3 Functions of Skin Protection: Sensation Endocrine: UV Infection Heat RegulationInjuryFluid/Electrolytes LossDue to tight packing of cells in upper epidermisAlso helps avoid absorption of excessive environmental fluids (i.e. swimming)SensationEndocrine:Helps produce Vitamin DTo make vitamin D, your skin needs adequate exposure to the sun. Your skin contains a cholesterol substance called provitamin D3 that reacts with the ultraviolet-B (or UVB) rays in sunlight to form vitamin D3. From there, the body takes over, first passing the vitamin D through the liver and then through the kidneys, converting it along the way into the form that the body needs.
5 Blisters Leave blister intact as long as possible Protection and infectionIf removal is necessary, clean skin and sharp object thoroughlyLeave top layer of blister for protection, if possibleCover and pad with donut, if necessaryKeep clean and check for signs of infection!
6 Ingrown Toenail Painful condition Nail grows into lateral nail fold Caused by:Poorly fitting shoesImproper nail trimmingTraumaTreatment:Soak in warm water and epson salt or betadinePlace cotton under nail to lift nailCut ‘V’ in the middle of the nailSurgery???Prevention:Keep nail trimmed straight across (not too long, not too short)
7 Contused Nail Pressure and pain under nail May need to “drill” to relieve pressureNeedle, sharp knife, or small drill bitMake sure surface and device are cleanedGo slowly so you don’t hit the nail bedDon’t allow athlete to ripoff nail, it may not grow back!
8 Impetigo Bacterial skin infection caused by strep or staph Can occur anywhere…most common around nose/mouthContagious & spread through close contact or sharing towels/clothing/etcTreated w/ antibiotics (oral or topical) ~3-7daysSigns/Symptoms:Red soresOoze fluidYellow-brown crustCan be itchyOne of the most common skin infections in children, but also seen in adults
9 EczemaInflammatory skin disease with red, itchy skin
10 Folliculitis Infection in the hair follicle Most common on face/scalp & areas rubbed by clothing, such as the thighs & groinUsually caused by bacteriaCan occur from damage caused by shaving or wearing clothes that rub the skin OR when blocked or irritated (sweat, oil, makeup)Self limiting w/ proper cleansingSigns/Symptoms:“Red pimples” w/ a hair in the centerMay drain pus, blood or bothMay itch or burnEach hair on your body grows out of a tiny pouch called a follicle. It also can be caused by yeast or another type of fungus.
11 Tetanus Infection (Lock Jaw) Caused by Clostridium bacteriaBacteria live in soil, saliva, dust & enter body through deep cut (i.e. stepping on nail)Causes painful tightening of the muscles, usually all over the bodyIt can lead to "locking" of the jawImpossible to open your mouth or swallowPotentially life-threatening…requires immediate tx in hospitalRegular vaccines can prevent tetanusChildren get shot as a part of their routine immunizationsAdults should get booster every 10 years and/or after a bad cut/burn
12 Ringworm Tinea Corpus Fungal infection of skin Characterized by round patches w/ scaly raised boarder & central healing zoneRefer for correct Dx & appropriate Tx:OTC: Lamisil, Lotrimin, TinactinCANNOT participate in wrestling unless cleared & under treatment for 72hrsDO NOT just coverKeep mats and body cleanMust be on treatment for 3 days.
13 Athletes Foot Tinea Pedis Fungal infection of the foot Sx’s: Red scaly rashPeeling or cracking skinBurningItchingKeep feet dry/clean!Tx:OTC: Lamisil, Lotrimin, Tinactin
14 Jock Itch Tinea Cruris Sx’s: Keep area dry/clean Tx: Burning/Itching Red, scaly patches of skinKeep area dry/cleanTx:OTC: Lamisil,Lotrimin, Tinactin
15 Herpes Simplex - (Cold Sores/Fever Blisters) Type 1: Oral Herpes - causes sores around mouth/lipsTransmitted via oral secretions or sores on skinKissing or sharing toothbrushes/eating utensilsCauses painful blistersNo cure - Remains in body & lies inactive in nerve cells until triggered by:Sun exposure, fever, fatigue, stressDrugs can lessen severityType 2: Genital HerpesSexually transmitted
16 Warts Caused by HPV General Tx: Common Wart: Plantar Wart: Salicylic Acid, Duck Tape, Liquid NitrogenCommon Wart:Small, round elevated lesionRough, dry surfaceUsually go away on their own within 18-24moPlantar Wart:Found on bottom of footPainfulWear sandals inlocker rooms/community showersDuck tape, freezing off
17 Cold Sensitivity/Reaction Cold Urticaria - Allergic Reaction w/ HivesCan be life-threateningRedness, hives & itchingCan affect some areas and not othersCan be hypersensitive without allergyRedness & pain
18 Poison Oak/Ivy/Sumac Causes: Sx’s: Within 12-48 hrs Direct contact with plantInhalation or skin exposure to airborne oil particles of burning plantContact with contaminated materialsSx’s: Within hrsBurning, itching, redness, rash, swelling blisters, high feverAvoid scratching, ice, cold water?Cannot play with signs of serious infectionMay need to be cleared by physician for wrestling
22 What is MRSA Staph Infection Bacteria that is resistant to certain antibioticsMethicillin, Penicillin, & AmoxicillinBecame increasingly common in hospital setting in 1970’sMRSA-CA (Community Acquired): emerged in 1990’sMay cause more serious infections:BloodPneumonia
23 How bad is CA-MRSA?Most are minor infections and can be treated with an antibiotic creamSome may require treatment w/ oral antibioticsA small percentage can be LIFE THREATENINGAll MRSA infections should be evaluated by a healthcare providerIf the condition worsens you need to seek immediate treatment
24 Who Gets MRSA Heathcare workers: 1:3 College & HS athletes Inmates Military recruitsDaycare kidsPeople in crowded conditions
26 MRSA Infections Statistics 86% Healthcare Associated14% Community AssociatedIn 2005: 94,350 serious infections~18,650 people diedMostly olderpersons (>65 y/o)
27 How is MRSA SpreadBacteria is commonly carried on the skin or in the nose of healthy individuals25% to 30% of the population are “colonized”Skin to skin contactCrowed living conditionsSkin openings (cuts/abrasions)Infected items (sports gear and clothing)Contaminated surfaces (weight room equipment)Poor hygiene
28 What does MRSA look like? Skin can be:Red or swollenPainfulPus or other drainage
29 MRSA MRSA can live for months on surfaces and fabrics: Up to 7 months on dustUp to 8 weeks on a mop headUp to 9 weeks on cotton (towel)Up to 203 days (over 6 months) on a blanketMRSA can live on the skin of otherwise healthy individuals, with no symptoms indefinitely
30 How do I prevent MRSA? Wash your hands Don’t share gear/clothing Clean sports gear oftenTell ATC about skin woundsKeep cuts clean and coveredDon’t touch someone else’s wounds/bandagesUse a moisturizer to prevent cracking if the skin is dry
31 Athlete’s With MRSA Wound should be completely covered Cannot participate if the wound drainage cannot be containedDo not share equipment/clothing/towelsClean off equipment after useIf athlete is unable to maintain good personal hygiene, they should be removed from participation until the infection clears