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Interoperability engineering Milan Zoric Centre for Testing and Interoperability (CTI) email@example.com © ETSI 2010. All rights reserved Smart Grids Workshop, June 14 th 2010 Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010
Is Interoperability Important? We live in an interconnected world and interoperability is key to drive it forward Digital Home, Smart House M2M (embedded communication) Internet of Things, Intelligent Transport Systems etc. Users benefit from increased choice from multiple manufacturers Business, Governmental, Private Consumer And they expect stuff to work (Plug&Play) Manufacturers benefit from an increased market Economies of scale Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 2
ETSI and Interoperability (IOP) Standardisation enables interoperability One main aim of standardisation is to enable interoperability in a multi-vendor, multi-network, multi- service environment IOP is the red thread running through the entire ETSI standards development process Interoperability is specified from the beginning Not something bolted on at the end ETSI philosophy Interoperability should be built-in! Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 3
Typical Causes of Non-interoperable Standards Requirements not well identified or missing Ambiguous requirements Varying technical quality and use of language Inadequate handling of options Lack of clear system overview Loose definition of interfaces (reference points) Poor maintenance Using standards beyond their original purpose... Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 4
Poor Interoperability Can be Expensive Bad publicity For the technology For the manufacturer Annoyance to the end customer Damage to brand name Loss of customer base Allegiances change rapidly May affect uptake of new technology Loss of investor confidence We can no longer afford to get it wrong! Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 5
The ETSI Approach Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 SPECIFICATION VALIDATION TESTING 6
ETSI Support for Interoperability Technical Committee MTS Methods for Testing and Specification Standardised frameworks, methodologies, languages For protocol specification For testing Making Better Standards http://portal.etsi.org/mbshttp://portal.etsi.org/mbs Centre for Testing and Interoperability (CTI) Direct support to ETSI Technical Bodies Application of protocol engineering and best practices Considerable contribution to the work of MTS Development of test specifications Standards validation, including interoperabilty events (Plugtests TM ) Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 7
Centre for Testing and Interoperability CTI Standards Engineering based on methodology and best working practices Training Validation Activities Interoperability Events Test Specifications Protocol Design 8
Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 Project Experience Cellular: GSM, 3G UMTS (including IMS/SIP) WiFi: HiperMAN, HiperACCESS, WiMAX VoIP: H.323, IETF SIP, SIGTRAN Service Creation: OSA/Parlay (API, IDL, Java) IPv6: Core, Security, Mobility, v4-v6 Cordless phones: DECT Radio communications: TETRA, DMR, PMR Access terminals: FSK, SMS Broadband: ISDN, DSL Smartcards: Readers, cards, security modules Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS): DSRC TISPAN NGN: IMS Interoperability (interworking) Future: More Security, more NGN, GRID... 9
Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 Interoperability must be built in ! Unambiguous protocol specification Protocol engineering techniques Consistent and precise language Naming conventions, editing rules Where applicable use of standardized technical notations ASN.1, MSCs, SDL, UML, IDL, XML, etc. Specification of minimum requirements to achieve interoperability, at the same time leaving room for product differentiation Testability must be built in Making Better Standards: http://portal.etsi.org/mbs 10
CTI expert assistance CTI experts can be attached to a standardization group The sooner this is done, the better effects could be expected CTI experts can provide: Protocol engineering know-how Dedicated language and tool know-how Testing and test tools know-how Key assistance in planning interoperability related activities Project management In short – what, when and how At the same, CTI experts remain neutral and will respect the direction set by a standardization group Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 11
Why Validate Standards? Validation reveals problems/errors in Standards and Products Validated standards give a higher chance of interoperable products Assurance that they provide the right functionality Gives manufacturers and operators confidence to implement and go to market Provides an opportunity to correct errors in a controlled manner Decreases time to market Late fixes in the product cycle are more expensive than early ones Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 12
Validation of Standards... Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 Development of Base Standards Peer Review Modelling and Simulation Prototyping Interoperability Events Products mature from prototypes to commercial products Time 13
Validation through IOP Events ETSI Plugtests events Open to members and non- members Aim is to validate standards Feedback (Change Requests) to relevant technical bodies A tool to develop and mature standards But testing and debugging are useful by-products Vendors validate their understanding of standards and their implementation Achieve in one week what would otherwise take months Promote technology and community Develop new ideas, confirm existing ones Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 14
Series of IOP Events Maturity of the Standard Events Event 1 Event 2 Event nn........... Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 15
Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 Plugtests can look like this… 16
… or this (Car2Car Interop) Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 17
Typical ETSI IMS Bluetooth IPv6 Triple Play over xDSL SIM/Handset WLAN IRAP RFID STQ (Speech Quality) WiMAX SIGTRAN Femtocell OSA/Parlay (ParlayX) In operation since 1999 Over 100 events, more than 3000 engineers Technologies include: B2B (Business-to-Business) SIPiT J2ME HDMI Air Traffic Control (EUROCAE) Electronic Signature (XadES, CadES) Lawful Interception Optical Fibre (GPON) Power Line (PLT) Intelligent Transport Systems Femtocell Fixed Mobile Convergence (FMCA) Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 18
Who attends Plugtests events? Participants are mostly ETSI members, but do NOT have to be ETSI members Plugtests are addressed to any company developing a product such as operators, vendors or equipment manufacturers, content or application providers Standardization Bodies, Fora or interest groups may also attend Plugtests also welcome Universities and Research Institutes Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 19
Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 Different Kinds of ETSI Test Specifications Conformance Robustness Performance Interoperability Interoperability + Conformance Verification RF/EMC 20
... and Testing Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 Products mature from prototypes to commercial products Time Conformance Testing Development of Base Standards Peer Review Modelling and Simulation Prototyping Interoperability Events Certification (not done by ETSI) Development of Test Specs (Conformance & Interop) 21
Conformance Testing Tests a specific (part of a) product for compliance to requirements in a Base Standard Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 22
Characteristics of Conformance Testing Gives a high-level of confidence that the standardised parts of a product are working as specified It is component (Black Box) testing Usually One requirement -> One tes t Requires a test system (i.e., executable test cases) Test execution is automated and repeatable (any time, any number of times) Tests in controlled conditions High degree of control and observation Always tests normal scenarios Can provoke and test non-normal (but legitimate) scenarios Can explicitly test error behaviour (robustness) Tests are thorough and accurate but limited in scope At level of detailed protocol messages, service primitives, or procedure calls Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 23
Limitations of Conformance Testing Does not necessarily prove interoperability with other products Tests are focussed on part of a product A system is often greater than the sum of its parts! Does not test the users perception of the system Standardised conformance tests do not include proprietary features Test systems may be expensive But cost may be relative to size of the market For some technologies it may be the cheapest way to ensure interoperability For other it may be prohibitively expensive Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 24
Case Study – 3GPP UE Testing 3GPP mobile protocol / signalling testing Project was started in 2000 40 companies involved A large extent of test industry involved 16 experts led by ETSI CTI Total budget > 90 person months / year (in 2009) 28 Test Suites More than 1400 Test Cases Running on 4 System Simulator platforms Delivery every 3 weeks Deployed by GCF / PTCRB for UE certification Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 25
Interoperability Testing Tests end-to-end functionality between a collection of products Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 26
Characteristics of IOP Testing Gives a high-level of confidence that products will interoperate with other products It is system testing Tests a complete product or a collection of products Is functional testing Tests can be performed manually Users operate the product via existing interfaces (standard/proprietary) Can also be automated with test drivers Testing includes perception of end users Less thorough than conformance testing but wider in scope Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 27
Limitations of IOP Testing Does not prove that a product is conformant Products may still interoperate even though they are non-conformant Requires availability of suitable interfaces Limited ability to trigger error behaviour or unusual scenarios Less controllability than in conformance testing Interoperability can be elusive! Configuration may be simplified (not a fully operational system, e.g., no billing, no load) Does not prove interoperability with other products with which no testing has been done A may interoperate with B and B may interoperate with C. Does not necessarily follow that A will interoperate with C With large number of products it may become prohibitively expensive Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 28
Conformance and IOP Testing are Complementary As you move up a system stack the emphasis should change from conformance to interoperability testing Lower layer protocols Mainly conformance testing Middleware, enablers, infrastructure Combination of conformance and interoperability testing Services, applications, systems Emphasis on interoperability testing Conformance testing should be a pre-requisite to interoperability testing Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 29
IOT with Conformance Checking Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 30
TC MTS (Methods for Testing and Specification) Developed TTCN-3 ETSI Standard (ES) Key TTCN-3 Standards ES 201 873-1: TTCN-3 Core Language ES 201 873-5: TTCN-3 Runtime Interface (TRI) ES 201 873-6: TTCN-3 Control Interfaces (TCI) ES 201 873-7 and upwards: ASN.1, XML, IDL, Code Documentation also all endorsed by ITU-T SG17 (Z.140 Series) New Extension Packages (drafts) Configuration and Deployment Support Performance Testing Real-time testing And others... Creator of the TTCN-3 Standard Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 http://www.ttcn-3.org 31
Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 What is TTCN-3? Testing and Test Control Notation Version 3 Internationally standardized language developed specifically for executable test specification Look and feel of a regular programming language Good tool support (today 6 commercial tools available) www.ttcn-3.org Advantages of Using TTCN-3 Access to standardized test suites UMTS by 3GPP SIP, IPv6 and more by ETSI One language enables reuse of test elements Cost reduction in testing process and higher quality of products Is independent of a test execution environment Standardized runtime interfaces (TRI/TCI) Build-in test automation and system specification features Further development and maintenance of TTCN-3 32
All test suite development done in TTCN-3 Some maintenance of legacy TTCN-2 test suites Test Suites developed by Specialist Task Forces (STF) At the request of the ETSI Technical Committees Experts recruited from the ETSI Membership Mostly under the technical management of CTI 15 to 20 testing STFs per year Use of TTCN-3 at ETSI Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 33
Test Specification Development Standard Successive Levels of Abstraction Test Purposes Test Descriptions TTCN-3 Test Suite Executable Tests Compilation Requirements Catalogue and/or ICS/IXIT Test Case Parameterisation and Selection Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 34
Where possible ETSI Test Specifications are validated prior to publication Minimum requirement is that they compile on at least one tool E.g., UMTS compiles on at least 4 platforms In many cases we execute the tests agianst live implementations In co-operation with partners (Test Labs and Vendors) E.g., UMTS tests executed against at least 2 different implementations Validation of Tests Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 35
LTE (3GPP) UE conformance SIP (TC MTS) RFC 3261 UA and Proxy conformance IPv6 (TC MTS) Core, Security, Mobility, Transitioning IMS (TC INT & TC TISPAN) Interoperability, Network Integration, ISDN Interworking, Supplementary Services WiMAX (TC BRAN & WiMAX Forum) Conformance (PCT, NCT), Interoperability Intelligent transport (TC ITS) Direct Short Range Communication (DSRC) DMR/DPMR (TC ERM) Terminal conformance Some ETSI TTCN-3 Test Suites Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 36
6 different TTCN-3 Development Environments and Compilers ETSI TTCN-3 Documentation Tool (T3D) ETSI TTCN-3 Code Quality Tool (T3Q) ETSI tools will be made available as Open source More information on TTCN-3 tools available at http://www.ttcn-3.org/ TTCN-3 Tools Used at ETSI Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 37
CTI expert testing assistance The world of testing is complex in many ways Standard makers are not necessarily experts in testing themselves However, they know what they need to achieve, they know the technology being standardized, they understand the timing and financial constraints CTI experts can provide: Key assistance in deciding on the testing approaches appropriate for a particular technology Key assistance in planning test development and validation activities Testing techniques, languages and tool know-how Project management Co-ordination of many players involved in test development and validation Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 38
Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 Centre for Testing and Interoperability CTI Standards Engineering based on methodology and best working practices Training Validation Activities Interoperability Events Training Best Practices Methodology Languages Implementation issues Validation Activities Validation of Standards Peer-review Simulation by modelling Interoperability events Test Specifications Test Specification Test Planning & Frameworks Extraction of Requirements Test Purposes Test Descriptions TTCN-3 code Tool support Protocol Design Protocol Design and Specification Application of best practice 3-Stage approach Techniques such as: UML, MSC, SDL, ASN.1, XML etc. Interoperability Events Organizational &Technical Logistics, website, press Registration, NDA, promo Test platform and IT Monitoring, test results Feedback to TC 39
Conclusions An interconnected world demands interoperability Standards enable interoperability Validation and Testing are cornerstones in the development of ETSI standards Validated standards mean interoperable standards Interoperable standards facilitate interoperable products Plan for validation and testing (early) Right mix of conformance and/or interop Synchronise testing activities with the development of the standard (and products!) Ensure feedback to the base standard Perform (regular) interoperability events Synchronise with availability of products Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 40
Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010 Useful Links Achieving Interoperability - The ETSI approach: http://www.etsi.org/WebSite/document/whitepapers/WP3_IOP_final.pdf Plugtest: http://www.etsi.org/Website/OurServices/Plugtests/home.aspx TTCN-3: www.ttcn-3.org TPLan: www.tplan.info STF: http://portal.etsi.org/stfs/process/home.asp Making Better Standards: http://portal.etsi.org/mbs IPR Policy: http://www.etsi.org/WebSite/AboutETSI/HowWeWork/Legal_aspects.aspx 41
Milan Zoric Centre for Testing and Interoperability (CTI) firstname.lastname@example.org © ETSI 2010. All rights reserved THANK YOU! Smart Grids workshop © ETSI 2010
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