3 CASAGRAS (Coordination And Support Action for Global RFID-related Activities and Standardisation ) aim:To provide an incisive framework of foundation studies that can assist in influencing and accommodating international issues and developments concerning radio frequency identification (RFID) and the emerging Internet of Things, particularly with respect to standards and regulations
4 CASAGRAS General Objectives: To provide:A platform for international collaboration on all aspects of standards and regulations relating to RFID and The Internet of ThingsA framework and supporting documentation for incisive and analytical review of international RFID standardsRecommendations with respect to international standardisation and regulatory developments for RFIDRecommendations with respect to applications methodologies and positioningRecommendations for future research and development and international collaborationRecommendations to encourage participation of SMEsAn on-going collaborative research platform for RFID
5 CASAGRAS Work packages: Standards and Procedures for International Standardisation in relation to RFID, including applications and conformance standardsRegulatory issues in respect of RFID standardsGlobal coding systems in relation to RFID standardsRFID in relation to Ubiquitous Computing and NetworksFunctional, including sensory, developments in RFID and Associated StandardsAreas of Application, existing and future, and associated StandardsSocio-economic components of RFID Usage
6 CASAGRAS (Coordination And Support Action for Global RFID-related Activities and Standardisation ) working with…European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)Supply Chain Innovation Centre (Hong Kong, China)YRP Ubiquitous Networking Laboratory (Japan)Electronics and Telecommunication Research Institute (ETRI, Korea)QED (USA – company specialising in international standardisation)AIM (UK) and European Centre for AIDCAlso collaborating with GRIFS (Global RFID Interoperability Forum for Standards, EPoSS (European Technology Platform on Smart Systems Integration and a number of sub-contractors)
7 CASAGRAS and The Internet of Things- Interim Report Justifying the Inclusive ModelEuropean Union and International PerspectivePhysical Real World AwarenessAnalysing the Concept of Connected ObjectsInfluence of Ubiquitous Computing and NetworkingInfluence of Mobile and Fixed CommunicationsThe Internet and the Internet of ThingsGlobal InclusionThe Role of RFID in the Internet of ThingsStandards and Regulations for Spectrum AllocationCASAGRAS Reference Point Target
9 “… all about physical items talking to each other..” ‘The Internet of Things’ is a concept originally coined and introduced by MIT, Auto-ID Center and intimately linked to RFID and electronic product code (EPC)“… all about physical items talking to each other..”Like RFID it is a concept that has attracted much rhetoric, misconception and confusion as to what it means and its implications in a social context
10 The concept of the Internet of Things is now being influenced strongly by developments in computing and network ubiquity and developments in the next generation Internet - and considered at all levels including United Nations“We are heading into a new era of ubiquity, where the users of the Internet will be counted in billions, and where humans may become the minority as generators and receivers of traffic. Changes brought about by the Internet will be dwarfed by those prompted by the networking of everyday objects “ – UN report
11 The concept is also central to Commission thinking on RFID and associated research funding in Europe “… a new phase of the Information Society – the Internet of Things in which the web will not only link computers but potentially every object created by mankind.” – Viviane Reding – On RFID: The next step to The Internet of Things – Lisbon Conference 2007Even in concept some thought has to be given to the implications of such statements in respect of population-partitioning of identifiable objects and connectivity dynamics – Analysis of the Concept!
12 The Internet of Things* (2007 Commission view): The Internet of Things viewed as a network for communicating devices and based upon four degrees of sophistication, involving:Purely passive devices (RFID) that yield fixed data output when queriedDevices with moderate processing power to format carrier messages, with the capability to vary content with respect to time and placeSensing devices that are capable of generating and communicating information about environment or item status when queriedDevices with enhanced processing capability that facilitate decisions to communicate between devices without human intervention – introducing a degree of intelligence into networked systems* European Commission (2007) From RFID to the Internet of Things – Pervasive networked systems
13 The EPCglobal dimension The EPCglobal Network Architecture draws further attention to these needs, and to additional requirements for achieving an Internet of Things including:Readers and Reader Protocol Interface – to deliver raw tag data from readers to supporting middlewareMiddleware – to accumulate and filter raw tag data readsApplication Layer Events (ALE) Interface – to deliver consolidated, filtered tag read data from middleware to a local application.EPC Capturing Application – to recognise the occurrence of EPC-related business events, and deliver them as EPC Information Service (EPCIS) data.EPCIS Capture interface – to provide a path for communicating EPC eventsEPCIS Repository – to record EPCIS-level eventsEPCIS Query Interface – to provide a means whereby an EPCIS accessing application can request EPCIS data from an EPCIS repository or an EPCIS capturing application and the means whereby the result is returned.
14 The EPCglobal dimension EPCIS-Accessing Application – software to facilitate overall enterprise business processes, such as warehouse management, shipping, and receiving and so forth aided by EPC-related data.Local ONS – to fulfil ONS lookup requests for EPCs within the control of the enterprise that operates the local ONS, ie EPCs for which the enterprise is the EPC manager.EPCIS Accessing Application – an EPCIS-enabled application of a trading partner.Tag Data Translation Schema – to provide a machine-readable file that defines how to translate between EPC encodings defined by the EPC Tag Data Specification.Manager Number Assignment – to ensure global uniqueness of EPCs by maintaining uniqueness of EPC Manager Numbers assigned to EPCglobal Subscribers.Object Name Service Root – a service that, given an EPC, can return a list of network accessible service endpoints that relate to the EPC concerned.EPC Discovery Service(s) – a search engine for EPC related data.Subscriber Authentication – to be determined.The EPC Namespace adds further dimension to this and the prospect of accommodating other numbering systems and the identification of other types of data carrier than RFID.
15 Mega Trends in Information & Communications Technology (ICT) SAP Research International Research Forum 2006 – 27 academics, technologists, policymakers, entrepreneurs and associated intellectuals – to question, discuss, debate and frame the future of information and communication technologies (ICT) – Outcome:Megatrend 1: Web 2.0 and the semantic webMegatrend 2: IT SecurityMegatrend 3: Real World Awareness (RWA) – “great promise of RWA agreed to be automation – systems will be able to collect data without human intervention or errors and use it to react to events more quickly and effectively”Megatrend 4:IT as a Tool for Growth and DevelopmentRelevant to the “Internet of Things” – Architecture must accommodate the connectivity of the Internet and next generation developments (addressing in the process the inherent limitations)
16 The Internet and the Internet of Things The BLED Declaration1 and other supporting statements, assert that the Internet of Things is expected to be an integral part of the next or future generation InternetService-oriented architecture (SOE), exploiting integration with Internet and interfacing with wide ranging edge technologies and associated networks is a key objective.1. Revision 1.1 of the BLED Future Internet Manifesto ( )
17 Principal challenges: Disconnect between logical and physical worlds Lack of interoperability – structural and semantic heterogeneityLimitations of Enterprise application integration (EAI) for enterprise-wide and inter-enterprise integrationDevelopments in information integration – schema integration, semantic mediation and ontology merging – more intelligent search engines
18 CASAGRAS (Coordination And Support Action for Global RFID-related Activities and Standardisation ) adopting a fully inclusive model for the Internet of Things:Embracing a fully inclusive range of ‘edge’ technologies, including RFID for interfacing with the physical worldExploiting evolving object-connected data capture technologies and networking capabilities – sensory, location, local communication and securityExploiting existing and evolving communications and mobility structuresIntegration with the evolving Internet
19 Ontology for Identification EntityMay beInfluenced or attended byAnimateInanimateLocationEnvironmentApplicationAssociated ID FactorsConsideration of State CharacteristicRepresentation of IdentityAcceptable stable feature setUneconomic or no stable feature setPrimary Natural Feature IdentifierSecondary Data Carrier IdentifierAssociated Attributes based on State CharacteristicWhen derived:ReferenceWhen asserted:AuthenticationDerivation of electronic ‘Digital Signature’Link to associated data and application informationSelf AssignedAssigned or registeredAuthenticators or credentialsAttributesRegisteredCertificate or tokenNumeric or Alpha-numeric stringsCapturedSelf-issuedAuthority-issuedAssociated dataOptional BindingsOntology for IdentificationActivities:Does Animate, inanimate and location cover all possibilities ? If not what other categories can be distinguished?Name some examples of factors that can influence the entity to be identified and the means of identification?Name some examples of assigned secondary identification schemesName examples of certificates or tokens used for authenticationName examples of optional bindersExplain the difference between reference and assertion for authentication19
20 Internet of Things - at its most basic level… Interrogator / Gate way deviceHost Information Management SystemActuatorsWider area communications and NetworksApplication commands and responsesPhysical interface zoneInternet +Passive RFID data carriers and UID
21 Interrogator / Gate way device Host Information Management System Internet of Things – including RFID carrier variantsInterrogator / Gate way deviceHost Information Management SystemActuatorsWider area communications and NetworksPhysical interface zoneID + Additional Item-attendant dataSensory data carriers*Networked data carriersInternet +
22 Interrogator / Gate way device Host Information Management System Internet of Things – including other edge technologiesInterrogator / Gate way deviceHost Information Management SystemActuatorsWider area communications and NetworksPhysical interface zoneID + Additional Item-attendant dataSensory data carriersNetworked data carriersFurther layers of Data Capture TechnologyInternet +
23 CASAGRAS (Coordination And Support Action for Global RFID-related Activities and Standardisation ) adopting a fully inclusive model for the Internet of Things, embracing:Exploiting Web service and Grid service conceptsExploiting the Service Oriented Architecture (SOE)Exploiting Unique Item Identifier (UII) concepts and namespace resolver to accommodate legacy coding schemes for identification (incl. EPC, URL..)Viewing the needs for governance, quality of services, security, privacy and other socio-economic issues
24 Identification and Namespace resolvers Web DomainObject Space IdentifiersURLEPCUnique Item Identifier(UII)Namespace ResolverDiscovery ServicesOIDData carrier ID + data payload and cost considerations
25 Understanding the Concept The Physical WorldUnderstanding the ConceptNew Internet of Things Infrastructure?Wired and wireless communicationsItemData CarrierData Carrier and other identification and edge technologies?- State, Location and time
26 Internet of Things – defining the layers Network – supported servicesEdge-technology data capture and NetworksApplications layerMiddleware layerInternet layerAccess Gateway layerEdge Technology layerAccess NetworksInternet of Things – defining the layersFixed and mobile communication protocols
27 CASAGRAS considerations of layered structure and need for associated standards: Object space analysis, network structures and applicationsIdentification and ‘edge’ technologies for automatic data capture and UDAP – hardware busEmerging web services model and SOE in respect of the Internet of Things – software busDiscovery Services model based upon universal description, discovery and integration (UDDI) registry modelGrid service open architecture for collaborative computing and one-to-many services model
28 Time - line Data Carrier Principles – Object-attendant ICT Item-attendant Data Carrierdc1ItemNodal Data Capture Appliance – Host h1Nodal Information Management System and DatabaseRh1 (dc1; id + ; t)Inter-nodal data communication, t - xx time units
29 CASAGRAS considerations of layered structure and need for associated standards: RFID and ‘communications-based’ RFID standards and regulationsFixed and mobile network standards and regulationsRFID Sensory and sensor network standardsIntegration standards
30 Global identification coding and namespace considerations to accommodate legacy systems are key, as are governance and data exchange structures, security, privacy and associated standardsWherein RFID?
31 European Commission and RFID Expectations RFID seen as a precursor to the “Internet of Things”RFID seen as a potential platform for linking “world of production with the “world of service”RFID seen a means of making items “smart”, capable of being networked together and able to communicate with their environment – far reaching and requiring qualificationRFID seen as a vehicle for creating opportunities for new business models that will take advantage of a global network in which any object can be linked to any contextRFID seen as a vehicle for a wide range of applications
32 Data Transfer and Communications Internet & Internet of ThingsData Capture ApplianceInformation Management System (MIS) – Enterprise SoftwareCommunications Network– Business Interchange of DataData transfer from Capture ApplianceData transfer from MISItem-attendant Data CarrierExpanding Domain for xML SolutionsData transfer from Data CarrierInterrogation zone
34 Realising the Internet of Things at its most engaging level is clearly a complex and challenging goal but with the prospect of offering a substantial platform for applications, innovation and wealth creation – Providing the concept is better definedCASAGRAS in collaboration with GRIFS is helping to define the structure and standards for a truly international networkCERP can have a significant input into the standards considerations
35 CASAGRAS Work packages: Standards and Procedures for International Standardisation in relation to RFID, including applications and conformance standardsRegulatory issues in respect of RFID standardsGlobal coding systems in relation to RFID standardsRFID in relation to Ubiquitous Computing and NetworksFunctional, including sensory, developments in RFID and Associated StandardsAreas of Application, existing and future, and associated StandardsSocio-economic components of RFID Usage