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1 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 RFID - Testing and Certification Speaker : Alejandro Torrecilla CENTRO DE TECNOLOGÍA.

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Presentation on theme: "1 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 RFID - Testing and Certification Speaker : Alejandro Torrecilla CENTRO DE TECNOLOGÍA."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 RFID - Testing and Certification Speaker : Alejandro Torrecilla CENTRO DE TECNOLOGÍA DE LAS COMUNICACIONES, S.A. – CETECOM Spain C/Severo Ochoa 2, Campanillas (Málaga) - SPAIN Phone: ; Fax: URL:

2 2 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Overview of RFID technology Regulatory testing & approvals Regulatory concerns Essential information Testing requirements Approval requirements RFID certification CETECOM involvement in RFID technology Index

3 3 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Overview of RFID technology What is RFID? Uses a semiconductor IC in a tag or label to transmit stored data when that tag or label is exposed to radio waves of the correct frequency. RFID System Elements - Reader: The unit powers the coil of wire known as the antenna, filters and powers them for transmission over distance - Air interface: Proximity electromagnetic or inductive coupling / Propagating electromagnetic waves Inductive CouplingPropagation Coupling - Transponder (Tag): A memory device programmed with a series of bits Type of Transponders - Active vs. passive: On-board battery power source / Powered by energy from reader - Read-write vs. read-only

4 4 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Overview of RFID technology The way to the market Typical applications Frequency bandCharacteristicsTypical Applications Low: kHzShort to medium read range – Inexpensive – Low reading speed Access control – Animal identification Inventory control – Car immobiliser Intermediate: MHzShort to medium read range – Potentially inexpensive – Medium reading speed Access control - Smart cards High: MHz / 2.4 GHz / 5.8 GHz Long read range – High reading speed – Line of sight required - Expensive Railroad car monitoring - Toll collection systems

5 5 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory concerns RFID systems is a radio equipment: Different frequency bands, different emissions limits: can a RFID device be used or commercialised worldwide? EMF: Hundreds of devices working in a single area: Is constant exposure to radiation safe? RFID is a tracking system easy to use and easy to install: Can privacy be damaged? RFID can be used for outdoors tracking operations: Is it allowed outdoors operations? RFID systems is composed by several elements and each one may have different certification requirements: Have passive transponders to be certified? Regulatory testing & approvals

6 6 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals FrequencyStandardEmissions limitTypical modulation SARUse 125 KHz KHz Sec /F (kHz) 300 m ASKNo – Low power - In/outdoors - Unlicensed MHzSec m ASKNo – Low power - In/outdoors - Unlicensed MHzSec m FSKNo – Low power - In/outdoors - Unlicensed - Restricted areas - Registration required - Limited applications MHz Sec W EIRPASK (FHSS)OET Bulletin 65 - In/outdoors - Unlicensed MHz Sec W EIRPASK (FHSS)OET Bulletin 65 - In/outdoors - Unlicensed Essential requirements - USA

7 7 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Essential requirements – USATransponders Passive transponders do not need to be certified Active transponders need to be certified, but under Sections and , they can be certified together with the reader and under a single FCC IDPrivacy Based on three principles Consumers have the right to know that RFID is being used Consumers can opt out of using the technology at the point of purchase Consumers can desactivate RFID tags at the point of purchase Federal legislation Not specific legislation Federal Trade Commission is the body in charge of protection of privacy of the consumers States legislation: Several states are working on specific legislation California: 29/04/2004: California Senate OKs Bill SB 1834 to Limit RFID Use Utah: 01/03/2004: Draft legislation passed House vote but it is rejected in the Senate Massachusetts: 28/04/2004: Working on a draft bill Civil liberties organizations claim specific legislation to regulate the use of RFID technology Proposal of Federal legislation: RFID Right to Know Act of 2003

8 8 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Essential requirements – EU Future: Frequency band: MHz Channel spacing: 200 kHz, Channel carriers: MHz – MHz Output power: Up to 2 W Test standard: EN (Draft version available) FrequencyStandardEmissions limitTypical modulation SARUse 125 KHz KHz EN mASKNo – Low power - In/outdoors - Unlicensed MHzEN mASKNo – Low power - In/outdoors - Unlicensed MHzEN mW e.r.p. - 1% d.c 1 mW e.r.p. – 10% d.c. FSKNo – Low power - In/outdoors - Unlicensed – MHz EN mW – 1% d.c.ASKNo – Low power - In/outdoors - Unlicensed MHzEN mW e.i.r.p. – 100 % d.c. 4 W e.i.r.p. – 15 % d.c. ASK (FHSS) EN 50364: In/outdoors up to 500 mW - Indoors up to 4 W - Unlicensed

9 9 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Essential requirements – EUTransponders Passive transponder does not need to be certified under the R&TTE Directive Active transponder need to be certified, it can be together with the reader of separately, depending on the Notified Body.Privacy 95/46/EC: Data Protection Directive Obsolete data collected must be deleted periodically Other data is subject to access right 2002/58/EC: Privacy and electronic communications Directive Location data may only processed anonymous or with the consent of the individual The individuals has to be informed about: oThe type of data to be processed oThe purposes of the processing oIts duration oAny possible recipients of the data Possibility of withdrawing the consent of the processing of location data Possibility of prevent the processing of the location data temporarily

10 10 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Essential requirements – Others 125 kHz, kHz and MHz are generally worldwide accepted MHz and MHz are generally accepted in ITU Region II MHz are generally accepted in ITU Region I MHz band is not extended in ITU Region I Japan MHz possibly open for RFID for MHz difficult due to interference with Amateur Radio Korea MHz possibly open for RFID in second half of MHz interference investigations in place - No clear the final decision Australia and New Zealand: Expected allocation in MHz with up to 4 W - End of 2004 China: They are investigating possible allocations in MHz and 433 MHz – No clear the final decision

11 11 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Testing requirements – USA Test casesSec Sec Sec E-field strength XX (Peak) X (Peak + Average) Spurious emissions XX (Tx) X (Tx) Frequency tolerance -X- Transmission time limitation --X Test Equipment Needed Spectrum analyser Semi-Anechoic Chamber Loop/Bi-log/Horn antenna Frequency counter RF coupling device Samples preparation: One sample with antenna prepared for continuous transmission for field strength and spurious emissions measurement One sample with antenna connector prepared for unmodulated continuous transmission for frequency tolerance measurement Sec dB Bandwidth and Carrier frequency separation Number of hopping channels Time of occupancy (Dwell Time) Maximum peak output power and antenna gain Spurious emission conducted Spurious emissions radiated Samples preparation One sample with antenna and with a test mode for continuous transmission and selection of individual channels One sample with antenna connector with a test mode for continuous transmission and selection of individual channels and hopping mode

12 12 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Testing requirements – EU – EN Samples preparation One sample with antenna prepared for continuous transmission One sample with antenna connector prepared for continuous transmission (if not available a RF coupling device can be use for measurement of the conducted test cases) Extreme test conditions · Temperature:· Voltage: - General: - 20ºC / 55ºC - Main power: +/- 10 % - Portable: -10ºC / 55ºC - Battery: Depending on the type of battery - Indoor: 0ºC / 55ºC Essential Test Cases H-field strength Transmitter spurious emissions Permitted frequency range modulation bandwidth Critical!! Test Equipment Needed Spectrum analyser Semi-Anechoic Chamber Loop/Bi-log antenna RF coupling device

13 13 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Testing requirements – EU – EN Extreme conditions as defined for EN testing. Samples preparation One sample with antenna and with a test mode for continuous transmission/reception and selection of individual channels One sample with antenna connector with a test mode for continuous transmission and selection of individual channels Essential Test Cases Frequency error or drift Effective radiated power Adjacent channel power Range of modulation bandwidth (> 25 kHz) Transmitter spurious emissions Frequency stability under low voltage conditions Receiver spurious emissions Critical!! Test Equipment Needed Spectrum analyser Semi-Anechoic Chamber Bi-log/Horn antenna RF coupling device Adjacent channel power meter Frequency counter

14 14 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Testing requirements – EU – EN Samples preparation One sample with antenna and with a test mode for continuous transmission/reception and selection of individual channels One sample with antenna connector with a test mode for continuous transmission and selection of individual channels Extreme conditions as defined for EN testing Essential Test Cases Equivalent isotropically radiated power Permitted range of operation frequencies Transmitter spurious emissions Receiver spurious emissions Test Equipment Needed Spectrum analyser Semi-Anechoic Chamber Bi-log/Horn antenna Power Meter

15 15 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Testing requirements – EU – Dr. EN Samples and extreme conditions as defined for EN testing Essential Test Cases Frequency error Frequency stability under low voltage conditions Effective radiated power Transmitter spectrum mask Transmitter spurious emissions Transmission time limitations Receiver threshold listen mode Listen time Adjacent sub-band selectivity in listen mode Blocking or desensitisation in listen mode Receiver spurious emissions Tag emissions outside sub-band edges Test Equipment Needed Spectrum analyser Semi-Anechoic Chamber Bi-log/Horn antenna Frequency counter RF coupling device Signal generator Prove antenna Power splitter Interrogator

16 16 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Approval requirements – USA Request Grantee Code (FCC Filing Fee) (PA only in the case of a new applicant) Test transmitter for radio frequency emissions Certificate Once tests indicate that transmitter complies with FCC technical standards, assign FCC ID to transmitter and design compliance label Compile additional technical documentation File FCC form No. 731, FCC form No. 159, emissions test report and technical documentation to FCC or TCB

17 17 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Approval requirements – EU Annex III Annex IV NB can be involved CE Marking & DoC NB involved Radio Test Suite Declaration of Conformity Declaration of Conformity Technical Documentation Technical Construction File submitted to a NB Radio Test Suite & DoC according to RF CE Marking & DoC Radio Notification to SMA Depending on frequency band

18 18 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 Regulatory testing & approvals Approval requirements – Others For detailed information and other countries please consult AMSYS Japan SingaporeAustraliaBrazil South Africa Local holder required FCC or EU test reports and approval accepted (from accredited lab) In-country testing required Health requirements Language Approval Body NoYes NoYes No YesNo Yes No Japanese or English TELEC or CAB Yes IDA ACAANATEL ICASA English English & Portuguese English Korea Yes No Yes No RRL Korean

19 19 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 RFID certification EPC Global will handle a private certification program To ensure that hardware and software will work properly Development of standards and specifications to define the different elements of an EPC network Testing laboratories will be appointed by EPC Global Certification to be based, not only in conformance, but also in performance Conformance: Conformity with EPC standards Performance: Testing in various scenarios or environments: Positions, RF interference, population, etc.

20 20 DATA BASE forum RFID and Telecommunication Services 25th May 2004 CETECOM involvement in RFID Testing Services World-Wide Compliance Services Information Services – through AMSYS (Approval Management System) CETECOM is willing to become a certified laboratory under the EPC Global scheme


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