Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed What is Motivation Motivation is the willingness to make an effort toward accomplishment. Organizational climate is the emotional weather within an organization that affects worker morale, attitudes, stress levels, and communication. Morale is the overall mood of an individual or group, based on attitudes and satisfaction.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Extrinsic rewards are intended to provide motivational incentives. Salary Bonuses Promotions and praise High grades in classes What is Motivation
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Intrinsic rewards are internal factors related to the value of work. The amount of creativity allowed. Degree of responsibility. Satisfaction of helping others. A work ethic. A sense of self-identity, self-fulfillment, and self-worth. The social value of work. Social and community roles. What is Motivation
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Assumptions of Maslow’s theory Unsatisfied needs motivate or influence a person’s behavior. Satisfied needs do not motivate the person’s behavior. Needs are arranged by order of importance. A need in the hierarchy will not be a motivator until those below it are already satisfied. Need-Based Theories of Motivation
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Esteem needs Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others Belongingness and love needs Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation begins at the base with physiological needs that must be satisfied first then higher-level safety needs become active that must be satisfied then belonging needs become active beyond this lies esteem needs beyond this lies the need to actualize one’s full unique potential ** Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ** Self-actualization needs Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential Safety needs Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable Physiological needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Alderfer’s ERG theory Existence needs: Physical well-being as a human. Relatedness needs: Part of esteem needs that are external or socially fulfilling. Growth needs: Internal esteem needs. Frustration-regression principle: People who fail to reach a higher need level become frustrated, regress to a lower need level, and stay there for some time. Need-Based Theories of Motivation
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed McClelland’s Manifest Needs theory - All people have needs that motivate them in life and on the job. Power needs - Desired by individuals who want to control and influence other people. Affiliation needs - Occur in people who want to be accepted and liked by others. Achievement needs - Occur in people who are goal oriented and take personal responsibility for achievements. Need-Based Theories of Motivation
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Need-Based Theories of Motivation
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Need-Based Theories of Motivation
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Job enrichment as a motivator Factors necessary for job enrichment to be effective: Skill variety - The opportunity and ability to use different skills in one’s position at work. Task identity - Worker’s perception of the meaningfulness of a job. Need-Based Theories of Motivation
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Task significance - Worker’s perception that the task directly affects other people’s work or lives. Autonomy - Ability to act and make self decisions without undue interference from management. Feedback- Allows individuals to know how well they are performing. Need-Based Theories of Motivation
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Need-Based Theories of Motivation Hackman- Oldham Job Enrichment model
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Behavior-Based Theories of Motivation Expectancy theory Developed by Victor Vroom. Explains human behavior in terms of people’s goals, choices, and the expectation that goals will be reached. Its main concepts are expectancy, instrumentality, and valence.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Expectancy - Efforts would result in better performance. Instrumentality - Something good (or bad) comes from an increase in effort. Valence - The value a person places on a reward. Behavior-Based Theories of Motivation
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Reinforcement Theory and Behavior Modification Reinforcement theory explains human behavior in terms of repetition. Behavior that is rewarded enough times is repeated. Behavior that repeatedly receives no reward will probably discontinue. The process of changing behavior because of a reward, or a lack of reward, is called behavior modification.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Goal setting allows employees to set their own goals. Employees’ commitment to goals increase by: Participation in the goal-setting process. Setting up challenging goals that are attainable, specific, and attractive. Providing feedback. Rewarding employees. Reinforcement and values help improve the feelings of value and worth in employees. Reinforcement Theory and Behavior Modification
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Motivation and Self-Esteem Self-esteem and job performance Low self-esteem keeps an individual from making risky decisions when job calls for creativity in decision making. Person with low self-esteem may perform at exactly the level where others expect performance to be, so as not to threaten others’ values.
Parts taken from Human Relations 4ed Strategies for Success Applying McClelland’s theory: Take a look at Your needs. What you want in life. How the need areas apply in workplace. Changing your behavior: Change a behavior or bad habit. Take small steps to reach your goal. Find a small reward to motivate you. Reward yourself to reinforce the desired behavior.