2Power and Politics Power A capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishesDependency: B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requiresMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages 209.Power is not necessarily bad – power if used properly should be a positive influence in your organization.
3Leadership and Power Power Leadership Does not require goal acceptance Focuses on intimidationMaximizes importance of lateral and upward influencePower focuses on tactics for gaining complianceRequires goal agreementFocuses on downward influenceMinimizes importance of lateral and upward influenceLeadership research focuses on answersMaterial pertinent to this illustration is found on page 210.Additional slide if you want to pursue this theme.Leadership and power as two concepts are closely intertwined. Leaders use power as a means of attaining group goals. Leaders achieve goals, and power is a means of facilitating their achievement. One difference relates to goal acceptance; power does not require that individuals accept the goals of the person in power, only dependence on that person. Leadership requires some congruence between the goals of the leader and the led. Another difference is the direction of influence. Leadership focuses on downward influence over one's subordinates, while power does not. Power can be used laterally, upwardly, and by groups as well as individuals.
4Measuring Bases of Power Coercive powerThe person can make things difficult for people, and you want to avoid getting him or her angry.Power that is based on fear.Reward powerThe person is able to give special benefits or rewards to people, and you find it advantageous to trade favors with him or her.Legitimate powerThe person has the right, considering his or her position and your job responsibilities, to expect you to comply with legitimate requests.Material pertinent to this illustration is found on pagesDoes a person have one or more of the five bases of power? Affirmative responses to the slide’s questions can answer this question.
5Measuring Bases of Power Expert powerThe person has the experience and knowledge to earn your respect, and you defer to his or her judgment in some matters.Referent powerYou like the person and enjoy doing things for him or her.Material pertinent to this illustration is found on pagesNotes:Referent power – if I admire you and identify with you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you.
6Evaluating the Bases of Power Coercive power tends to result in negative performance responses from individuals, decreases satisfaction, increases mistrust, and creates fear.Legitimate power does not have a negative effect, but does not generally stimulate employees to improve their attitudes or performance, and it does not generally result in increased commitment.Reward power may improve performance in a variety of situations if the rewards are consistent with what the individuals want as rewards.Expert power relies on trust that all relevant information is given out honestly and completely.Material pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
7Continuum of Responses to Power CoerciveBase ofLeaderPowerRewardLegitimateExpertReferentMostly likely employee responseResistanceComplianceCommitmentMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on page 214.
8Popularity of Power Tactics: From Most to Least Popular When ManagersInfluencedSuperiors*When ManagersInfluencedSubordinatesMost PopularReasonCoalitionFriendlinessBargainingAssertivenessHigher authorityReasonAssertivenessFriendlinessCoalitionBargainingHigher authoritySanctionsMaterial pertinent to this illustration is found on pages•Reason: Use of facts and data to make a logical or rational presentation of ideas•Friendliness: Use of flattery, creation of goodwill, acting humble, and being friendly prior to making a request•Coalition: Getting the support of other people in the organization to back up the request•Bargaining: Use of negotiation through the exchange of benefits or favours•Assertiveness: Use of a direct and forceful approach such as demanding compliance with requests, repeating reminders, ordering individuals to do what is asked, and pointing out that rules require compliance•Higher authority: Gaining the support of higher levels in the organization to back up requests•Sanctions: Use of organizationally derived rewards and punishments such as preventing or promising a salary increase, threatening to give an unsatisfactory performance evaluation, or withholding a promotionLeast Popular*The dimension of sanctions is omitted in the scalethat measures upward influence.
9Empowerment: Giving Power to Employees The freedom and the ability of employees to make decisions and commitmentsManagers disagree over definition of empowermentEmpowerment as delegating decision making within a set of clear boundariesversusEmpowerment as “a process of risk taking and personal growth”Material pertinent to this discussion is found on page 219.View 1: Empowerment start sat the top, with specific goals and task assigned, responsibility delegated, and people be held accountable for their results.View 2: Empowerment starts at the bottom, considering the employees needs, showing them what empowered behaviour looks like, building teams, encouraging risk taking, and demonstrating trust in employee’s ability to perform.The concept of empowerment has caused much cynicism in many workplaces. Employees are told that they are empowered, and yet they do not feel that they have the authority to act, or feel that their manager still micro-manages their performance.
10Conditions for True Empowerment Clear definition of the values and mission of the companyCompany must help employees acquire the relevant skillsEmployees need to be supported in their decision making, and not criticized when they try to do something extraordinaryEmployees need to be recognized for their effortsMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on page 220.
11Characteristics of Empowered People Sense of self-determinationEmployees are free to choose how to do their work; They are not micromanagedSense of meaningEmployees feel that their work is important to them; They care about what they are doingSense of competenceEmployees are confident about their ability to do their work well; They know they can performSense of impactEmployees people believe they can have influence on their work unit; Others listen to their ideasMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
12Political BehaviourThose activities that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.Legitimate: normal everyday behaviourIllegitimate: extreme political behaviours that violate the implied rules of the gameMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
13Why Do We Get Politics?Organizations are made up of groups and individuals who have differing values, goals and interestsResources in organizations are limitedPerformance outcomes are not completely clear and objectiveMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pagesOrganizations are made up of individuals and groups with different values, goals, and interests. This creates the potential for conflict over resources, which are limited, and this turns potential conflict into real conflict. Gains by one individual or group are often perceived as being at the expense of others within the organization. These forces create competition among members for the organization's limited resources.
14Factors Influencing Political Behaviour Individual factors•High self-monitors•Internal locus of control•High Mach•Organizational investment•Perceived job alternatives•Expectations of successPolitical behaviourFavourable outcomesLow High•RewardsOrganizational factorsMaterial pertinent to this illustration is found on pages•Averted punishments•Reallocation of resources•Promotion opportunities•Low trust•Role ambiguity•Unclear performanceevaluation system•Zero-sum reward practices•Democratic decision making•High performance pressures•Self-serving senior managers
15What Individual Factors Contribute to Politics? High self-monitorsInternal locus of controlHigh machOrganizational investmentPerceived job alternativesExpectations of successMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
16What Organizational Factors Contribute to Politics? Reallocation of rewardsPromotion opportunitiesLow trustRole ambiguityUnclear performance evaluation systemZero-sum reward practicesDemocratic decision-makingHigh performance pressureSelf-serving senior managersMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
17Types of Political Activity Attacking or blaming othersControlling informationForming coalitionsNetworkingCreating obligationsManaging impressionsMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
18Impression Management The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of themMore likely used by high self-monitors than low self-monitorsHigh self-monitors try to read the situationMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pages
19Exhibit 7-8 Impression Management (IM) Techniques ConformityAgreeing with someone else’s opinion in order to gain his or her approval.ExcusesExplanations of a predicament-creating event aimed at minimizing the apparent severity of the predicament.ApologiesAdmitting responsibility for an undesirable event and simultaneously seeking to get a pardon for the action.AcclamationsExplanation of favorable events to maximize the desirable implications for oneself.FlatteryComplimenting others about their virtues in an effort to make oneself appear perceptive and likable.FavoursDoing something nice for someone to gain that person’s approval.AssociationEnhancing or protecting one’s image by managing information about people and things with which one is associated.Material pertinent to this illustration is found on pages
20Making Office Politics Work Nobody wins unless everybody winsDon’t just ask for opinions—change themEveryone expects to be paid backSuccess can create oppositionMaterial pertinent to this discussion is found on pagesIs there an effective way to engage in office politics that is less likely to be disruptive or negative? Fast Company, an on-line business magazine, identifies several rules that may help to improve the climate of the organization, while negotiating through the office politics maze:(1) Nobody wins unless everybody wins.(2) Don’t just ask for opinions.(3) Everyone expects to be paid back.(4) Success can create opposition.
21Working With Others Exercise Instructions for Role PlayWorking in your group, read the instructions for the assignmentYou have 15 minutes to develop a 3 minute role play, using the source of power assigned to your groupYou MUST stick to the time limitMaterial pertinent to this exercise is found on pageThe next set of slides provide visuals for the various aspects of the Working With Others Role Play: Instructions, scenario, reminders of types of power, scoring information, and comparative information.
22Role Play Scenario – Pg. 236You are the leader of a group that is trying to develop a website for a new client. One of your group members, who was assigned the task of researching and analysing the websites of your client’s competition, has failed twice to bring the analysis to scheduled meetings, even though the member knew the assignment was due. Consequently, your group is falling behind in getting the website developed. As leader of the group, you have decided to speak with this team member, and use your specific brand of power to influence the individual’s behaviour.Material pertinent to this exercise is found on page
23Sources of PowerCOERCIVE: depends on fear. It is the ability to punish or withhold privileges.REWARD: Based on one's control over things that others desire such as vacations, raises, promotions and office locations.LEGITIMATE: person holding power has right to it because of position or role. Thus the person has a formal right to direct others in certain matters and the subordinates have a duty to obey those directions.EXPERT: the perception by others that one has superior judgment or knowledge on some topics, often specialized in nature. Unlike information power, this power base does not involve sharing of the facts or reasoning behind a decision.REFERENT: develops out of subordinates' admiration for leader and his/her desire to model behaviour and attitudes after that person. The person builds feelings of support, liking, admiration and respect with subordinates.Material pertinent to this exercise is found on page
24Mean Responses to Type of Influence Material pertinent to this exercise is found on page
25Discussion QuestionsWhich kind of influence is most likely to immediately result in the desired behaviour?Which will have the most long-lasting effects?What effect will using a particular base of power have on the ongoing relationship?Which form of power will others find most acceptable? least acceptable?In which kinds of situations is each kind of power most effective and useful? least effective and useful?Material pertinent to this exercise is found on page