Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Power and Politics. Power A capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes Dependency: B’s."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 7 Power and Politics
Power A capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes Dependency: B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires
Leadership Requires goal agreement Focuses on downward influence Minimizes importance of lateral and upward influence Leadership research focuses on answers Power Does not require goal acceptance Focuses on intimidation Maximizes importance of lateral and upward influence Power focuses on tactics for gaining compliance Leadership and Power
Measuring Bases of Power Coercive power The person can make things difficult for people, and you want to avoid getting him or her angry. Power that is based on fear. Reward power The person is able to give special benefits or rewards to people, and you find it advantageous to trade favors with him or her. Legitimate power The person has the right, considering his or her position and your job responsibilities, to expect you to comply with legitimate requests.
Measuring Bases of Power Expert power The person has the experience and knowledge to earn your respect, and you defer to his or her judgment in some matters. Referent power You like the person and enjoy doing things for him or her.
Evaluating the Bases of Power Coercive power tends to result in negative performance responses from individuals, decreases satisfaction, increases mistrust, and creates fear. Legitimate power does not have a negative effect, but does not generally stimulate employees to improve their attitudes or performance, and it does not generally result in increased commitment. Reward power may improve performance in a variety of situations if the rewards are consistent with what the individuals want as rewards. Expert power relies on trust that all relevant information is given out honestly and completely.
Continuum of Responses to Power Coercive Base of Leader Power Reward Legitimate Expert Referent Mostly likely employee response ResistanceComplianceCommitment
When Managers Influenced Superiors* When Managers Influenced Subordinates Reason Coalition Friendliness Bargaining Assertiveness Higher authority Reason Assertiveness Friendliness Coalition Bargaining Higher authority Sanctions Most Popular Least Popular *The dimension of sanctions is omitted in the scale that measures upward influence. Popularity of Power Tactics: From Most to Least Popular
Empowerment: Giving Power to Employees The freedom and the ability of employees to make decisions and commitments Managers disagree over definition of empowerment Empowerment as delegating decision making within a set of clear boundaries versus Empowerment as “a process of risk taking and personal growth”
Conditions for True Empowerment Clear definition of the values and mission of the company Company must help employees acquire the relevant skills Employees need to be supported in their decision making, and not criticized when they try to do something extraordinary Employees need to be recognized for their efforts
Characteristics of Empowered People Sense of self-determination Employees are free to choose how to do their work; They are not micromanaged Sense of meaning Employees feel that their work is important to them; They care about what they are doing Sense of competence Employees are confident about their ability to do their work well; They know they can perform Sense of impact Employees people believe they can have influence on their work unit; Others listen to their ideas
Political Behaviour Those activities that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. Legitimate: normal everyday behaviour Illegitimate: extreme political behaviours that violate the implied rules of the game
Why Do We Get Politics? Organizations are made up of groups and individuals who have differing values, goals and interests Resources in organizations are limited Performance outcomes are not completely clear and objective
Factors Influencing Political Behaviour Individual factors High self-monitors Internal locus of control High Mach Organizational investment Perceived job alternatives Expectations of success Organizational factors Reallocation of resources Promotion opportunities Low trust Role ambiguity Unclear performance evaluation system Zero-sum reward practices Democratic decision making High performance pressures Self-serving senior managers Favourable outcomes Rewards Averted punishments Political behaviour Low High
What Individual Factors Contribute to Politics? High self-monitors Internal locus of control High mach Organizational investment Perceived job alternatives Expectations of success
What Organizational Factors Contribute to Politics? Reallocation of rewards Promotion opportunities Low trust Role ambiguity Unclear performance evaluation system Zero-sum reward practices Democratic decision-making High performance pressure Self-serving senior managers
Types of Political Activity Attacking or blaming others Controlling information Forming coalitions Networking Creating obligations Managing impressions
Impression Management The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them More likely used by high self-monitors than low self-monitors High self-monitors try to read the situation
Exhibit 7-8 Impression Management (IM) Techniques Conformity Agreeing with someone else’s opinion in order to gain his or her approval. Excuses Explanations of a predicament-creating event aimed at minimizing the apparent severity of the predicament. Apologies Admitting responsibility for an undesirable event and simultaneously seeking to get a pardon for the action. Acclamations Explanation of favorable events to maximize the desirable implications for oneself. Flattery Complimenting others about their virtues in an effort to make oneself appear perceptive and likable. Favours Doing something nice for someone to gain that person’s approval. Association Enhancing or protecting one’s image by managing information about people and things with which one is associated.
Making Office Politics Work Nobody wins unless everybody wins Don’t just ask for opinions—change them Everyone expects to be paid back Success can create opposition
Working With Others Exercise Instructions for Role Play Working in your group, read the instructions for the assignment You have 15 minutes to develop a 3 minute role play, using the source of power assigned to your group You MUST stick to the time limit
Role Play Scenario – Pg. 236 You are the leader of a group that is trying to develop a website for a new client. One of your group members, who was assigned the task of researching and analysing the websites of your client’s competition, has failed twice to bring the analysis to scheduled meetings, even though the member knew the assignment was due. Consequently, your group is falling behind in getting the website developed. As leader of the group, you have decided to speak with this team member, and use your specific brand of power to influence the individual’s behaviour.
Sources of Power COERCIVE: depends on fear. It is the ability to punish or withhold privileges. REWARD: Based on one's control over things that others desire such as vacations, raises, promotions and office locations. LEGITIMATE: person holding power has right to it because of position or role. Thus the person has a formal right to direct others in certain matters and the subordinates have a duty to obey those directions. EXPERT: the perception by others that one has superior judgment or knowledge on some topics, often specialized in nature. Unlike information power, this power base does not involve sharing of the facts or reasoning behind a decision. REFERENT: develops out of subordinates' admiration for leader and his/her desire to model behaviour and attitudes after that person. The person builds feelings of support, liking, admiration and respect with subordinates.
Mean Responses to Type of Influence
Discussion Questions Which kind of influence is most likely to immediately result in the desired behaviour? Which will have the most long-lasting effects? What effect will using a particular base of power have on the ongoing relationship? Which form of power will others find most acceptable? least acceptable? In which kinds of situations is each kind of power most effective and useful? least effective and useful?