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Plant Sexual Reproduction & Development

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1 Plant Sexual Reproduction & Development
Plant Evolution: Appearance of the major plant groups Reminder: Evolution of plants & plant classification How does this relate to plant sexual reproduction?

2 Plant reproduction involves an Alternation of Generations

3 The seaweed, Ulva, which is classically called a Protist, demonstrates this

4 Alternation of generations
There are “grown up” (mature) haploid male and female gametophytes that produce haploid gametes. The gametes fuse to form a diploid zygote that also grows up into a mature diploid Ulva called a sporophyte. The sporophyte cells within the sporangia can undergo meiosis to produce haploid zoospores which are released and then develop into the “grown up” Ulva gametophytes which are haploid!

5 In mosses, the thing we see most often is the gametophyte (haploid)

6 In ferns, like most plants, the thing we see most often is the sporophyte (diploid)
Misleading picture…not to scale! The Fern gametophyte is the size of your pinky nail (at most).

7 Next in evolution, Gymnosperms A pine tree is a sporophyte with tiny gametophytes in its cones

8 The process – in words The gymnosperms (like pine trees) you know and love are diploid sporophytes They produce male and female cones The male cone produces haploid spores by meiosis – called pollen grains (male gametophyte) The female cone has ovules, where haploid spores are produced. These haploid spores become the female gametophyte, which makes the egg. The male gametophyte (pollen grain) releases the sperm which fuse with the egg and become the diploid zygote. The ovule becomes the seed surrounding the zygote, which can then germinate and grow into a new sporophyte!

9 Angiosperm reproductive organ – male and female reproductive organs all in the same place… How convenient!

10 Flower Structure & Function
Sepals: protect bud Petals: protect reproductive structures; attract pollinators Stamen: male reprod. structure Filament: raises anther closer to stigma and/or pollinators Anther: produces pollen (male gametes) Pistil (also called Carpel) Stigma: “landing pad” & entry point for male gametes Style: raises and supports stigma Ovary: contains ovules; fertilization & development of seed(s) takes place in here Ovule: female gamete

11 The life of a flowering plant…

12 Angiosperms – sporophytes with the gametophyte stages in the flowers

13 Angiosperm Reproduction: What happens here is actually a double fertilization. Each ovule contains several haploid eggs and one diploid cell. Each pollen grain releases two sperm nuclei. One fertilizes the egg to form the diploid zygote (which becomes the embryo). The other sperm fertilizes the diploid cell in the ovule, making it 3N. This triploid cell divides to form the endosperm which will eventually nourish the embryo as it develops (after seed germination).

14 The ovule develops into a seed

15 A fruit is a thickened ovary

16 Seed germination begins the life of a new plant
The Resulting Plant

17 Seed germination begins the life of a new plant

18 The Resulting Plant

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