3 History Issued by OSHA November 25, 1983. First issued for companies in SIC codesApplies to manufacturers and importers.
4 Hazardous Material Defined Any material that, because of its quantity, concentration, or physical or chemical characteristics, may pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment when incorrectly used, purposefully released, or accidentally spilled.
5 What Makes a Substance Hazardous ? A material is considered hazardous if it exhibits any of the following characteristics beyond predefined levelsToxicityReactivityIgnitabilityCorrosivityBioaccummulative
6 Mixture RuleIf a mixture has not been tested as a whole, the mixture is assumed to present the same health hazards of hazardous ingredients which compromise more than one percent (0.01) of the whole.A mixture is considered to be a carcinogen if any component in concentrations of 0.10 %, or greater are carcinogenic.
9 Categories Water treatment chemicals Oxidizers Fuels Heavy metals BatteriesPesticides
10 Materials NOT Included Pharmaceutical suppliesMedical wastes & infectious materialsBulk fuelsRadioactive materialsConsumer productsFood and food additivesBooze
11 Employee RightsThe right to receive information regarding hazardous substances.Your physician or collective bargaining agent may also receive this same information.Review new or revised MSDS within 30 days of receipt and prior to using those materials.
12 ScopeManufacturers must properly label hazardous materials & provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for each hazardous material producedThe hazardous materials user--Must be familiar with hazards & precautionsMust be familiar with MSDSsMust use and understand hazardous materials labels
14 Original Container Labels Manufacturer must provide shipper/handler/user with information on hazardous materialsEvery container of hazardous materials must be labeledLabel requirements--Identity of material or chemicalName & address of manufacturer or responsible partyAppropriate hazard warningTarget organ
15 Secondary ContainersIf hazardous material is dispensed into an unmarked container, the container must be labeled with the following information:Identity of material or chemicalAppropriate hazard warning
16 Hazardous Material Information Guide (HMIG) Acuity’s system for labeling?Replaces illegible and/or damaged labelsLabels for secondary containers
17 Wallet Card Quick reference guide Icon depiction of PPE Letters refer to groups of needed PPE
18 Hazardous Material Information Guide (HMIG) Color code identifies the hazardBlue = Health HazardRed = FlammabilityYellow = ReactivityWhite = Special Hazard InformationNumerical rating identifies severity0 - no hazard, 4 - most severe hazard
20 Other Warning SystemsNational Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 704M diamondDepartment of Transportation (DOT) LabelsNote: NFPA and DOT labels may NOT be used asstand-alone labeling systems, but may be used inconjunction with other labeling systems
21 NFPA Label Designed for emergency personnel Represents the "worst" of what is in the storage areaDoes not provide specific chemical names or quantities
22 DOT Warning System DOT uses a system of NumbersLabelsSymbols, andClassesto identify the hazardous material and its hazardous characteristicsSystem is used for shipping of hazardous materials
34 MSDSTechnical bulletins containing information about the hazardous materialContain at a minimum the following information:Identity of materialHazardous ingredientsPhysical and chemical characteristics
35 MSDS Information Physical hazards (fire, explosion, reactivity) Health hazards (routes of entry, exposure limits, and cancer potential)Precautions for safe handling & useEmergency first aid proceduresMSDS preparation dateName, address & phone number of chemical manufacturer, importer, employer who can provide additional information
36 MSDS RequirementsMaintained for every item of hazardous material in the work areaReadily accessible to personnel who use hazardous materialsSupervisors provide instruction in understanding and useAll personnel trained on dangers and precautions of hazardous materials prior to use
38 Superintendents Supervisors Ensure PPE available for hazardous material operations and personnel trained on useMake personnel available to receive hazardous material trainingEnsure use of approved storage containers
39 Superintendents Supervisors Provide control and management of the hazardous materialsMaintain MSDSEnsure personnel are trainedEnsure hazardous materials are labeled when dispensed into other containers
40 All Staff Properly use and handle hazardous materials Report spills to supervisorLabel hazardous materials when dispensed into other containers
42 General RequirementsHandle incompatible materials in separate compartments to prevent mixingNever mix incompatible materials in the same collection containersAvoid breathing vapors or dust from hazardous materialsAvoid contact with eyes and skin
43 General RequirementsDo not smoke, eat, or drink where hazardous materials are usedUse appropriate PPEUse appropriately selected & fitted respirator
45 Storage Materials normally thought to be safe may become hazardous under certain conditions. Whencontainers leak or are heated, chemical reactionsmay result, leading to fire, explosion, or release oftoxic reaction products.
46 Determining Storage Requirements Is the hazardous material compatible with other chemicals?What is the hazard classification?Oxidizer, acid, flammable, base, etc.Any special storage requirements on MSDS?What is the flash point of the material?
47 Storage RequirementsHazardous materials storage locations must be posted with caution signsEnsure lockers and cabinets used for in-use flammable storage labeled
48 Storage Requirements Storage areas must be properly marked Do not transfer material to any container used for a different materialSome materials might be incompatible!Store incompatible materials in separate compartments to prevent mixing if spilled
49 Storage RequirementsStore hazardous materials in compatible containersNo corrosives in metal drums!Stack containers so as to avoid crushing lower containers, or access difficultyDo not eat, smoke, or drink in storage locations
50 Storage RequirementsNo open flames or other ignitions sources in storage areasUse only explosion-proof devices in potentially explosive environmentsMaintain explosion-proof fixtures in proper conditionSeal & protect containers against physical damage
51 Storage RequirementsOnly store hazardous materials in areas designated for hazardous materials storage
52 Storage RequirementsOnly store hazardous materials in areas designated for hazardous materials storage
54 Toxicity The quality of being poisonous; having harmful effects. "Everything is a poison, nothing is a poison, the dose alone makes the poison.” -Paracelsus,The toxicity of a substance is due to its ability to damage or disrupt the metabolism of living tissue.
55 Routes of Entry Oral = Ingestion by mouth Dermal = Skin exposure Inhalation = Absorbed by lungsOcular = Eye exposure
56 Toxic Effects May Occur: During or soon after exposure (acute), andAfter repeated exposures over a long time (chronic).In addition, some people may be especially sensitive (allergic) to a substance.
57 Acute ToxicityAn acutely toxic substance can cause damage as the result of a single or short-duration exposure
58 Chronic ToxicityA chronically toxic substance causes damage after repeated or long-duration exposureAt times, it becomes evident only after a long latency period
60 Routes of Entry"Everything is a poison, nothing is a poison, the dose alone makes the poison.” Paracelsus,
61 IT ALL DEPENDS ON THE DOSE GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGYEVERYTHING IS TOXIC;IT ALL DEPENDS ON THE DOSEHow Well the Body Accepts a Substance Depends on:The Type of Substance.The Amount (Dose) Absorbed.The Period of Time Over Which It Is Absorbed.The Susceptibility/Sensitivity of the Person Exposed.3535
62 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGYLocal Effect. Damage to Body Parts That Actually Contact The Harmful Substance (Acid on a Hand).Systemic Effect. Damage to an Area of the Body After The Substance Is Absorbed (Liver Damage).Individual Susceptibility. Some People Are Naturally Sensitive or Can Develop Sensitivity to a Substance.Dose. Combination of Concentration and Length of Bodily Exposure to a Specific Material.3939
63 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY EXPOSURE TERMINOLOGYHazardous Material. A Material That Falls Into One or More Of the Following Categories.Ignitability Is Flammable or Combustible.Reactivity Can React With Itself or Other Materials.Corrosivity Can Deteriorate Another Substance.Toxicity In Its Normal State Is Harmful to Living Things.4141
64 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY EXPOSURE LIMITSSOURCES INCLUDE:American Conference of Gov. Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH)Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHANational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH4242
65 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY EXPOSURE LIMITSAmerican Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists:Threshold Limit Values (TLV). (Respiratory)Biological Exposure Indices (BEI). (Dermal)8 Hour Time Weighted Averages (TWA).- How Much a Worker Can Be Exposed to in an 8 Hr. Shift.Published by ACGIH Annually, Provides Exposure Levels.Legally Enforceable.4343
66 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY EXPOSURE LIMITSOccupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA):Permissible Exposure Limits (PEL’s)Found in 29 CFR (The “Z” Tables)Establishes OSHA’s Exposure LevelsLegally Enforceable4444
67 GENERAL CONCEPTS OF TOXICOLOGY EXPOSURE LIMITSNational Institute for Occupational Safety And Health (NIOSH):Recommended Exposure Limits (REL’s)Used to Develop New OSHA StandardsFound in: “NIOSH Recommendations for Occupational Health Standards”4545
68 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS AIR CONTAMINANTSGases. Generally Used in a Compressed Form. Can Effect All Routes of Entry.Vapors. Formed by Evaporation of Liquids or Solids. Amount Usually Depends Upon Exposed Surface Area, Temperature, and Vapor Pressure Of Substance. Can Be Deadly.4646
69 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS AIR CONTAMINANTSFumes. Usually Metallic and Formed by Welding, Cutting, or Brazing Operations. Extremely Hazardous to Inhale.Particulates. Composed of Solid or Liquid Particles That Are Suspended or Dispersed in Air. Such As Dust, Mists, or Smokes. Can Be Explosive And Hazardous to Breath.4747
70 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS ACIDS AND BASES- Ph. The pH of a Liquid Is the Numerical Measure Of Its Relative Acidity or Alkalinity. The Range Is From With a Neutral Level Expressed As A pH of 7.0.Above The Liquid Is More Alkaline or Basic.Below The Liquid Is More Acidic.4848
71 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS ACIDS AND BASESACIDBASECommon Acids (pH 0-6)Hydrochloric AcidHydrofluoric AcidNitric AcidPhosphoric AcidChromic AcidCommon Bases (pH 8-14)Sodium Hydroxide (Lye)Sodium Hypochlorite (Bleach)Aqueous AmmoniaPotassium Hydroxide (Potash)Ammonium Hydroxide4949
72 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY WITH EACH OTHER!HIGH pHBASEACIDLOW pH5050
73 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS CHECK FOR COMPATIBILITY WITH YOU!BASEACID5151
74 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS ACIDS and BASES - GENERAL PRECAUTIONSIf You’re Not Familiar With the Chemical, Find Out!Read the Material Safety Data Sheet!Read the Labels on Containers.Observe Written Warnings!Don’t Eat, Drink, or Smoke Around Chemicals.Change Your Cloths! Don’T Take It Home!Ensure Work Area Is Ventilated.Wear Appropriate Protective Equipment.5252
75 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS ACIDS and BASES - GENERAL PRECAUTIONSWear Appropriate Protective Equipment.Clean up Small Spills to Prevent Being Mistaken For Water.For Large Spills, Contact Safety Officer.Store Acids From Bases to Prevent Reactions.Know the Reactions That Can Occur From Other Materials.Always Add Acid to Water, Never Water to Acid!5353
76 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS CLASSES OF SOLVENTSORGANIC (CARBON BEARING) SOLVENTS:Organic Solvents Contain Carbon.Organic Solvents Include: Acetone, Gasoline, Stoddard Solvent, and Trichloroethylene.Drastic Effects on the Central Nervous System Can Occur If Proper Ventilation Is Not Used.5454
77 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR SOLVENTSINHALATION:Most Common Route of Entry.Causes Headache, Dizziness, Confusion, And Drowsiness.Odor Intensity is Usually Not a Good Determination Of Toxicity.Odors - More Could Mean Less, Less Could Mean More.Different Solvents Seek Different Target Organs In the Body.5656
78 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR SOLVENTSINGESTION:Eating, Drinking, or Smoking Without Washing Hands First.Eating, Drinking, or Smoking Contaminated Consumables.Can Cause Severe Irritation of Gastro-Intestinal Tract.Easily Penetrates Mucous Membranes to Enter The Blood Stream.5757
79 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR SOLVENTSABSORPTION:Prevent Skin Contact, Wear Gloves, Aprons, Etc.Can Occur Through Unbroken Skin or Mucous Membranes.Any Absorption Generally Will Cause Irritation Of Skin.Flush Skin for at Least Fifteen Minutes, Seek Medical Help.Never Wash Exposed Skin With Any Solvent.5858
80 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS ROUTES OF ENTRY FOR SOLVENTSINJECTION:Usually Caused by Puncture Wounds.Compressed Air Can Also Cause Injection of Solvents.Rapid Introduction of Solvents Into Bloodstream.May Inject Other Debris in Wound Causing Concern.5959
81 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS SOLVENTS - GENERAL PRECAUTIONSIF YOU’RE NOT FAMILIAR WITH THE SOLVENT, FIND OUT!READ THE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET!READ THE LABELS ON CONTAINERS.OBSERVE WRITTEN WARNINGS!DON’T EAT, DRINK, OR SMOKE AROUND SOLVENTS.CHANGE YOUR CLOTHS! DON’T TAKE IT HOME!ENSURE WORK AREA IS WELL VENTILATED.6060
82 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS SOLVENTS - GENERAL PRECAUTIONS (CONTINUED)WEAR APPROPRIATE PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT.USE A BARRIER CREAM, IF YOU’RE SOLVENT SENSITIVE.SPILLS MUST BE CONTAINED, IMMEDIATELY!FOR LARGE SPILLS, CONTACT SAFETY OFFICER.KNOW THE REACTIONS THAT CAN OCCUR.NEVER DISCOUNT ANY ROUTE-OF-ENTRY!6161
83 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS TERATOGEN: (Latin - “The Study of Monsters”)The Study of Congenital MalformationsRelatively New Discipline (1941)First Correlated German Measles to Birth DefectsCauses of Congenital Malformations- Heredity- Maternal Diseases Like German Measles- Maternal Viral Infections During Pregnancy- Maternal Malnutrition- Physical Injury- Ionizing Radiation Exposure- Chemical Exposure7171
84 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS TERATOGEN AFFECTS IN LAB ANIMALS:Review the Respective Material Safety Data SheetChemicals Having Potential Teratogenic Effects- Quinine- Boric Acid- Insecticides- Pesticides- Chloroform- Carbon Tetrachloride- Benzene- Xylene- Propylene Glycol7272
85 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS TERATOGEN AFFECTS IN HUMANS:Review the Respective Material Safety Data SheetAgents Having Conclusive Teratogenic Effects- Anesthetic Gases- Organic Mercury Compounds- Ionizing Radiation- German Measles- Thalidomide7373
86 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS MUTAGENIC:Potential to Cause Mutation in the Genetic CodeCan Cause Changes in ChromosomesReview the Respective Material Safety Data SheetAgents Shown to Cause Potential Mutagenic Effects- Hydrogen Peroxide (a Bleaching Agent)- Ethyleneimine (an Alkylating Agent)- Ethylene Oxide (Hospital Sterilant)- Hydrazine (Used in Rocket Fuel)- Ionizing Radiation Exposure- Benzene7474
87 SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDS CARCINOGENIC:Can Induce a Malignant Tumor in HumansHas a Potential to Cause CancerCan Cause or Accelerate TumorsSome Confirmed or Suspected Human Carcinogens- Acrylimide - Beryllium - Nickel Sulfide- Acrylonitrile - Calcium Chromate - Tetranitromethane- 4-Aminodiphenyl - Chromium (Vi) - O-Tolidine- Arsenic - Ethylene Dichloride - Vinyl Bromide- Benzine - Ethylene Oxide - Xylidine- Benzidine - Lead Chromate - Zinc Chromates7575
88 CHEMICAL HAZARDS Fire Hazards Explosive Hazards Toxic Hazards Corrosive HazardsChemical ReactivityPhysical Properties
89 Fire Hazards Combustibility Flammability Pyrophorics Gas or Vapor Explosions
90 Combustibility The ability of a material to act as a fuel OSHA says combustibles have flash point between 100° F and 200° FAnything that can be readily ignited and sustain a fireAnything that can’t is considered non-combustible
92 FlammabilityThe ability of a material (gas or liquid) to produce sufficient vapors to be ignited and produce a flame under normal conditions.There must be a proper fuel to air mixture to sustain combustion. Each material has its own mixture range called “Flammable Range”.
93 UFL and LFLConcentrations < the LFL will not burn because they are too “lean”.Concentrations > the UFL will not burn because they are too “rich”.
94 OSHA FLAMMABLEOSHA considers anything flammable if it has a flash point below 100°F.Flashpoint - See Section 2, page 14.
95 REGULATORY CONFUSION OSHA-Flammable: < 100°F Combustible: 100F-200°FWill Not Burn: > 200°FDOT- Flammable: < 141°FCombustible: > 141°F but < 200°FNon-Hazardous: Anything > 200°FEPA- Anything < 140°F is “Ignitable”
96 GAS OR VAPOR EXPLOSIONS A Rapid, Violent Release of EnergyLarge amounts of kinetic energy, heat and gaseous products are released.The KEY is confinement of a Flammable Material. The combustion reaction is more rapid and confinement increases energy which enhances the explosive process.
97 UEL and LELExplosive gases and vapors exhibit an explosive range which is the same as the flammable range.The UEL (Upper Explosive Limit) and the LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) are the same as UFL and LFL, but in confined areas.Again, CONFINEMENT is the Key!
98 Dose - ResponseToxic effects on human beings depends on the length and amount of exposure and the level of toxicity (its lethal dose) of the material.HAZARD = EXPOSURE + TOXICITYTherefore, as the dose (length of exposure and amount of exposure) increases the human response increases also.
99 IT’S MOVIE TIME! “Introduction to Hazardous Chemicals” The Emergency Film Group, Plymouth, MA
100 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALS One of the most ignored parts of an MSDS is the part where Physical Properties of Chemicals are listed.Most people do not understand Physical Properties.Evaluating risk on an incident depends on understanding these properties.
101 Solubility/Miscibility The amount of chemical (solid, liquid, gas or vapor) which can be dissolved in water at 68°F. Measured in percent, the higher the percentage, the more chemical that will dissolve in water.Example: Sugar is 100% soluable.Miscibility refers, specifically, to the solubility of a liquid.
102 Density and Specific Gravity The Density of a substance is its mass per unit volume, commonly expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cc).The density of water is 1 g/cc.Specific Gravity is the density of a chemical compared to that of water. If the SpG is less than 1g/cc the chemical will float. If SpG is more than 1 g/cc it will sink.
103 Vapor DensityThe Density of a gas or vapor can be compared to the ambient atmosphere. If the density of a vapor or gas is greater than ambient air, it will tend to settle.If Vapor Density is close to, or less than, ambient air it will rise or disperse in the atmosphere.Discuss hazards page 2-13.
104 Vapor Density, continued What are the hazards of a gas or vapor which will settle? Use Carbon Monoxide as an example.How about Gasoline vapors?
105 Vapor PressurePressure exerted, by a vapor, on the sides of a closed container.It is Temperature Dependent. As temperature increases, so does Vapor Pressure.The lower the boiling point of a liquid, the greater vapor pressure it will exert at a given temperature.
106 Vapor Pressure, continued Values for Vapor Pressure are most often given as millimeters of mercury (mm Hg).NIOSH HandbookExamples: Ammonia- VP= 8.5 atm (p. 262) Carbon Monoxide (p. 54)Methyl hydrazine (p. 210)Atmospheric Pressure mm Hg.
107 Boiling PointTemperature at which liquid changes to vapor. The temperature where the pressure of the liquid equals atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg).What it the boiling point of Ammonia?What is the boiling point of Sulfuric Acid?What is the route of entry for each of these?
108 Melting PointTemperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. It is also the freezing point-depends on the direction of the change.Example: Water (ice) = 32°F
109 Flash PointThe minimum temperature at which a substance produces sufficient flammable vapors to ignite:Highly FlammableModerately FlammableRelatively Inflammable
110 Odor ThresholdThe minimum concentration of a substance in air that can be detected by the human sense of smell.It is different for each person Ammonia= 5 ppm Ethyl alcohol= 10 ppmThe ACGIH STEL for Ammonia 25 ppm. What does this mean?
111 IDENTIFYING HAZARDSKnowledge of the Hazards of various substance and an understanding of Physical Properties can be the difference between life and death.
112 HAZARD COMMUNICATIONThis standard was created for you, because you have a “Right to Know” about hazardous materials you work with.Do your part and learn all you can about hazardous materials in your work areas.You know the sources of information- NOW USE THEM!