size and Growth Wireless penetration into Process Field Device Market
8 © ARC Advisory Group Wireless Market Growth in Process Industries Worldwide Market for Wireless Devices in Process Manufacturing ($Millions) ©2008 ARC Advisory Group
9 © ARC Advisory Group Wireless Impact on Field Device Markets?
10 © ARC Advisory Group Wireless Field Device Penetration
11 © ARC Advisory Group Current and Emerging Process Wireless Applications Bridging Field Process Sensing Equipment Condition Monitoring Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)
12 © ARC Advisory Group Wireless Cable Replacement (Bridging) Many commercial products E.g. Cooper (MTL/Elpro), Phoenix Contact, ProSoft, others Proprietary and Wi-Fi radio Optimized for longer range Not glamorous, but very useful and economical
13 © ARC Advisory Group Wireless Process Sensing Commercial products since 2003 Longer life now possible More reliable communication Better security Becoming standards-based IEEE HART V.7 (WirelessHART) ISA 100
14 © ARC Advisory Group Equipment Condition Monitoring - Present These address assets that are NOT being monitored now, which is most plant assets ECM Application Components Specialized Mobile Computers Vibration Sensors Analytical Software Historical Data Repository Current suppliers include: ABB Emerson GE/Bentley Honeywell SKF
15 © ARC Advisory Group Power Generation Generation Switchyard Transmission Substation Distribution Substation End User Common Information Infrastructure Advanced Metering + Demand Response Advanced Metering: Integrates Devices at the Edge of the Grid
16 © ARC Advisory Group WLAN Applications Mobile Operator Support Process Operations Maintenance, Safety, Environmental operations Visibility During Planned Shutdowns (turnarounds)
17 © ARC Advisory Group Mobile Operator Support Initially networked via cradles Applications Rounds and readings Data Capture Work Order Generation Condition Monitoring Process Operations Turnaround visibility Combines with AutoID, and sensing Converged with voice
18 © ARC Advisory Group WLAN Infrastructure Trend: Discrete Manufacturing Wi-Fi coverage becomes dense Multiple Wireless Applications Automation Data Voice Location services Manufacturers are moving to a unified WLAN network model Common services Wider coverage RF Spectrum management will become a part of network management practices
19 © ARC Advisory Group WLAN Infrastructure Trend: Process Manufacturing Layer 2 WLAN Segment Layer 2 WLAN Segment Bridge or Router.11s Mesh #1.11s Mesh #2 Mesh Portal
20 © ARC Advisory Group Discrete Manufacturing Sensor Applications: ABB WISA Commercial Product Uses Bluetooth radio Radio only, not stack Unique sensor power solution No batteries Rotating magnetic field induced around machine Well thought-out requirements for discrete manufacturing sensor use-cases Number of sensors, range, latency, reliability, etc. FESTO has done related work using IEEE
21 © ARC Advisory Group Location Tracking Technology Decision Variables Technology Radio type RSSI vs. TDOA Required Precision of Location Cost ( installed cost, Total Cost of Ownership) Possible Radios for Location Technologies Wi-Fi (Aeroscout, Ekahau, Cisco, others) (Innerwireless, others) UWB (Zebra/Multispectral Solutions, Nanotron)
22 © ARC Advisory Group Location System Architecture Passive RFID Tags Passive Readers Enterprise Applications Location EngineAppliance Wi-Fi Tags, clients, integrated sensors Dual-mode Wi-Fi /UWB Tags UWB Readers Exciters Wi-Fi Network
23 © ARC Advisory Group Wireless Standards Organizations and Initiatives
24 © ARC Advisory Group WSN Standards and Technologies IEEE 802 ZigBee Alliance HART Communication Foundation IETF ISA TinyOS Alliance Bluetooth SIG Proprietary technologies (ANT, Z-Wave, others)
25 © ARC Advisory Group IEEE e MAC amendment to the existing standard to better support the industrial markets permit compatibility with Chinese WPAN Suppliers do not use standard 15.4 MACs 15.4 TDMA (called GTS) network operation not completely specified n Next enhancement to Wi-Fi s Multi-vendor Wi-Fi mesh networking Ballots have failed so far
26 © ARC Advisory Group ZigBee Alliance Built over IEEE standard ZigBee Scope Network layer, Security, Mgmt, Profiles Network formation RF Channel choice Scope equivalent to TCP/IP Suite Too broad Largely unsuccessful Solved the low-power problem with: Reduced function devices, RFDs Mains-powered routers Not a good fit for manufacturing applications ZigBee Application focus Began with building lighting (2003) Challenging performance requirements Few commercial products Now has shifted to Advanced Metering/Home Automation Networks AMI needs wireless access to home energy controls Utilities will want secure end-end IP connections
27 © ARC Advisory Group HART Communication Foundation WirelessHART Part of HART Field Communication Specification, Revision 7.0 Ratified September 2007 Allows for wireless transmission of HART protocol Based on IEEE PHY with modified MAC Layer Full mesh network topology Adaptive frequency hopping Time-division multiple access (TDMA)
28 © ARC Advisory Group HART Communication Foundation Network Manager Critical Makes all decisions Devices can be dumb Presently a sole- sourced technology Dust Networks SoC and module products 2 nd source of WirelessHART technology is possible Client Device portion only, not network manager Talk but no investment yet
29 © ARC Advisory Group ISA 100 Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society (ISA) ISA develops standards for ANSI ISA 100 scope includes all types of manufacturing ISA a is first standard. Due 2009 ISA Compliance Institute ISA began compliance function only in 2007 Compliance work for 3 important ISA standards Wireless (ISA 100) Cyber-security (ISA 99) Enterprise Interoperability (ISA 95) ISA ability to execute is unproven
30 © ARC Advisory Group IETF RFC 4944 (6LowPAN) IPV6 over ROLL Working Group Began May 2007 Routing over low- power lossy nets Application areas: Industrial Home Buildings Sensor Network (Mesh, Star, or Tree) Sensor Network Data Link Layer IPV6 Services Layer IPV4-IPV6 Routing Sensor Network Gateway IP V4 Network IPV6 Network
31 © ARC Advisory Group TinyOS Alliance TinyOS is an open-source OS for WSNs Used for most academic WSN research Global collaboration among academics Not used in commercial WSN applications RFM Radio byte Sensor Messaging Layer clocks bit byte packet Radio Packet Routing Layer sensing application application HW SW ADC messaging routing UART Packet UART ADC
32 © ARC Advisory Group Bluetooth SIG Low Power Bluetooth (formerly Wibree) Compatible with Bluetooth 7-device PANs ANT (Garmin) for non-Bluetooth applications
33 © ARC Advisory Group Summary: Things To Remember Critical Industrial Wireless Segmentations Power use model (replaceable, rechargeable, mains) Process vs. discrete applications Wireless Sensor Networks vs. WLAN Industrial Wireless Market Will Grow Rapidly But adoption cycles and service lives are long Current wireless applications in process manufacturing: Cable replacement Process Sensing Equipment condition monitoring Mobile operator support Location tracking – attractive, but far less mature Industrial Wireless Standards Many, many organizations are participating now
34 © ARC Advisory Group Thank You. For more information, contact the authors at or visit
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